Advertisement

Human factors of interactive software

  • Ben Shneiderman
Keynote Address
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 150)

Abstract

There is intense interest about human factors issues in interactive computer systems for life-critical applications, industrial/commercial uses, and personal computing in the office or home. Primary design goals include proper functionality, adequate reliability, suitable cost, and adherence to schedule. Measurable human factors issues include time to learn, speed of performance, rate of errors, subjective satisfaction, and retention over time. Specific human factors acceptance tests are described as a natural complement to hardware and software acceptance tests. Project management ideas, information resources, and potential research directions are presented.

Keywords

Human Factor Acceptance Test Subjective Satisfaction Human Interface Menu Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Guidelines documents

Guidelines documents

  1. Engel, Stephen E. and Granda, Richard E., Guidelines for Man/Display Interfaces, Technical Report TR 00.2720, IBM, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. (December 1975).Google Scholar
  2. —An early and influential document which is the basis for several of the other guidelines documents.Google Scholar
  3. Smith, Sid L., User-System Interface Design for Computer-Based Information Systems, Report ESD-TR-82-132. The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA 01730, Electronic Systems Division, (April 1982), 181 pages.Google Scholar
  4. —This thorough document, which is continuously being revised, begins with a good discussion of human factors issues in design and then covers data entry, data display, and sequence control. Guidelines are offered with comments, examples, exceptions, and references. Sid Smith is seeking comments for refinement and expansion, telephone 617-271-7768.Google Scholar
  5. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities, Military Standard MIL-STD-1472C, U.S. Government Printing Office, (May 2, 1981).Google Scholar
  6. —Almost three hundred pages, largely on traditional ergonometric or anthropometric issues, but this latest edition has a ten page addition on "Personnel-Computer interface".Google Scholar
  7. Human Factors Review of Electric Power Dispatch Control Centers: Volume 2 Detailed Survey Results, Prepared by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company for the Electric Power Research Institute, 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, 1981.Google Scholar
  8. —Well researched and thoughtful comments about electric power control centers, with many generally applicable conclusions.Google Scholar
  9. Human Factors of Work Stations with Display Terminals, IBM Document G 320-6102-1, San Jose, CA 95193 (1979).Google Scholar
  10. —Informative and readable discussion about terminal design.Google Scholar
  11. Human Factors Engineering Criteria for Information Processing Systems, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (September 1982)Google Scholar
  12. —Well written and precise guidelines with numerous examples on display format, data entry, language and coding, interaction sequence control, error handling procedures, on-line guidance, and color displays. Available from C. Marlin Brown, Orgn. 62–91, Bldg. 538, Telephone 408-742-4399.Google Scholar

Books

  1. Badre, Albert, and Shneiderman, Ben (Editors), "Directions in Human-Computer Interaction", Ablex Publishing Co., Norwood, NJ, (1980).Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, Robert W., Human Performance Engineering: A Guide for System Designers, Prentice-Hall, Incl., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1982).Google Scholar
  3. Cakir, A., Hart, D.J., and Stewart, T.F.M., Visual Display Terminals: A Manual Covering Ergonomics, Workplace Design, Health and Safety, Task Organization, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, (1980).Google Scholar
  4. Foley, James D., and Van Dam, Andries, Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA, (1982).Google Scholar
  5. Guedj, R. (Editor), Methodology of Interaction, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, (1980).Google Scholar
  6. Hiltz, Starr Roxanne, and Turroff, Murray, The Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA, (1978).Google Scholar
  7. Larson, James A. (Editor), Tutorial: End User Facilities in the 1980's, IEEE Computer Society Press (EHO 198-2), New York, NY, (1982).Google Scholar
  8. Martin, James, Design of Man-computer Dialogues, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1973).Google Scholar
  9. Mehlmann, Marilyn, When People Use Computers: An Approach to Developing an Interface, Prentice-Hall, Incl., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1981).Google Scholar
  10. Shneiderman, Ben, Software Psychology: Human Factors in Computer and Information Systems, Little Brown and Co., Boston, MA, (1980).Google Scholar
  11. Smith, H.T., and Green, T.R.G. (Editors), Human Interaction with Computers, Academic Press, New York, NY, (1980).Google Scholar
  12. Welford, A.T., Skilled Performance: Perceptual and Motor skills, Scott, Foresman and Co., Glenview, IL, (1976).Google Scholar

Articles

  1. Allen, R., Cognitive factors in human interaction with computers, In Badre, A., and Shneiderman, B. (Editors), Directions in Human-Computer Interaction. Ablex Publishing Co., Norwood, NJ, (1982).Google Scholar
  2. Card, Stuart, English, William, and Burr, Betty, Evaluation of mouse, rate-controlled isometric joystick, step keys, and text keys for text selection on a CRT. Ergonomics 21 (8), (1978), 601–613.Google Scholar
  3. Card, S.K., Moran, T.P., and Newell, A., The keystroke-level model for user performance with interactive systems, Communications of the ACM 23, (1980), 396–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chapanis, Alphonse, Words, words, words. Human Factors 7(1), (1965), 1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark, I.A., Software simulation as a tool for usable product design, IBM Systems Journal 20(3), (1981), 272–293.Google Scholar
  6. Doherty, W.J., and Kelisky, R.P., Managing VM/CMS systems for user effectiveness, IBM Systems Journal 18(1), (1979), 143–163.Google Scholar
  7. Durding, B.M., Becker, C.A., and Gould, J.D., Data organization, Human Factors 19, (1977), 1–14.Google Scholar
  8. Durrett, John, and Trezona, Judi, How to use color displays effectively, BYTE, (April 1982), 50–53.Google Scholar
  9. Embley, David W., and Nagy, George, Behavioral aspects of text editors, ACM Computing Surveys 13(1), (March 1981), 33–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ledgard, Henry, Whiteside, John, Singer, Andrew, and Seymour, William, The natural language of interactive systems, Communications of the ACM, 23(10), (October 1980), 556–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Miller, Lance, and Thomas Jr., J.C., Behavioral issues in the use of interactive systems, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 9, (1977), 509–536.Google Scholar
  12. Reisner, Phyllis, Human factors studies of database query languages: A survey and assessment, ACM Computing Surveys 13(1), (March 1981), 13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Robertson, P.J., A guide to using color on alphanumeric displays, IBM Technical Report G320-6296-0, IBM White Plains, NY, (1980).Google Scholar
  14. Rouse, William B., Human-computer interaction in the control of dynamic systems, ACM Computing Surveys 13(1), (March 1981), 71–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shneiderman, Ben, The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation, Behaviour and Information Technology, (to appear) and Vassiliou, Y. (Editor), Human Factors of Interactive Computer Systems, Ablex Publishing Co., Norwood, NJ, (1983).Google Scholar
  16. Shneiderman, Ben, Designing computer system messages, Communications of the ACM, 25(9), (September 1982), 610–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shneiderman, Ben, Multiparty grammars and related features for defining interactive systems, IEEE Transactions on System, Man, and Cybernetics SMC 12(2), (March/April 1982), 148–154.Google Scholar
  18. Shneiderman, Ben, Human factors experiments in designing interactive systems, IEEE Computer, 12(12), (1979), 9–19.Google Scholar
  19. Thadhani, A.J., Interactive user productivity, IBM Systems Journal 20(4), (1981), 407–423.Google Scholar
  20. Thomas, John C., and Carrol, J.M., Human factors in communication, IBM Systems Journal 20, (1981), 237–263.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben Shneiderman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations