Advertisement

Non-aqueous electrolyte solutions in chemistry and modern technology

  • Josef Barthel
  • Heiner-J. Gores
  • Georg Schmeer
  • Rudolf Wachter
Conference paper
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 111)

Abstract

In this paper a brief survey is given of the properties of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions and their applications in chemistry and technology without going into the details of theory. Specific solvent-solute interactions and the role of the solvent beyond its function as a homogenous isotropic medium are stressed. Taking into account Parker's statement1)Scientists nowadays are under increasing pressure to consider the relevance of their research, and rightly so” we have included examples showing the increasing industrial interest in non-aqueous electrolyte solutions.

The concepts and results are arranged in two parts. Part A concerns the fundamentals of thermodynamics, transport processes, spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of non-aqueous solutions and some applications in these fields. Part B describes their use in various technologies such as high-energy batteries, non-emissive electro-optic displays, photoelectrochemical cells, electrodeposition, electrolytic capacitors, electro-organic synthesis, metallurgic processes and others.

Four Appendices are added. Appendix A gives a survey on the most important non-aqueous solvents, their physical properties and correlation parameters, and the commonly used abbreviations. Appendices B and C show the mathematical background of the general chemical model. The Symbols and abbreviations of the text are listed and explained in Appendix D.

Keywords

Electrolyte Solution Solid State Ionic Association Constant Propylene Carbonate Transference Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

D Symbols and Abbreviations

D.1 Fundamental Constants131)

NA

Avogadro constant (6.022045±0.000031)×1023 mol−1

F

Faraday constant (9.648456±0.000027)×104 C mol−1

h

Planck constant (6.626176±0.000036)×10−34 J s

k

Boltzmann constant (1.380662±0.000044)×10−23 J K−1

e0

charge of proton (1.602189±0.000005)×10−19 C

ε0

permittivity of vacuum (8.854188±0.000000)×10−12 J−1 C2 m−1

D.2 Generally Used Superscripts and Subcripts D.2.1 Superscripts

*

pure substance also: non-Coulombic part of a quantity

infinite dilution

0

standard

(0)

reference solvent (Section VIII)

(s)

solvent S (Section VIII)

activated complex

el

Coulombic part of a quantity free particles also: final state (Section V)

(c)

molar scale

(m)

molal scale

(i)

component i

D.2.2 Subscripts

A

association

calc

calculated quantity

exp

experimental quantity

FI

free ion

iorj

ions i or j also: index for summation formulae \(\sum\limits_i\)

ij

ion j in the victinity of an ion i

IP

ion pair

max

maximum value

obs

observed quantity

S

solvent

Y

electrolyte Y

+

cation

anion

±

mean quantity of electrolyte Y

infinite frequency

dil

dilution

lat

lattice

sol

solution

solv

solvation

vap

vaporation

tr

transfer from water to a non-aqueous solvent

D.3 Symbols

a, a*

ion size parameter

c, c*, c*

molarity [mol dm−3]

E, E*

property (general) of an electrolyte solution (Sect. V) also: e.m.f (Sect. V)

f, fS

activity coefficient (mole fraction scale)

fij, fji

two-particle distribution function

gij, gji

pair-correlation function

ΔG*, ΔG*, Δ*G

Gibbs energy

ΔH*, ΔH*, Δ*H

enthalpy

K, K*

equilibrium constant

k, k*, k*

rate constant, exception see D.1

m, m*, m*

molality [mol kg−1] also: mass of particle (Sect. IV)

M

mol dm−3

nS, nY

amount of substance (number of moles)

N*

particle density [particles per cm−3], exception see D.1

p

pressure

q

Bjerrum parameter, see Eq. (19 b)

R, R*

distance parameter, see Figs. 2 and 3

R

also: gas constant

\(r,r_* ,\vec r,\vec r_* :\)

distance variable

ΔS*, ΔS*, Δ*S

entropy

t*, t*

transference number

t

also: time

T, T*

temperature [K]

V, ΔV*, ΔV*

volume

W*, W*

mean-force potential

x, x*, x*

mole fraction

y, y*, y*

activity coefficient (molar scale)

z, z*

valency

Z, Z*, Z*, ΔZ*, ΔZ*, Δ*Z

thermodynamic property (general), see Fig. 1

α

degree of dissociation

(1−α)

degree of association

\(\bar \alpha :\)

cubic expansion coefficient (Section V)

γ*, γ*

activity coefficient (molal scale)

mγ*

transfer activity coefficient

Γ

ional concentration, see Table II

δ, δ*

chemical shift

ε, ε*, ε*

relative permittivity, exception see D.1

η

viscosity

θ, θ*

temperature [°C]

χ

Debye parameter, see Table II

χ, χ*

also: electrolytic conductivity [Ω−1 mol−1 cm2]

Λ*, Λ*

equivalent conductance [Ω−1 mol−1 cm2]

λ*, λ*

single ion conductance [Ω−1 mol−1 cm2]

μ*, μ*

chemical potential

νiνim

stoichiometric number

ϱ

density [g cm−3]

ω

circular frequency

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

XIX References (Part A and B)

  1. 1.
    Parker, A. J.: Electrochim. Acta 21, 671 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Friedman, H. L.: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 64, 7 (1977)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barthel, J.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 83, 252 (1979)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barthel, J.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 2093 (1979)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bjerrum, N.: Math.-Fys. Medd. Kon. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. 7, 1 (1926)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kosower, E. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 3253 (1958) (1958)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kosower, E. M.: J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol. 61, 230 (1964)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dimroth, K., Reichardt, C., Siepmann, T. and Bohlmann, F.: Liebigs Ann. Chem. 661, 1 (1963)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reichardt, C.: Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1979Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gutmann, V. and Wychera, E.: Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 2, 257 (1966)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gutmann, V.: The Donor-Acceptor Approach to Molecular Interactions, New York: Plenum 1978Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grunwald, E. and Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 846 (1948)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gielen, M. and Nasielsky, J.: J. Organomet. Chem. 1, 173 (1963)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gielen, M. and Nasielsky, J.: J. Organomet. Chem. 7, 273 (1967)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayer, U., Gutmann, V. and Gerger, W.: Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mayer, U.: Coord. Chem. Rev. 21, 159 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berson, J. A., Hamlet, Z. and Mueller, W. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 84, 297 (1962)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reichardt, C.: Angew. Chem. 77, 30 (1965)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Burgess, J.: Metal Ions in Solution, Chichester: Ellis Horwood 1978Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dack, M. R. J. in: Dack, M. R. J. (ed.): Techniques of Chemistry, Vol. 8, Solutions and Solubilities (Part II), p. 95, New York: Wiley 1976Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jensen, W. B.: The Lewis Acid-Base Concepts, New York: Wiley 1980Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Debye, P. and Hückel, E.: Phys. Z. 24, 185 (1923)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pimentel, G. C. and McClellan, A. L.: The Hydrogen Bond, San Francisco: Freeman 1960Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Craver, J. K.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 14, 1755 (1970)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Godfrey, N. B.: Chem. Techn. 1972, 359Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kolthoff, I. M. in: Marchon, J. C. (ed.): Non Aqueous Electrochemistry, p. 312, London: Butterworths 1971Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bates, R. G. in: Coetzee, J. F. and Ritchie, C. D. (eds.): Solute-Solvent Interactions, Vol. 1, p. 45, New York: Dekker 1969Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kratochvil, B.: Rec. Chem. Prog. 27, 253 (1966)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brönsted, J. N.: Chem. Ber. 61, 2049 (1928)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fuoss, R. M. and Accascina, F.: Electrolytic Conductance, New York: Interscience 1959Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kortüm, G.: Lehrbuch der Elektrochemie (4th ed.) Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1966Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kolthoff, I. M. and Bruckenstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 1 (1956)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bruckenstein, S. and Kolthoff, I. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 10 (1956)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bruckenstein, S. and Kolthoff, I. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 2974 (1956)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hantzsch, A.: Z. Phys. Chem. A134, 406 (1928)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barthel, J.: Ionen in nichtwäßrigen Lösungen, Darmstadt: Steinkopff 1976Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Staveley, L. A. K. (ed.): The Characterization of Chemical Purity. Organic Compounds, London: Butterworths 1971Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zief, M. (ed.): Purification of Inorganic and Organic Materials, New York: Dekker 1969Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zief, M. and Speights, R. (eds.): Ultrapurity Methods and Techniques, New York: Dekker 1972Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Perrin, D. D., Armarego, W. L. F. and Perrin, D. R.: Purification of Laboratory Chemicals (2nd ed), Oxford: Pergamon 1980Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mann, C. K. in: Bard, A. J. (ed.): Electroanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 3, New York: Dekker 1969Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Riddick, J. A. and Bunger, W. B. in: Weissberger, A. (ed.): Techniques of Chemistry, Vol. 2 (3rd ed.): Organic Solvents, New York: Wiley 1970Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kirkwood, J. G. and Oppenheim, I.: Chemical Thermodynamics, New York: McGraw-Hill 1961Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Robinson, R. A. and Stokes, R. H.: Electrolyte Solutions (2nd ed.), London: Butterworths 1970Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Onsager, L.: Phys. Z. 28, 277 (1927)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Falkenhagen, H.: Theorie der Elektrolyte (2nd ed.), Stuttgart: S. Hirzel 1971Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Harned, H. S. and Owen, B. B.: The Physical Chemistry of Electrolytic Solutions (3rd ed.), New York: Reinhold 1958Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Résibois, P. M. V.: Electrolyte Theory, New York: Harper and Row 1968Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Friedman, H. L.: Ionic Solution Theory, New York: Interscience 1962Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Petrucci, S. (ed.): Ionic Interactions, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, New York: Academic Press 1971Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kelbg, G.: Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 214, 8 (1960)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Falkenhagen, H. and Ebeling, W. in: Ref. [50], Vol. 1, p. 1; Falkenhagen, H., Ebeling, W. and Kraeft, W. D. in: Ref. [50], Vol. 1, p. 61Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Falkenhagen, H. and Kelbg, G. in: Bockris, J. O'M. (ed.): Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 2, p. 1, London: Butterworths 1959Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Conway, B. E. and Barradas, R. G. (eds.): Chemical Physics of Ionic Solutions, New York: Wiley 1966Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Covington, A. K. and Dickinson, T. (eds.): Physical Chemistry of Organic Solvent Systems, London: Plenum 1973Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rassaiah, J. C. and Friedman, H. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 3352 (1968); J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3965 (1969)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rasaiah, J. C.: J. Chem. Phys. 52, 704 (1970); 56, 3071 (1972)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rasaiah, J. C.: J. Solution Chem. 2, 301 (1973)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Friedman, H. L. and Larsen, B.: J. Chem. Phys. 70, 92 (1979)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Friedman, H. L.: Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 32, (1981)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Friedman, H. L.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1277 (1981)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fuoss, R. M.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 16 (1978)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ebeling, W. and Grigo, M.: Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 36, 21 (1980)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ebeling, W. and Künstner, H. (eds.): Theorie elektrolytischer Flüssigkeiten, Rostocker Physikalische Manuskripte, Heft 4, 1979Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Justice, M.-C. and Justice, J.-C.: J. Solution Chem. 5, 543 (1976); 6, 819 (1977)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Justice, J.-C.: J. Solution Chem. 7, 859 (1978)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Justice, J.-C. and Ebeling, W.: J. Solution Chem. 8, 809 (1979)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Justice, J.-C. and Justice, M.-C.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 1681 (1979)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Justice, J.-C., Justice, M.-C. and Micheletti, C.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1291 (1981)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hertz, H. G.: Electrochemistry. A Reformulation of the Basic Principles (Lecture Notes in Chemistry, Vol. 17) Heidelberg: Springer 1980Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    European Federation of Chemical Engineering (ed.): Phase Equilibria and Fluid Properties in the Chemical Industry, Vol. 2, Frankfurt: DECHEMA 1980Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Barthel, J.: in Ref. [71], p. 497Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Onsager, L.: quoted after Ref. [52]Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Barthel, J.: Chem.-Ing.-Techn. 50, 259 (1978)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Barthel, J., Wachter, R. and Gores, H.-J.: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 64, 285 (1977)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Barthel, J., Wachter, R. and Gores, H.-J. in: Conway, B. E. and Bockris, J. O'M. (eds.): Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 13, p. 1, New York: Plenum 1979Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wachter, R. and Riederer, K.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1301 (1981)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Barthel, J. and Schmeer, G. in: Bak, T. (ed.): Kemisk Forening 100 Års Jubilaeum: Kopenhagen (in press)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wachter, R. and Barthel, J.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 83, 634 (1979)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Barthel, J., Schmeer, G., Strasser, F. and Wachter, R.: Rev. Chim. Minérale 15, 99 (1978)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schwitzgebel, G., Lührs, C. and Barthel, J.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 1220 (1980)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Barthel, J., Ströder, U., Iberl, L. and Hammer, H.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 86, 636 (1982)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Barthel, J., Popp, H. and Schmeer, G.: Data Bank ELDAR (Electrolyte Data Bank Regensburg): DECHEMA projectGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wachter, R. et al.: in preparationGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Abraham, M. H., Danil de Namor, A. F. and Schulz, R. A.: J. Solution Chem. 6, 491 (1977)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Abraham, M. H., Danil de Namor, A. F. and Schulz, R. A.: J. Solution Chem. 5, 529 (1976)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Abraham, M. H.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 69, 1375 (1973)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wölbl, J.: Dissertation, Regensburg (1982)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pasztor, A. J. and Criss, C. M.: J. Solution Chem. 7, 27 (1978)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Choi, Y.-S. and Criss, C. M.: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 64, 204 (1977)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dack, M. R. J., Bird, K. J. and Parker, A. J.: Aust. J. Chem. 28, 955 (1975)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Millero, F. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 3209 (1968)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Millero, F. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 73, 2417 (1969)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gopal, R., Agarwal, D. K. and Kumar, R.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 46, 1973 (1973)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zana, R., Lage, G. A. and Criss, C. M.: J. Solution Chem. 9, 667 (1980)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Smid, J. and Grotens, A. M.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 2377 (1973)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chang, S. and Criss, C. M.: J. Solution Chem. 2, 457 (1973)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Libuś, W., Meçik, M. and Strzelecki, H.: J. Solution Chem. 9, 723 (1980)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Choi, Y.-S. and Criss, C. M.: J. Chem. Eng. Data 22, 297 (1977)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shin, C. and Criss, C. M.: J. Solution Chem. 7, 205 (1978)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bennetto, H. P. and Spitzer, J. J.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 73, 1066 (1977)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bennetto, H. P. and Spitzer, J. J.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 72, 2108 (1976)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Spitzer, J. J.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 74, 756 (1978)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pitzer, K. S.: Acc. Chem. Res. 10, 371 (1977)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Picker, P., Jolicoeur, C. and Desnoyers, J. E.: J. Chem. Thermodyn. 1, 469 (1969)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wadsö, I.: Acta Chem. Scand. 22, 927 (1968)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Monk, P. and Wadsö, I.: Acta Chem. Scand. 22, 1842 (1968)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Born, M. and Mayer, J. E.: Z. Phys. 75, 1 (1932)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ladd, M. F. C. and Lee, W. H.: in Reiss, H. (ed.): Progress in Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 1, p. 37, Oxford: Pergamon 1964Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Morris, D. F. C.: Struct. Bonding (Berlin) 4, 63 (1968)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Criss, C. M. and Salomon, M.: in Ref. [55], p. 253Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Krishnan, C.V. and Friedman, H. L. in: Coetzee, J. F. and Ritchie, C. D. (eds.): Solute-Solvent Interactions, Vol. 2, p. 1, New York: Dekker 1976Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Janz, G. J. and Tomkins, R. P. T.: Nonaqueous Electrolytes Handbook, Vol. 2, New York: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Popovych, O. in: Kolthoff, I. M. and Elving, P. J. (eds.): Treatise on Analytical Chemistry (2nd ed.), Vol. 1 (1), p. 711, New York: Wiley 1978Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Trémillon, B. and Coetzee, J. F.: Pure Appl. Chem. 50, 587 (1978)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Popovych, O.: Anal. Chem. 38, 558 (1966)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ben-Naim, A.: J. Phys. Chem. 82, 792 (1978)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kim, J. I., Duschner, H., Born, H.-J. and Hashimoto, T.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 103, 15 (1976)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Marcus, Y.: Rev. Anal. Chem. 5, 53 (1980)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Coetzee, J. F. and Istone, W. K.: Anal. Chem. 52, 53 (1980)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Coetzee, J. F. and Martin, M. W.: Anal. Chem. 52, 2412 (1980)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Born, M.: Z. Phys. 1, 45 (1920)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hepler, L. G.: Aust. J. Chem. 17, 587 (1964)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stiles, P. J.: Aust. J. Chem. 33, 1389 (1980)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Latimer, W. M., Pitzer, K. S. and Slansky, C. M.: J. Chem. Phys. 7, 108 (1939)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Stokes, R. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 979 (1964)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Dogonadze, R. R. and Kornyshev, A. A.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 70, 1121 (1974)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bernal, J. D. and Fowler, R. H.: J. Chem. Phys. 1, 515 (1933)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Frank, H. S. and Wen, W.-Y.: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 24, 133 (1957)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nemethy, G. and Scheraga, H. A.: J. Chem. Phys. 36, 3382 (1962)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cox, B. G., Hedwig, G. R., Parker, A. J. and Watts, D. W.: Aust. J. Chem. 27, 477 (1974)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Covington, A. K. and Newman, K. E.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 2041 (1979)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Schneider, H.: Topics in Current Chemistry 68, 103 (1976)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kim, J. I.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 121, 1 (1980)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kim, J. I. and Duschner, H.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 39, 471 (1977)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kim, J. I.: J. Phys. Chem. 82, 191 (1978)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    de Valera, E., Feakins, D. and Waghorne, W. E.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 76, 560 (1980)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Buckingham, A. D.: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 24, 151 (1957)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Muirhead-Gould, J. S. and Laidler, K. J.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 944 (1967)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Morf, W. E. and Simon, W.: Helv. Chim. Acta 54, 794 (1971)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Izmailov, N. A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 126, 1033 (1959)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Izmailov, N. A.: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 34, 2414 (1960)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Feakins, D. and Watson, P.: J. Chem. Soc. 1963, 4734Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Alfenaar, M. and De Ligny, C. L.: Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 86, 929 (1967)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    De Ligny, C. L. and Alfenaar, M.: Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 84, 81 (1965)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    De Ligny, C. L., Denessen, H. J. M. and Alfenaar, M.: Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 90, 1265 (1971)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Pleskov, V. A.: Usp. Khim. 16, 254 (1947)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Köpp, H.-M., Wendt, H. and Strehlow, H.: Z. Electrochem. 64, 483 (1960)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Parker, A. J. and Alexander, R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 3313 (1968)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Alexander, R. and Parker, A. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 5549 (1967)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Grunwald, E., Baughman, G. and Kohnstam, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 5801 (1960)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Fuchs, R., Bear, J. L. and Rodewald, R. F.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 5797 (1969)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kolthoff, I. M. and Chantooni, M. K.: J. Phys. Chem. 76, 2024 (1972)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Millero, F. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 75, 280 (1971)Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kim, J. I., Cecal, A., Born, H.-J. and Gomaa, E. A.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 110, 209 (1978)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kim, J. I.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 113, 129 (1978)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Coetzee, J. F. and Sharpe, W. R.: J. Phys. Chem. 75, 3141 (1971)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Treiner, C.: Can. J. Chem. 55, 682 (1977)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pierotti, R. A.: Chem. Rev. 76, 717 (1976)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Parker, A. J.: Electrochim. Acta 21, 671 (1976)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Alexander, R., Parker, A. J., Sharp, J. H. and Waghorne, W. E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 1148 (1972)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Owensby, D. A., Parker, A. J. and Diggle, J. W.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 2682 (1974)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lam, S. Y., Louis, C. and Benoit, R. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 1156 (1976)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mayer, U.: Monatsh. Chem. 108, 1479 (1977)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Marcus, Y., Pross, E. and Hormadaly, J.: J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2708 (1980)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pitzer, K. S.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 268 (1973)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Pitzer, K. S. and Mayorga, G.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 2300 (1973)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Pitzer, K. S. and Mayorga, G.: J. Solution Chem. 3, 539 (1974)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Pitzer, K. S. and Kim, J. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 5701 (1974)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Pitzer, K. S., Roy, R. N. and Silvester, L. F.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 4930 (1977)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Pitzer, K. S. in: Pytkowicz, R. M. (ed.): Activity Coefficients in Electrolyte Solutions, Vol. 1, p. 157, Boca Raton: CRC Press 1979Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Cruz, J. L. and Renon, H.: AIChE J. 24, 817 (1978)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Cruz, J. L. and Renon, H.: Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundament. 18, 168 (1979)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Renon, H.: in Ref. [71], p. 509Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Smedly, S. I.: The Interpretation of Ionic Conductivity in Liquids, New York: Plenum 1980Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Franck, E. U.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1401 (1981)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Quist, A. S. and Marshall, W. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 684 (1968)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Quist, A. S., Franck, E. U., Jolley, H. R. and Marshall, W. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 67, 2453 (1963)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Quist, A. S. and Marshall, W. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 70, 3714 (1966)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Quist, A. S. and Marshall, W. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 1545 (1968)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Quist, A. S. and Marshall, W. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 2100 (1968)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Quist, A. S. and Marshall, W. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 3122 (1968)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Dunn, L. A. and Marshall, W. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 73, 723 (1969)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Franck, E. U.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 8, 92 (1956)Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Franck, E. U.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 8, 107 (1956)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ritzert, G. and Franck, E. U.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 72, 798 (1968)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Mangold, K. and Franck, E. U.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 21 (1969)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Heger, K., Uematsu, M. and Franck, E. U.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 758 (1980)Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Fernandez-Prini, R.: in Ref. [55], p. 525Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Spiro, M.: in Ref. [55], p. 615, 635Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Barthel, J.: Angew. Chem. 80, 253 (1968); Int. Ed. Engl. 7, 260 (1968)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Janz, G. J. and Tomkins, R. P. T.: Nonaqueous Electrolytes Handbook, Vol. 1, New York: Academic Press (1972)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Justice, J.-C. and Justice, M.-C.: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 64, 265 (1977)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Perié, J., Perié, M. and Justice, J.-C.: J. Solution Chem. 9, 395 (1980); Justice, J.-C., Perié, J. and Perié, M.: J. Solution Chem. 9, 583 (1980)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Barthel, J., Justice, J.-C. and Wachter, R.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 84, 100 (1973)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Fuoss, R. M.: J. Solution Chem. 7, 771 (1978); J. Phys. Chem. 79, 525, 1983 (1975); 82, 2427 (1978)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ebeling, W., Feistel, R., Kelbg, G. and Sändig, R.: J. Nonequil. Thermodyn. 3, 11 (1978)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Turq, P.,Orcil, L.,Chemla, M. and Barthel, J.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 85, 535 (1981); Turq, P., Orcil, L., Chevalet, J., Mills, R. and Chemla, M.: in pressGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hubbard, J. B. and Onsager, L.: J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4850 (1977); Hubbard, J. B.: J. Chem. Phys. 68, 1649 (1978)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Pikal, M. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 75, 663 (1971)Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Chen, M.-S. and Onsager, L.: J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2017 (1977); Chen, M.-S.: J. Solution Chem. 7, 675 (1978); 8, 165, 509 (1979)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Quint, J. and Viallard, A.: J. Solution Chem. 7, 137, 525, 533 (1978)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Lee, W. H. and Wheaton, R. J.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 74, 743, 1456 (1978); 75, 1128 (1979)Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pethybridge, A. D. and Taba, S. S.: Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 64, 274 (1977); J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 76, 368 (1980); 78, 1331 (1982)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Onsager, L.: Phys. Z. 27, 388 (1926)Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Fuoss, R. M. and Hirsch, E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 1013 (1960)Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Brown, A. M. and Fuoss, R. M.: J. Phys. Chem. 64, 1341 (1960)Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Coetzee, J. F. and Cunningham, G. P.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 2529 (1965)Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Evans, D. F. and Gardam, P.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 3281 (1968)Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Krumgalz, B.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 47, 528 (1973)Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kay, R. L. and Dye, J. L.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 49, 5 (1963); Vidulich, G. A., Cunningham, G. P. and Kay, R. L.: J. Solution Chem. 2, 23 (1973)Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Moynihan, C. T.: in Ref. [50], Vol. 1, p. 261Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Angell, C. A. and Bressel, R. D.: J. Phys. Chem. 76, 3244 (1972)Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Angell, C. A.: J. Phys. Chem. 70, 3988 (1966)Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Adam, G. and Gibbs, J. H.: J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Cohen, M. H. and Turnbull, D.: J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164 (1959)Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Angell, C. A., Sare, J. M. and Sare, E. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 82, 2622 (1978)Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Angell, C. A. and Tucker, J. C.: J. Phys. Chem. 78, 278 (1974)Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Bruno, P. and Della Monica, M.: Electrochim. Acta 20, 179 (1975); J. Phys. Chem. 76, 3034 (1972)Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Bruno, P., Gatti, C. and Della Monica, M.: Electrochim. Acta 20, 533 (1975)Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Spiro, M. and King, F. in: Inman, D. and Lovering, D. G. (eds.): Ionic Liquids, p. 57, New York: Plenum 1981Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Harrison, G.: The Dynamic Properties of Supercooled Liquids, New York: Academic Press 1976Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Copeland, J. L.: Transport Properties of Ionic Liquids, Ch. 4, New York: Gordon and Breach 1974Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Anderson, P. W. in: Balian, R., Maynard, R. and Toulouse, G. (eds.): Ill-Condensed Matter, Les Houches, Session XXXI, 3. Juillet — 18 Aout. 1978, Amsterdam: North Holland 1979Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Leist, M.: Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 205, 16 (1955)Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Wishaw, B. F. and Stokes, R. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 2065 (1954)Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Gores, H.-J. and Barthel, J.: J. Solution Chem. 9, 939 (1980)Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Ebeling, W., Geisler, D., Kraeft, D. and Sändig, R.: Wiss. Z. Univ. Rostock, Math.-Naturwiss. Reihe 23, 903 (1974)Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Jasinski, R.: High-Energy Batteries, New York: Plenum 1967Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Jasinski, R. in: Tobias, C. W. (ed.): Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 8, p. 253, New York: Wiley 1971Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Casteel, J. F. and Amis, E. S.: J. Chem. Eng. Data 17, 55 (1972)Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Barthel, J., Gores, H.-J. and Schmeer, G.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 83, 911 (1979)Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Barthel, J., Gerber, R. and Gores, H.-J.: in preparationGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Fuoss, R. M. and Kraus, C. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 55, 2387 (1933)Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Peled, E., Brand, M. and Gileadi, E.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1697 (1981)Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Reger, A., Peled, E. and Gileadi, E.: J. Phys. Chem. 83, 873 (1979)Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Reger, A., Peled, E. and Gileadi, E.: J. Phys. Chem. 83, 869 (1979)Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Gorenbein, E. Y.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 20, 547 (1946)Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Rubinstein, I. and Gileadi, E.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 1368 (1979)Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Barthel, J. and Wittmann, H.-J.: in preparationGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Neilson, G. W. and Enderby, J. E.: Annual Reports C, p. 185, London: The Royal Chemical Society 1979Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Enderby, J. E. and Neilson, G. W.: Adv. Phys. 29, 323 (1980)Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Ohtaki, H. and Johansson, G.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1357 (1981)Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Stern, E. A.: Contemp. Phys. 19, 289 (1978)Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sandstrom, D. R. and Lytle, F. W.: Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 30, 215 (1979)Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Eisenberger, P. and Kincaid, B. M.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 36, 134 (1975)Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Fontaine, A., Lagarde, P., Raoux, D., Fontana, M. P., Maisano, G., Migliardo, P. and Wanderlingh, F.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 504 (1978)Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Sandstrom, D. R.: J. Chem. Phys. 71, 2381 (1979)Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sandstrom, D. R., Dodgen, H. W. and Lytle, F. W.: J. Chem. Phys. 67, 473 (1977)Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Barthel, J. (ed.): 7th International Conference on Non-Aqueous Solutions, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Regensburg 1980Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Goulon, J. and Chabanel, M.: in Ref. [250], Vol. I, p. C1Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Kosower, E. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 3261 (1958)Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Libuś, W.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1345 (1981)Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Symons, M. C. R. in: Kevan, L. and Webster, B. C. (eds.): Electron-Solvent and Anion-Solvent Interactions, p. 311, Amsterdam: Elsevier 1976Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Hogen-Esch, T. E. and Smid, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 669 (1965)Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Hogen-Esch, T. E. and Smid, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 307, 318 (1966)Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Chang, C. J., Kiesel, R. F. and Hogen-Esch, T. E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 2805 (1975)Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Hogen-Esch, T. E. in: Gold, V. and Bethell, D. (eds.): Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 15, p. 153, New York: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Dubois, J.-E., Goetz, E. and Bienvenüe, A.: Spectrochim. Acta 20, 1815 (1964); Dubois, J.-E. and Bienvenüe, A.: J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol. 65, 1259 (1968)Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Kamlet, M. J., Abboud, J. L. M. and Taft, R. W. in: Taft, R. W. (ed.): Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 13, p. 485, New York: Wiley 1981Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Ahmed, W.: J. Chem. Educ. 56, 795 (1979)Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Irish, D. E. and Brooker, M. H. in: Clark, R. J. H. and Hester, R. E. (eds.): Advances in Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 2, p. 212, London: Heyden 1976Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Bulmer, J. T. and Shurvell, H. F.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 256, 2085 (1973); Bulmer, J. T. and Shurvell, H. F.: Can. J. Chem. 53, 1251 (1975)Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Bulmer, J. T., Irish, D. E., Grossman, F. W., Herriot, G., Tseng, M. and Weerheim, A. J.: Appl. Spectrosc. 29, 506 (1975)Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Gans, P.: Computers and Chemistry 1, 291 (1977)Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Gans, P. and Gill, J. B.: Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 451 (1977)Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Gans, P.: Proc. Anal. Div. Chem. Soc. 17, 133 (1980)Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Edgell, W. F., Schmidlin, E. and Balk, M. W.: Appl. Spectrosc. 34, 420 (1980)Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Kauppinen, J. K., Moffatt, D. J., Mantsch, H. H. and Cameron, D. G.: Appl. Spectrosc. 35, 271 (1981)Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Freeman, J. J., Heaviside, J., Hendra, P. J., Prior, J. and Reid, E. S.: Appl. Spectrosc. 35, 196 (1981)Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Martin, A. E. in: Durig, J. R. (ed.): Vibrational Spectra and Structure, Vol. 8: Infrared Interferometric Spectrometers, Amsterdam: Elsevier 1980Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Coetzee, J. F. and Sharpe, W. R.: J. Solution Chem. 1, 77 (1972)Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Perelygin, I. S. and Klimchuk, M. A.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 47, 1138 (1973)Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Perelygin, I. S. and Klimchuk, M. A.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 47, 1402 (1973)Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Perelygin, I. S. and Klimchuk, M. A.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 48, 363 (1974)Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Perelygin, I. S., Klimchuk, M. A. and Beloborodowa, N. N.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 54, 1703 (1980)Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Chang, T. G. and Irish, D. E.: J. Solution Chem. 3, 161 (1974)Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Sze, Y.-K. and Irish, D. E.: J. Solution Chem. 8, 395 (1979)Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Janz, G. J. and Müller, M. A.: J. Solution Chem. 4, 285 (1975)Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Kabisch, G.: Abh. Sächs. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig, Math.-Naturwiss. Klasse, 54, 71 (1979)Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Tsatsas, A. T., Stearns, R. W. and Risen, Jr., W. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 5247 (1972)Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Rannou, J. and Chabanel, M.: J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol. 77, 201 (1980)Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Edgell, W. F. and Harris, D.: J. Solution Chem. 9, 649 (1980)Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Roberts, J. H., Lemley, A. T. and Lagowski, J. J.: Spectrosc. Lett. 5, 271 (1972)Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Lemley, A. T., Roberts, J. H., Plowman, K. R. and Lagowski, J. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 2185 (1973)Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Plowman, K. R. and Lagowski, J. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 78, 143 (1974)Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Lemley, A. T. and Lagowski, J. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 78, 708 (1974)Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Gill, J. B.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1365 (1981)Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Gans, P., Gill, J. B., Griffin, M. and Cahill, P. C.: J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1981, 968Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Symons, M. C. R.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 1671 (1979)Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Lees, A. J., Stroughan, B. P. and Gardiner, D. J.: J. Mol. Struct. 71, 61 (1981)Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Bukowska, J. and Miaskiewicz, K.: J. Mol. Struct. 74, 1 (1981)Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Barthel, J., Behret, H. and Schmithals, F.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 75, 305 (1971)Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Badiali, J.-P., Cachet, H. and Lestrade, J.-C.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1383 (1981)Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Chabanel, M., Ménard, C. and Guihéneuf, G.: C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 272C, 253 (1971)Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Paoli, D., Luçon, M. and Chabanel, M.: Spectrochim. Acta 35 A, 593 (1979)Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Edgell, W. F., Hegde, S. and Barbetta, A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 1406 (1978)Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Edgell, W. F. and Chanjamsri, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 147 (1980)Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Barker, C. and Yarwood, J.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 71, 1322 (1975)Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Riddell, J. D., Lockwood, D. J. and Irish, D. E.: Can. J. Chem. 50, 2951 (1972)Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Pease, L. G., Baron, D., Easwaran, K. R. K. and Blout, E. R. in: Ananchenko, S. N. (ed.) Front. Bioorg. Chem. Mol. Biol. Proc. Int. Symp. 1978, p. 81, Oxford: Pergamon 1980Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Hertz, H. G.: in Ref. [46], p. 479Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    von Goldammer, E. in: Bockris, J. O'M. and Conway, B. E. (eds.): Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 10, p. 1, New York: Plenum 1975Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Popov, A. I.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 101 (1979)Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Harris, R. K. and Mann, B. E. (eds.): NMR and the Periodic Table, New York: Academic Press 1978Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Briggs, R. W., Metz, K. R. and Hinton, J. F.: J. Solution Chem. 8, 479 (1979)Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Metz, K. R. and Hinton, J. F.: J. Solution Chem. 10, 21 (1981)Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Symons, M. C. R. in: Kevan, L. and Webster, B. C. (eds.): Electron-Solvent and Anion-Solvent Interactions, p. 327, Amsterdam: Elsevier 1976Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Greenberg, M. S., Bodner, R. L. and Popov, A. I.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 2449 (1973)Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Cahen, Y. M., Handy, P. R., Roach, E. T. and Popov, A. I.: J. Phys. Chem. 79, 80 (1975)Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Dewitte, W. J., Schoening, R. C. and Popov, A. I.: Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 12, 251 (1976)Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Dewitte, W. J., Liu, L., Mei, E., Dye, J. L. and Popov, A. I.: J. Solution Chem. 6, 337 (1977)Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Shih, J. S. and Popov, A. I.: Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 13, 105 (1977)Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Heubel, P.-H. and Popov, A. I.: J. Solution Chem. 8, 283 (1979)Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    Rahimi, A. K. and Popov, A. I.: J. Magn. Res. 36, 351 (1979)Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Farmer, R. M. and Popov, A. I.: Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 17, 51 (1981)Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Buckson, R. L. and Smith, S. G.: J. Phys. Chem. 68, 1875 (1964)Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Cahen, Y. M., Dye, J. L. and Popov, A. I.: J. Phys. Chem. 79, 1289 (1975)Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Melendres, C. A. and Hertz, H. G.: J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4156 (1974)Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Geiger, A. and Hertz, H. G.: Adv. Mol. Relaxation Processes 9, 293 (1977)Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Weingärtner, H. and Hertz, H. G.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 81, 1204 (1977)Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Singer, J. R.: J. Phys. E: Sci. Instr. 11, 281 (1978)Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    Holz, M. and Müller, C.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 86, 141 (1982)Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Sharp, J. H. and Symons, M. C. R. in: Szwarc, M. (ed.): Ions and Ion Pairs in Organic Reactions, Vol. 1, p. 177, New York: Wiley 1972Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Hill, N. E., Vaughan, W. E., Price, A. H. and Davies, M.: Dielectric Properties and Molecular Behaviour, London: Van Nostrand Reinhold 1969Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Barthel, J. and Feuerlein, F.: in preparationGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Lestrade, J.-C., Badiali, J.-P. and Cachet, H. in: Davies, M. (ed.): Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes (Spec. Period. Rep.), Vol. 2, p. 106, London: The Chemical Society 1975Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Davies, M. and Johansson, G.: Acta Chem. Scand. 18, 1171 (1964)Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Barthel, J., Schmithals, F. and Behret, H.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 71, 115 (1970); Behret, H., Schmithals, F. and Barthel, J.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 96, 73 (1975)Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Barthel, J., Krüger, J. and Schollmeyer, E.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 104, 59 (1977)Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Barthel, J. and Kaukal, B. in: Ref. [250], Vol. II, p. 36; Kaukal, B.: Dissertation, Regensburg 1982Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Brot, C. in: Davies, M. (ed.): Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes (Spec. Period. Rep.), Vol. 2, p. 1, London: The Chemical Society 1975Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Hill, N. E.: Proc. Phys. Soc. 82, 723 (1963)Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Edgell, W. F., Watts, A. T., Lyford, J. and Risen, Jr., W. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 181 (1966)Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    Maxey, B. W. and Popov, A. I.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2230 (1967); Popov, A. I.: Pure Appl. Chem. 41, 275 (1975)Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    Edgell, W. F. in: Szwarc, M. (ed.): Ions and Ion Pairs in Organic Reactions, Vol. 1, p. 153, New York: Wiley 1972Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    Falkenhagen, H.: in Ref. [46], p. 168Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Ebeling, W. and Justice, J.-C. in: Ref. [64], p. 133Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    van Beek, W. M.: Dissertation, Leiden 1975Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Irish, D. E., Chang, T. G., Tang, S.-Y. and Petrucci, S.: J. Phys. Chem. 85, 1686 (1981)Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Strehlow, H. and Knoche, W.: Fundamentals of Chemical Relaxations, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1977Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Eigen, M. and Tamm, K.: Z. Elektrochem. 66, 93, 107 (1962)Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Alexander, R., Ko, E. C. F., Parker, A. J. and Broxton, T. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 5049 (1968)Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Makosza, M. and Wawrzyniewicz, M.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1969, 4659Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Boden, R. M.: Synthesis 1975, 784Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    Parker, A. J., Clare, B. W. and Smith, R. P.: Hydrometallurgy 4, 233 (1979)Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Livingston, R.: J. Chem. Educ. 7, 2887 (1930)Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Scatchard, G.: Chem. Rev. 10, 229 (1932)Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    Perlmutter-Hayman, B. in: Jennings, K. R. and Cundall, R. B. (eds.): Progress in Reaction Kinetics, Vol. 6, p. 239, Oxford: Pergamon 1971Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Marshall, Jr., E. K. and Acree, S. F.: J. Phys. Chem. 19, 589 (1915)Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    Brändström, A.: Ark. Kemi 11, 527 (1957)Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Brändström, A.: Ark. Kemi 11, 567 (1957)Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Beronius, P., Nilsson, A.-M. and Wikander, G.: Acta Chem. Scand. 24, 2826 (1970)Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Barthel, J., Bäder, G. and Raach-Lenz, M.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 103, 135 (1976)Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Barthel, J. and Raach-Lenz, M.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 103, 149 (1976)Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Cayzergues, J., Georgoulis, C. and Papanastasiou, G.: J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol. 74, 1103, 1112 (1977)Google Scholar
  357. 357.
    Cayzergues, J., Georgoulis, C. and Mathieu, G.: J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol. 77, 401 (1980)Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Dubois, J.-E. and Barthel, J.: C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 245, 1531 (1957)Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Parker, A. J.: Chem. Rev. 69, 1 (1969)Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    Johnson, S. L. in: Gold, V. (ed.): Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 5, p. 235, New York: Academic Press 1967Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Abraham, M. H.: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2 1972, 1343Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    von Halban, H.: Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 67, 129 (1909)Google Scholar
  363. 363.
    Menschutkin, N.: Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 6, 41 (1890)Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    Menschutkin, N.: Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 34, 157 (1900)Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Yamamura, K. and Murahashi, S.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1977, 4429Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Hughes, E. D. and Whittingham, D. J.: J. Chem. Soc. 1960, 806Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    Gleave, J. L.; Hughes, E. D. and Ingold, C. K.: J. Chem. Soc. 1935, 236Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Watts, D. W.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 1713 (1979)Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Bender, M. L.: Chem. Rev. 60, 53 (1960)Google Scholar
  370. 370.
    Kirby, A. J. in: Bamford, C. H. and Tipper, C. F. W. (eds.): Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics, Vol. 10, p. 156, Amsterdam: Elsevier 1972Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    Kirby, A. J.: in Ref. [370], p. 162Google Scholar
  372. 372.
    Hughes, E. D. and Wilby, J.: J. Chem. Soc. 1960, 4094Google Scholar
  373. 373.
    DePuy, C. H. and Bishop, C. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 2532 (1960)Google Scholar
  374. 374.
    Dubois, J.-E., Huynh, X. Q. and Viellard, H.: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 260, 3057 (1965)Google Scholar
  375. 375.
    Garnier, F. and Dubois, J.-E.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1968, 3797Google Scholar
  376. 376.
    Barthel, J. and Schmeer, G. in: Dubois, J.-E. (ed.): Reaction Transition States, p. 211, New York: Gordon and Breach 1972Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Laidler, K. J. and Landskroener, P. A.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 52, 200 (1956)Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Amis, E. S. and Hinton, J. F.: Solvent Effects on Chemical Phenomena, Vol. 1, New York: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Hiromi, K.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 33, 1251, 1264 (1960)Google Scholar
  380. 380.
    Reynaud, R.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1968, 2279Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    Ingold, C. K.: Structure and Mechanism in Organic Chemistry (2nd ed.), Ithaca: Cornell University Press 1969Google Scholar
  382. 382.
    Schmeer, G. and Barthel, J.: to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Caldin, E. F.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 2067 (1979)Google Scholar
  384. 384.
    Ritchie, C. D.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 153 (1979)Google Scholar
  385. 385.
    Svirbely, W. J. and Kuchta, A. D.: J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1333 (1961)Google Scholar
  386. 386.
    Tommila, E.: Suom. Kemistil. B37, 117 (1964)Google Scholar
  387. 387.
    Goitein, R. and Bruice, T. C.: J. Phys. Chem. 76, 432 (1972)Google Scholar
  388. 388.
    Balakrishnan, M.; Rao, G. V. and Venkatasubramanian, N.: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2 1974, 6Google Scholar
  389. 389.
    Simmons, E. L. in: Jennings, K. R. and Cundall, R. B. (eds.): Progress in Reaction Kinetics, Vol. 8, p. 161, Oxford: Pergamon 1977Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    Ritchie, C. D., Skinner, G. A. and Badding, V. G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2063 (1967)Google Scholar
  391. 391.
    Koppel, I. A. and Palm, V. A. in: Chapman, N. B. and Shorter, J. (eds.): Advances in Linear Free Energy Relationships, p. 203, New York: Plenum 1972Google Scholar
  392. 392.
    Wold, S.: Chemica Scripta 5, 97 (1974)Google Scholar
  393. 393.
    Wold, S. and Sjöström, M. in: Chapman, N. B. and Shorter, J. (eds.): Correlation Analysis in Chemistry, p. 1, New York: Plenum 1978Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    Fainberg, A. H. and Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 2770 (1956)Google Scholar
  395. 395.
    Smith, S. G., Fainberg, A. H. and Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 83, 618 (1961)Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    Lassau, C. and Jungers, J.-C.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1968, 2678Google Scholar
  397. 397.
    Drougard, Y. and Decroocq. D.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1969, 2972Google Scholar
  398. 398.
    Parker, A. J., Mayer, U., Schmid, R. and Gutmann, V.: J. Org. Chem. 43, 1843 (1978)Google Scholar
  399. 399.
    Krygowski, T. M. and Fawcett, W. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 2143 (1975)Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Fawcett, W. R. and Krygowski, T. M.: Aust. J. Chem. 28, 2115 (1975)Google Scholar
  401. 401.
    Mayer, U.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 1697 (1979)Google Scholar
  402. 402.
    Ehrenson, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 103, 6036 (1981)Google Scholar
  403. 403.
    Kolling, O. W.: Anal. Chem. 54, 260 (1982)Google Scholar
  404. 404.
    Kamlet, M. J., Carr, P. W., Taft, R. W. and Abraham, M. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 103, 6062 (1981)Google Scholar
  405. 405.
    Dubois, J.-E.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1313 (1981)Google Scholar
  406. 406.
    Dubois, J.-E.: Entropie 27, 1 (1969)Google Scholar
  407. 407.
    Fredenslund, A., Michelsen, M. L. and Sörensen, J. M.: in Ref. [71], p. 433Google Scholar
  408. 408.
    Rasmussen, P. and Skjold-Jørgensen, S.: in Ref. [71], p. 419Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    Eckermann, R.: in Ref. [71], p. 741Google Scholar
  410. 410.
    Scholz, A. G. R.: in Ref. [71], p. 761Google Scholar
  411. 411.
    Onken, U., Gmehling, J. and Arlt, W.: in Ref. [71], p. 781Google Scholar
  412. 412.
    Buck, E.: in Ref. [71], p. 771Google Scholar
  413. 413.
    Brändström, A. in: Gold, V. and Bethell, D. (eds.): Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 15, p. 267, London: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
  414. 414.
    Weber, W. P. and Gokel, G. W.: Phase Transfer Catalysis in Organic Synthesis, Berlin: Springer 1977Google Scholar
  415. 415.
    Starks, C. M. and Liotta, C.: Phase Transfer Catalysis, Principles and Techniques, New York: Academic Press 1978Google Scholar
  416. 416.
    Dehmlow, E. V. and Dehmlow, S. S.: Phase Transfer Catalysis, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1980Google Scholar
  417. 417.
    Starks, C. M.: CHEMTECH 10, 110 (1980)Google Scholar
  418. 418.
    Reuben, B. and Sjöberg, K.: CHEMTECH 11, 315 (1981)Google Scholar
  419. 419.
    Dehmlow, E. V.: Chimia 34, 12 (1980)Google Scholar
  420. 420.
    Lindblom, L. and Elander, M.: Pharm. Technol. 4 (10), 59 (1980)Google Scholar
  421. 421.
    Dehmlow, E. V., Slopianka, M. and Heider, J.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1977, 2361Google Scholar
  422. 422.
    Juliá, S., Ginebrada, A., Guixer, J., Masana, J., Tomás, A. and Colonna, S.: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 1981, 574Google Scholar
  423. 423.
    Haase, R., Sauermann, P.-F. and Drücker, K.-H.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 47, 224 (1965)Google Scholar
  424. 424.
    Haase, R. and Drücker, K.-H.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 46, 141 (1965)Google Scholar
  425. 425.
    Barthel, J. et al.: unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Mamantov, G. in: Murphy, D. W., Broadhead, J. and Steele, B. C. H. (eds.): Materials for Advanced Batteries, p. 111, New York: Plenum 1980Google Scholar
  427. 427.
    Carpio, R. A., King, L. A., Lindstrom, R. E., Nardi, J. C. and Hussey, C. L.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 1644 (1979)Google Scholar
  428. 428.
    Johnson, W. B. and Worrell, W. L.: Solid State Ionics 5, 367 (1981)Google Scholar
  429. 429.
    Rea, J. R., Kelsey, G. S., Kuo, H. C. and Kallianidis, M.: Solid State Ionics 3/4, 267 (1981)Google Scholar
  430. 430.
    Liang, C. C. and Bro, P.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 1322 (1969)Google Scholar
  431. 431.
    Owens, B. B.: Solid State Ionics 3/4, 273 (1981)Google Scholar
  432. 432.
    von Alpen, U. and Bell, M. F.: Solid State Ionics 3/4, 259 (1981)Google Scholar
  433. 433.
    Stakem, D.: Electr. Prod. Mag., Nov. (1979), p. 75Google Scholar
  434. 434.
    Graham, R. W.: Rechargeable Batteries, Advances since 1977, Chem. Techn. Rev. No. 160, Energy Techn. Rev. No. 55, Park Ridge N. J.: Noyes Data Corp. (1980)Google Scholar
  435. 435.
    Newman, G. H. and Klemann, L. P.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2097 (1980)Google Scholar
  436. 436.
    Klemann, L. P. and Newmann, G. H.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 230 (1982)Google Scholar
  437. 437.
    Saito, T., Ikeda, H., Matsuda, Y. and Tamura, H.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 6, 85 (1976)Google Scholar
  438. 438.
    Jasinski, R.: Electroanal. Chem. 26, 189 (1970)Google Scholar
  439. 439.
    Eckert, J. and Gálovà, M.: Z. Chemie 20, 194 (1980)Google Scholar
  440. 440.
    Matsuda, Y., Ōuchi, Y. and Tamura, H.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 4, 53 (1974)Google Scholar
  441. 441.
    Takahashi, S. and Koura, N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 710 (1981)Google Scholar
  442. 442.
    Staniewicz, R. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 782 (1980)Google Scholar
  443. 443.
    Scrosati, B.: Electrochim. Acta 26, 1559 (1981)Google Scholar
  444. 444.
    Besenhard, J. O. and Heydecke, J. in: von Stumm, F. (ed.): Elektrochemie und Elektronik, p. 189, DECHEMA Monographien, Vol. 90, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1980Google Scholar
  445. 445.
    Murphy, D. W., Broadhead, J. and Steele, B. C. H. (eds.): Materials for Advanced Batteries, New York: Plenum 1980Google Scholar
  446. 446.
    Vissers, D. R.: in Ref. [445], p. 47Google Scholar
  447. 447.
    Huggins, R. A.: in Ref. [445], p. 91Google Scholar
  448. 448.
    Roberts, R. in: Ouellette, R. P.; Ellerbusch, F. and Cheremisinoff, P. N. (eds.): Electrotechnology, Vol. 2, p. 335, Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science 1978Google Scholar
  449. 449.
    Steunenberg, R. K. in: Vashishta, P., Mundy, J. N. and Shenoy, G. K. (eds.): Fast Ion Transport in Solids, p. 23, New York: North Holland 1979Google Scholar
  450. 450.
    Dell, R. M. and Bones, R. J. in: Vashishta, P., Mundy, J. N. and Shenoy, G. K. (eds.): Fast Ion Transport in Solids, p. 29, New York: North Holland 1979Google Scholar
  451. 451.
    Asher, J. A. in: Vashishta, P., Mundy, J. N. and Shenoy, G. K. (eds.): Fast Ion Transport in Solids, p. 39, New York: North Holland 1979Google Scholar
  452. 452.
    Liang, C. C. and Holmes, C. F.: in Ref. [465], p. 27Google Scholar
  453. 453.
    Greatbatch, W.: in Ref. [465], p. 3Google Scholar
  454. 454.
    Kennedy, J. H. in: Bockris, J. O'M., Conway, B. E., Yeager, E. and White, R. E. (eds.): Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry, Vol. 3, p. 279, New York: Plenum 1981Google Scholar
  455. 455.
    Owens, B. B. and Skarstad, P. M. in: Vashishta, P., Mundy, J. N. and Shenoy, G. K. (eds.): Fast Ion Transport in Solids, p. 61, New York: North Holland 1979Google Scholar
  456. 456.
    Armand, M. B., Chabagno, J. M. and Duclot, M. J. in: Vashishta, P., Mundy, J. N. and Shenoy, G. K. (eds.): Fast Ion Transport in Solids, p. 131, New York: North Holland 1979Google Scholar
  457. 457.
    Kronenberg, M. L. and Blomgren, G. E. in: Bockris, J. O'M, Conway, B. E., Yeager, E. and White, R. E. (eds.): Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry, Vol. 3, p. 247, New York: Plenum 1981Google Scholar
  458. 458.
    Sprengel, D.: Symposium Lithium Batterien, Kelkheim/Taunus 1980Google Scholar
  459. 459.
    Fiordiponti, P., Pistoia, G. and Temperoni, C.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 14 (1978)Google Scholar
  460. 460.
    Barthel, J., Gores, H.J. and Utz, M.: in preparationGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Olmstead, W. N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 344C (1980)Google Scholar
  462. 462.
    Venkatasetty, H. V. (ed.): Proceedings of the Symposium on Lithium Batteries, Pennington N.J.: The Electrochem. Soc. 1981Google Scholar
  463. 463.
    Olmstead, W. N.: in Ref. [462], p. 144Google Scholar
  464. 464.
    Angres, I. A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 344C (1980); Angres, I. A. and James, S. D. in Ref. [465], p. 332Google Scholar
  465. 465.
    Owens, B. B. and Margalit, N. (eds.): Proceedings of the Symposia on Power Sources for Biomedical Implantable Applications and Ambient Temperature Lithium Batteries, Princeton: The Electrochemical Society 1980Google Scholar
  466. 466.
    Margalit, N. and Canning, H. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 344C (1980)Google Scholar
  467. 467.
    Venkatasetty, H. V., Saathoff, D. J. and Patel, B. K.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 344C (1980); Ref. [462], p. 155Google Scholar
  468. 468.
    Kronenberg, M. L.: U.S. Pat. 3,871,916 (1975); 3,951,685 (1976); Ger. Pat. 2,516,035 (1977)Google Scholar
  469. 469.
    Lehmann, G. and Gabano, J. P.: Ger. Pat. 2,154,092 (1972)Google Scholar
  470. 470.
    Whitney, T. A. and Klemann, L. P.: Ger. Offen. 2,828,628 (1979); U.S. Pat. 4,117,213 (1978); U.S. Pat. 4,104,450 (1978)Google Scholar
  471. 471.
    Klemann, L. P., Newman, G. H. and Stogryn, E. L.: U.S. Pat. 4,139,681 (1979)Google Scholar
  472. 472.
    Klemann, L. P. and Newman, G. H.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 13 (1981)Google Scholar
  473. 473.
    Newman, G. H., Francis, R. W., Gaines, L. H. and Rao, B. M. L.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2025 (1980)Google Scholar
  474. 474.
    Matsuda, Y., Nakashima, H., Morita, M. and Takasu, Y.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2552 (1981)Google Scholar
  475. 475.
    Matsuda, Y. and Satake, H.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 877 (1980)Google Scholar
  476. 476.
    Yeager, E. B., Schumm Jr., B., Blomgren, B., Blankenship, D. R., Leger, V. and Akridge, J. (eds.): Lithium Nonaqueous Battery Electrochemistry, Pennington: The Electrochemical Society 1980Google Scholar
  477. 477.
    Werblan, L. and Lesiński, J.: Pol. J. Chem. 53, 2571 (1979)Google Scholar
  478. 478.
    Kedrinskii, I. A., Morozov, S. V., Sukhova, G. I. and Sokolov, L. A.: Sov. Electrochem. 12, 1094 (1977)Google Scholar
  479. 479.
    Selim, R. and Bro, P.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1457 (1974)Google Scholar
  480. 480.
    Dey, A. N. and Sullivan, B. P.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 222 (1970)Google Scholar
  481. 481.
    Eichinger, G.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 74, 183 (1976)Google Scholar
  482. 482.
    Dousek, F. P., Jansta, J. and Říha, J.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 46, 281 (1973)Google Scholar
  483. 483.
    Dey, A. N.: Thin Solid Films 43, 131 (1977)Google Scholar
  484. 484.
    Epelboin, I., Froment, M., Garreau, M., Thevenin, J. and Warin, D.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2100 (1980)Google Scholar
  485. 485.
    Seiger, H. N., Lyall, A. E. and Chair, R. C. in: Collins, D. H. (ed.): Power Sources, Vol. 2, Proc. 6th Intern. Symp. Brighton, Sept. 1968, Oxford: Pergamon 1970Google Scholar
  486. 486.
    Dey, A. N. and Holmes, R. W.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1877 (1980)Google Scholar
  487. 487.
    Dousek, F. P. and Jansta, J.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 74, 195 (1976)Google Scholar
  488. 488.
    Caiola, A., Fadou, J. Y. and Sohm, J. C.: Electrochim. Acta 17, 1401 (1972)Google Scholar
  489. 489.
    Caiola, A., Guy, H. and Sohm, J. C.: Electrochim. Acta 15, 555 (1970)Google Scholar
  490. 490.
    Dey, A. N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1886 (1980)Google Scholar
  491. 491.
    Peled, E.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 2047 (1979)Google Scholar
  492. 492.
    Brummer, S. B., Koch, V. R. and Rauh, R. D.: in Ref. [445], p. 123Google Scholar
  493. 493.
    Clincspoor, C. C.: Dissertation, Bonn 1970Google Scholar
  494. 494.
    Lautié, R.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 118, 508 (1947)Google Scholar
  495. 495.
    Kruger, F. J.: Symposium Lithium Batterien, Kelkheim (Taunus), 1980Google Scholar
  496. 496.
    Rasmussen, R. M.: Microtechniques, Symp. Intern. 23.–24.24. 4. 1981, Mulhouse (France)Google Scholar
  497. 497.
    Kruger, F. J.: Microtechniques, Symp. Intern. 23.–24. 4. 1981, Mulhouse (France)Google Scholar
  498. 498.
    Ideka, H., Narukawa, S., Inokudi, H. and Nakaido, S.: Microtechniques, Symp. Intern. 23.–24. 4. 1981, Mulhouse (France)Google Scholar
  499. 499.
    Datenblatt VARTALITH, VARTA-Batterie, AG, D-3000 Hannover 21, Postfach 210540 (1980)Google Scholar
  500. 500.
    Linden, D. and McDonald, B.: J. Power Sources 5, 35 (1980)Google Scholar
  501. 501.
    Schlaikjer, C. R., Goebel, F. and Marincic, N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 513 (1979)Google Scholar
  502. 502.
    Dey, A. N. and Schlaikjer, C. R.: Proc. of the 26th Power Sources Conference, Atlantic City, N.J. (1974)Google Scholar
  503. 503.
    Datenblatt Silberkraft, Leichtakkumulatoren GmbH, D-4100 Duisburg, Meidericher Str. 6–8 (1981)Google Scholar
  504. 504.
    Collins, D. H. (ed.): Power Sources, Vol. 5, Proc. 9th Intern. Symp., Brighton September 1974, London: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  505. 505.
    Bro, P., Holmes, R. W., Marincic, N. and Taylor, H.: in Ref., p. 703Google Scholar
  506. 506.
    Gardner, C. L., Fouchard, D. T. and Fawcett, W. R.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2337 (1981)Google Scholar
  507. 507.
    Gardner, C. L., Fouchard, D. T. and Fawcett, W. R.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2345 (1981)Google Scholar
  508. 508.
    Dey, A. N. and Holmes, R. W.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 1637 (1979)Google Scholar
  509. 509.
    Dey, A. N. and Holmes, R. W.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 775 (1980)Google Scholar
  510. 510.
    Dey, A. N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1000 (1980)Google Scholar
  511. 511.
    Blomgren, G. E. and Kronenberg, M. L.: Ger. Offen. 2,262,256 (1973)Google Scholar
  512. 512.
    Behl, W. K., Christopulos, J. A., Ramirez, M. and Gilman, S.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 1619 (1973)Google Scholar
  513. 513.
    Auborn, J. J., French, K. W., Lieberman, S. I., Shah, V. K. and Heller, A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 1613 (1973)Google Scholar
  514. 514.
    Datenblatt 1102, Sonnenschein Accumulatorenfabrik, D-6470 Büdingen, ThiergartenGoogle Scholar
  515. 515.
    Bowden, W. L. and Dey, A. N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1419 (1980)Google Scholar
  516. 516.
    Bowden, W. L. and Dey, A. N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 2035 (1979)Google Scholar
  517. 517.
    Abraham, K. M. and Mank, R. M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2091 (1980)Google Scholar
  518. 518.
    Venkatasetty, H. V. and Saathoff, D. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 773 (1981)Google Scholar
  519. 519.
    Salomon, M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 233 (1981)Google Scholar
  520. 520.
    Klinedinst, K. A. and Domeniconi, M. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 539 (1980)Google Scholar
  521. 521.
    Dey, A. N. and Miller, J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 1445 (1979)Google Scholar
  522. 522.
    Ohzuku, T., Wakamatsu, H., Takehara, Z. and Yoshizawa, S.: Electrochim. Acta 24, 723 (1979)Google Scholar
  523. 523.
    Gilman, S. and Wader Jr., W.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1427 (1980)Google Scholar
  524. 524.
    Rauh, R. D., Abraham, K. M., Pearson, G. F., Surprenant, J. K. and Brummer, S. B.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 523 (1979)Google Scholar
  525. 525.
    Rauh, R. D., Shuker, F. S., Marston, J. M. and Brummer, S. B.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 39, 1761 (1977)Google Scholar
  526. 526.
    Whittingham, M. S.: Science 192, 1126 (1976)Google Scholar
  527. 527.
    Koch, V. R. and Young, J. H.: Science 204, 499 (1979)Google Scholar
  528. 528.
    Holleck, G. L., Abraham, K. M. and Brummer, S. B. in: Ref. [465], p. 384Google Scholar
  529. 529.
    Journé, J. and Tobias, C. W.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 5, 279 (1975)Google Scholar
  530. 530.
    Rauh, R. D. and Brummer, S. B.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 75 (1977)Google Scholar
  531. 531.
    Dampier, F. W. and Brummer, S. B.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 1339 (1977)Google Scholar
  532. 532.
    Koch, V. R. and Brummer, S. B.: Electrochim. Acta 23, 55 (1978)Google Scholar
  533. 533.
    Rauh, R. D. and Brummer, S. B.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 85 (1977)Google Scholar
  534. 534.
    Gunther, R. G.: U.S. Pat. 3,928,070 (1975); Ger. Offen. 2,502,497 (1975)Google Scholar
  535. 535.
    Broadhead, J. and Trumbore, F. A.: in Ref., p. 661Google Scholar
  536. 536.
    Soffer, A.: U.S. Pat. 4,132,837 (1979)Google Scholar
  537. 537.
    Koch, V. R. and Young, J. H.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1371 (1978)Google Scholar
  538. 538.
    Koch, V. R.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 181 (1979)Google Scholar
  539. 539.
    Koch, V. R.: U.S. Pat. 4,118,550 (1978)Google Scholar
  540. 540.
    Goldman, J. L., Mank, R. M., Young, J. H. and Koch, V. R.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1461 (1980)Google Scholar
  541. 541.
    Carjaval, C., Tölle, K. J., Smid, J. and Szwarc, M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 5545 (1965)Google Scholar
  542. 542.
    Nichols, D., Sutphen, C. and Szwarc, M.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 1021 (1968)Google Scholar
  543. 543.
    Abraham, K. M., Goldman, J. L. and Dempsey, M. D.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2493 (1981)Google Scholar
  544. 544.
    Koch, V. R., Goldman, J. L., Mattos, C. J. and Mulvaney, M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 1 (1982)Google Scholar
  545. 545.
    Koch, V. R.: U.S. Pat. 4,252,876 (1981)Google Scholar
  546. 546.
    Whittingham, M. S.: Progr. Solid State Chem. 12, 41 (1978)Google Scholar
  547. 547.
    Armand, M. B.: in Ref. [445], p. 145Google Scholar
  548. 548.
    Holleck, G. L. and Driscoll, J. R.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 647 (1977)Google Scholar
  549. 549.
    Thompson, A. H. and Symon, C. R.: Solid State Ionics, 3/4, 175 (1981)Google Scholar
  550. 550.
    Rao, B. M. L. and Klemann, L. P.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 761 (1980)Google Scholar
  551. 551.
    Murphy, D. W., Christian, P. A., DiSalvo, F. J. and Carides, J. N.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 497 (1979)Google Scholar
  552. 552.
    Spurdens, P. C., Drennan, J., Owen, J. R., Steele, B. C. H., Gonzales-Calbet, J. M. and Jefferson, D. A.: Solid State Ionics 5, 335 (1981)Google Scholar
  553. 553.
    Dickens, P. G. and Reynolds, G. J.: Solid State Ionics 5, 331 (1981)Google Scholar
  554. 554.
    Jacobson, A. J.: Solid State Ionics 5, 65 (1981)Google Scholar
  555. 555.
    Christian, P. A., Carides, J. N., DiSalvo, F. J. and Waszczak, J. V.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2315 (1980)Google Scholar
  556. 556.
    Mizushima, K., Jones, P. C., Wiseman, P. J. and Goodenough, G. J.: Solid State Ionics 3/4, 171 (1981)Google Scholar
  557. 557.
    Whittingham, M. S. and Newman, G. H.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 706 (1981)Google Scholar
  558. 558.
    Moshtev, R. V., Manev, V., Nassalevska, A., Pistoia, G. and Icovi, M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1399 (1981)Google Scholar
  559. 559.
    Cava, R. J., Santoro, A., Murphy, D. W., Zahurak, S. and Roth, R. S.: Solid State Ionics 5, 323 (1981)Google Scholar
  560. 560.
    Eisenberg, M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2382 (1980)Google Scholar
  561. 561.
    Eisenberg, M.: Electrochim. Acta 26, 955 (1981)Google Scholar
  562. 562.
    Eisenberg, M.: U.S. Pat. 4,136,223 (1979)Google Scholar
  563. 563.
    Jacobson, A. J. and Rich, S. M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 779 (1980)Google Scholar
  564. 564.
    Jacobson, A. J., Chianelli, R. R. and Whittingham, M. S.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 2277 (1979)Google Scholar
  565. 565.
    Jacobson, A. J., Chianelli, R. R., Rich, S. M. and Whittingham, M. S.: Mat. Res. Bull. 14, 1437 (1979)Google Scholar
  566. 566.
    Jacobson, A. J., Whittingham, M. S. and Rich, S. M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 887 (1979)Google Scholar
  567. 567.
    Lazzari, M. and Scrosati, B.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 773 (1980)Google Scholar
  568. 568.
    MacDiarmid, A. G. and Heeger, A. J.: Synth. Met. 1, 101 (1979/1980)Google Scholar
  569. 569.
    MacInnes, Jr., D., Druy, M. A., Nigrey, P. J., Nairns, D. P., MacDiarmid, A. G. and Heeger, A. J.: J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1981, 317Google Scholar
  570. 570.
    Nigrey, P. J., MacDiarmid, A. G. and Heeger, A. J.: J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1979, 594Google Scholar
  571. 571.
    Nigrey, P. J., MacInnes, Jr., D., Nairns, D. P., MacDiarmid, A. G. and Heeger, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1651 (1981)Google Scholar
  572. 572.
    Thompson, J. (ed.): Power Sources, Vol. 7, Proc. 11th Intern. Symp., Brighton Sept. 1978, London: Academic Press 1979Google Scholar
  573. 573.
    Collins, D. H. (ed.): Power Sources, Vol. 6, Proc. 10th Intern. Symp., Brighton September 1976, London: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
  574. 574.
    Besenhard, J. O. and Eichinger, G.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 68, 1 (1976)Google Scholar
  575. 575.
    Eichinger, G. and Besenhard, J. O.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial. Electrochem. 72, 1 (1976)Google Scholar
  576. 576.
    Beghi, G. (ed.): Energy Storage and Transportation, Dordrecht: Reidel 1981Google Scholar
  577. 577.
    Popovych, O. and Tomkins, R. P. T.: Nonaqueous Solution Chemistry, New York: Wiley 1981Google Scholar
  578. 578.
    Graham, R. W.: Primary Batteries, Recent Advances, Chem. Techn. Rev. No. 105, Energy Techn. Rev. No. 25, Park Ridge, N. J.: Noyes Data Corp. 1978Google Scholar
  579. 579.
    Graham, R. W.: Secondary Batteries, Recent Advances, Chem. Techn. Rev. No. 106, Energy Techn. Rev. No. 26, Park Ridge, N. J.: Noyes Data Corp. 1978Google Scholar
  580. 580.
    Gottesfeld, S. and McIntyre, J. D. E.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 742 (1979)Google Scholar
  581. 581.
    Novotny, V. and Hopper, M. A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 2211 (1979)Google Scholar
  582. 582.
    Camlibel, I., Singh, S., Stocker, H. J., VanUitert, L. G. and Zydzik, G. J.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 793 (1978)Google Scholar
  583. 583.
    Beni, G.: Solid State Ionics 3/4, 157 (1981)Google Scholar
  584. 584.
    Deb, S. K.: Phil. Mag. 27, 801 (1973)Google Scholar
  585. 585.
    Faughnan, B. W., Crandall, R. S. and Heyman, P. M.: RCA Rev. 36, 177 (1975)Google Scholar
  586. 586.
    Chang, I. F., Gilbert, B. L. and Sun, T. I.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 955 (1975)Google Scholar
  587. 587.
    Hersh, H. N., Kramer, W. E. and McGee, J. H.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 646 (1975)Google Scholar
  588. 588.
    Faughnan, B. W., Crandall, R. S. and Lampert, M. A.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 275 (1975)Google Scholar
  589. 589.
    Crandall, R. S. and Faughnan, B. W.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 95 (1976)Google Scholar
  590. 590.
    Faughnan, B. W. and Crandall, R. S.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 834 (1977)Google Scholar
  591. 591.
    Mohapatra, S. K.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 284 (1978)Google Scholar
  592. 592.
    Reichmann, B. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 583 (1979)Google Scholar
  593. 593.
    Randin, J. P.: J. Electron. Mat. 7, 47 (1978)Google Scholar
  594. 594.
    Reichmann, B. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 2133 (1979)Google Scholar
  595. 595.
    Ho, C., Raistrick, I. D. and Huggins, R. A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 343 (1980)Google Scholar
  596. 596.
    Dautremont-Smith, W. C., Green, M. and Kang, K. S.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 751 (1977)Google Scholar
  597. 597.
    Zeller, H. R. and Beyeler, H. U.: Appl. Phys. 13, 231 (1977)Google Scholar
  598. 598.
    Dickens, P. G., Moore, J. H. and Neild, D. J.: Solid State Chem. 7, 241 (1973)Google Scholar
  599. 599.
    Faughnan, B. W. and Crandall, R. S. in: Pankove, J. I. (ed.): Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 40, Display Devices, Berlin: Springer 1980Google Scholar
  600. 600.
    Freller, H. and Mund, K. in: von Stumm, F. (ed.): Elektrochemie und Elektronik, DECHEMA-Monographien, Vol. 90, p. 107, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1981Google Scholar
  601. 601.
    McIntyre, J. D. E., Basu, S., Peck, Jr., W. F., Brown, W. L. and Augustyniak, W. M.: Solid State Ionics 5, 359 (1981)Google Scholar
  602. 602.
    Burke, L. D. and O'Sullivan, E. J. M.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 111, 383 (1980)Google Scholar
  603. 603.
    Gottesfeld, S.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 272 (1980)Google Scholar
  604. 604.
    Reichmann, B. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 241 (1980)Google Scholar
  605. 605.
    Gottesfeld, S., McIntyre, J. D. E., Beni, G. and Shay, J. L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 208 (1978)Google Scholar
  606. 606.
    Beni, G. and Shay, J. L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 567 (1978)Google Scholar
  607. 607.
    Shay, J. L., Beni, G. and Schiavone, L. M.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 942 (1978)Google Scholar
  608. 608.
    Schiavone, L. M., Dautremont-Smith, W. C., Beni, G. and Shay, J. L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 823 (1979)Google Scholar
  609. 609.
    Corker, G. A., Grant, B. and Clecak, N. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 1339 (1979)Google Scholar
  610. 610.
    Walton, D., Ely, B. and Elliott, G.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2479 (1981)Google Scholar
  611. 611.
    Barna, G. G.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1317 (1980)Google Scholar
  612. 612.
    Matsumoto, S., Kato, H. and Tomura, S.: Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Kohu 76,160,573; C.A. 93, P 58277 g (1980)Google Scholar
  613. 613.
    Miyamura, M., Tomura, S., Imai, A. and Inomata, S.: Solid State Ionics 3/4, 149 (1981)Google Scholar
  614. 614.
    Green, M. and Kang, K.: Solid State Ionics 3/4, 141 (1981)Google Scholar
  615. 615.
    Kmetz, A. R. in: Kmetz, A. R. and von Willisen, F. K. (eds.): Nonemissive Electrooptic Displays, p. 261, New York: Plenum 1976Google Scholar
  616. 616.
    Beni, G.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 467C (1980)Google Scholar
  617. 617.
    Bogenschütz, A. F. and Krusemark, W.: Elektrochemische Bauelemente, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1976Google Scholar
  618. 618.
    Dalisa, A. L.: Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 18, 43 (1977)Google Scholar
  619. 619.
    Dalisa, A. L. in: Pankove, J. I. (ed.): Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 40, Display Devices, p. 213, Berlin: Springer 1980Google Scholar
  620. 620.
    Novotny, V. and Hopper, M. A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 925 (1979)Google Scholar
  621. 621.
    Chang, I. F. in: Kmetz, A. R. and von Willisen, F. K. (eds.): Nonemissive Electrooptic Displays, p. 155, New York: Plenum 1976Google Scholar
  622. 622.
    Pankove, J. I. in: Pankove, J. I. (ed.): Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 40, Display Devices, p. 1, Berlin: Springer 1980Google Scholar
  623. 623.
    Matsuhiro, K. and Masuda, Y.: SID Digest 1979, quoted after Ref. [583]Google Scholar
  624. 624.
    Raistrick, I. D., Mark, A. J. and Huggins, R. A.: Solid State Ionics 5, 351 (1981)Google Scholar
  625. 625.
    Schiavone, L. M., Dautremont-Smith, W. C., Beni, G. and Shay, J. L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 823 (1979)Google Scholar
  626. 626.
    McIntyre, J. D. E., Peck, W. F. and Nakahara, S.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1264 (1980)Google Scholar
  627. 627.
    Dautremont-Smith, W. C., Beni, G., Schiavone, L. M. and Shay, J. L. in: Vashishta, P., Mundy, J. N. and Shenoy, G. K. (eds.): Fast Ion Transport in Solids, p. 99, New York: North Holland 1979Google Scholar
  628. 628.
    Morrison, S. R.: Electrochemistry at Semiconductor and Oxidized Metal Electrodes, New York: Plenum 1980Google Scholar
  629. 629.
    Johnston, Jr., W. D.: Solar Voltaic Cells, New York: Dekker 1980Google Scholar
  630. 630.
    Kazmerzki, L. in: Murr, L. E. (ed.): Solar Materials Science, p. 525, New York: Academic Press 1980Google Scholar
  631. 631.
    Photoelectrochemistry, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 70 (1981)Google Scholar
  632. 632.
    Ang, P. G. P. and Sammells, A. F.: in Ref. [631], p. 207Google Scholar
  633. 633.
    Gerischer, H.: in Ref. [631], p. 137Google Scholar
  634. 634.
    Gerischer, H.: in Seraphin, B. O. (ed.): Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 31, Solar Energy Conversion, p. 115, Berlin: Springer 1979Google Scholar
  635. 635.
    Tributsch, H.: in Ref. [631], p. 189Google Scholar
  636. 636.
    Bockris, J. O'M.: in Ref. [631], p. 429Google Scholar
  637. 637.
    Cheremisinoff, P. N. and Regino, T. C.: Principles and Applications of Solar Energy, Ann. Arbor: Ann. Arbor Science 1978Google Scholar
  638. 638.
    Weaver, N. L., Singh, R., Rajeshwar, K., Singh, P. and Dubow, J.: Solar Cells 3, 221 (1981)Google Scholar
  639. 639.
    Park, S. M. and Barber, M. E.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 99, 67 (1979)Google Scholar
  640. 640.
    Wilson, J. R. and Park, S.-M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 149 (1982)Google Scholar
  641. 641.
    Gerischer, H.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 82, 133 (1977)Google Scholar
  642. 642.
    Gerischer, H.: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 1422 (1978)Google Scholar
  643. 643.
    Bard, A. J. and Wrighton, M. S.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 1706 (1977)Google Scholar
  644. 644.
    Kohl, P. A. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 603 (1979)Google Scholar
  645. 645.
    Langmuir, M. E., Hoenig, P. and Rauh, R. P.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2357 (1981)Google Scholar
  646. 646.
    Kohl, P. A. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 598 (1979)Google Scholar
  647. 647.
    Curran, J. S.: in Ref. [631], p. 259Google Scholar
  648. 648.
    Cardon, F., Gomes, W. P., VanDen Kerchove, F., Vanmeakelbergh, D. and Van Van Overmeire, F.: in Ref. [631], p. 153Google Scholar
  649. 649.
    Kawai, T., Tributsch, H. and Sakata, T.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 336 (1980)Google Scholar
  650. 650.
    Fan, F.-R. F., White, H. S., Wheeler, B. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 518 (1980)Google Scholar
  651. 651.
    Kline, G., Kam, K., Canfield, D. and Parkinson, B. A.: Sol. Energy Mater. 4, 301 (1981)Google Scholar
  652. 652.
    Ang, P. G. P. and Sammells, A. F.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 233 (1982)Google Scholar
  653. 653.
    Ginley, D. S., Biefeld, R. M., Parkinson, B. A. and Keung-Kam, K.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 145 (1982)Google Scholar
  654. 654.
    Tenne, R.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 143 (1982)Google Scholar
  655. 655.
    Tributsch, H.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 81, 361 (1977)Google Scholar
  656. 656.
    Tributsch, H.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 82, 169 (1978)Google Scholar
  657. 657.
    Bard, A. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 86, 172 (1982)Google Scholar
  658. 658.
    Noufi, R. and Tench, D.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 188 (1980)Google Scholar
  659. 659.
    Noufi, R., Tench, D. and Warren, L. F.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2709 (1980)Google Scholar
  660. 660.
    Noufi, R., Tench, D. and Warren, L. F.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2363 (1981)Google Scholar
  661. 661.
    Laser, D. and Bard, A. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 80, 459 (1976)Google Scholar
  662. 662.
    Kohl, P. A. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 59 (1979)Google Scholar
  663. 663.
    Kohl, P. A. and Bard, A. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 7531 (1977)Google Scholar
  664. 664.
    Noufi, R., Tench, D. and Warren, L. F.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2310 (1980)Google Scholar
  665. 665.
    Noufi, R., Tench, D. and Warren, L. F.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2596 (1981)Google Scholar
  666. 666.
    Diaz, A. F., Kanazawa, K. K. and Gardini, G. P.: J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1979, 635Google Scholar
  667. 667.
    Kanazawa, K. K., Diaz, A. F., Geiss, R. H., Gill, W. D., Kwak, J. F., Logan, J. A., Rabolt, J. F. and Street, G. B.: J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1979, 854Google Scholar
  668. 668.
    Diaz, A. F. and Castillo, J. I.: J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1980, 397Google Scholar
  669. 669.
    Neville, R. C.: Solar Energy Conversion: The Solar Cell, Amsterdam: Elsevier 1978Google Scholar
  670. 670.
    Heller, A. (ed.): Semiconductor Liquid Junction Cells, Pennington N.J.: The Electrochemical Society 1977Google Scholar
  671. 671.
    Seraphin, B. O. (ed.): Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 31, Solar Energy Conversion, Berlin: Springer 1979Google Scholar
  672. 672.
    Brenner, A. in: Tobias, C. W. (ed.): Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 5, p. 205, New York: Wiley 1967Google Scholar
  673. 673.
    Lowenheim, F. A. in: Vossen, J. L. and Kern, W. (eds.): Thin Film Processes, p. 209, New York: Academic Press 1978Google Scholar
  674. 674.
    Takei, T.: Surf. Techn. 8, 543 (1979)Google Scholar
  675. 675.
    Couch, D. E.: Plating 49, 363 (1962)Google Scholar
  676. 676.
    Beach, J. G. and Faust, C. L.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 106, 654 (1959)Google Scholar
  677. 677.
    Yoshio, M. and Ishibashi, N.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 3, 321 (1973)Google Scholar
  678. 678.
    Roethlein, R. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 931 (1970)Google Scholar
  679. 679.
    Schmidt, F. J. and Hess, I. J.: Plating 53, 229 (1966)Google Scholar
  680. 680.
    Gaugin, R. and Nury, G.: Bull. Soc. Fr. Electriciens, 7e série, 8, 733 (1958)Google Scholar
  681. 681.
    Takei, T.: Surf. Techn. 9, 285 (1979)Google Scholar
  682. 682.
    Elwell, D.: J. Cryst. Growth 52, 741 (1981)Google Scholar
  683. 683.
    Isserlis, G. in: Kuhn, A. T. (ed.): Industrial Electrochemical Processes, p. 376, Amsterdam: Elsevier 1971Google Scholar
  684. 684.
    Couch, D. E. and Brenner, A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 234 (1952)Google Scholar
  685. 685.
    Connor, J. H. and Brenner, A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 103, 657 (1956)Google Scholar
  686. 686.
    Beach, J. G., McGraw, L. D. and Faust, C. L.: Plating 55, 936 (1968)Google Scholar
  687. 687.
    Ishibashi, N. and Yoshio, M.: Electrochim. Acta 17, 1343 (1972)Google Scholar
  688. 688.
    Yoshio, M., Ishibashi, N., Waki, W. and Seiyama, T.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 34, 2439 (1972)Google Scholar
  689. 689.
    Eckert, J. and Gálovà, M.: Electrochim. Acta 26, 1169 (1981)Google Scholar
  690. 690.
    Gálovà, M., Lux, L. and Eckert, J.: Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 263, 377 (1982)Google Scholar
  691. 691.
    Peled, E., Mitavski, A., Reger, A. and Gileadi, E.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 75, 677 (1977)Google Scholar
  692. 692.
    Peled, E. and Gileadi, E.: Plating 62, 342 (1975)Google Scholar
  693. 693.
    Peled, E. and Gileadi, E.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 15 (1976)Google Scholar
  694. 694.
    Peled, E., Mitavski, A. and Gileadi, E.: Z. Phys. Chem. N.F. 98, 111 (1975)Google Scholar
  695. 695.
    Reger, A., Peled, E. and Gileadi, E.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 638 (1976)Google Scholar
  696. 696.
    Ziegel, S., Peled, E. and Gileadi, E.: Electrochim. Acta 23, 363 (1978)Google Scholar
  697. 697.
    Yoshio, M., Nakamura, H., Nogouchi, N. and Nagamatsu, M.: in Ref. [250], p. E 3Google Scholar
  698. 698.
    Anonymous: Chem. Eng. News, 57, May 14, p. 8, 1979Google Scholar
  699. 699.
    Barbier, M. and Bovarnick, B. in: Ouelette, R. P., Ellerbusch, F. and Cheremisinoff, P. N. (eds.): Electrotechnology, Vol. 2, p. 259, Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science 1978Google Scholar
  700. 700.
    Biallozor, S. and Lisowska, A.: Electrochim. Acta 25, 1209 (1980)Google Scholar
  701. 701.
    Reid, Jr., W. E., Bish, J. M. and Brenner, A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 21 (1957)Google Scholar
  702. 702.
    Santos, F. and Dyment, F.: Plating 60, 821 (1973)Google Scholar
  703. 703.
    Fischer, H. W. and Schwabe, K.: Korrosion (Dresden) 11, 105 (1980)Google Scholar
  704. 704.
    Agrawal, A. K. and Austin, A. E.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2292 (1981)Google Scholar
  705. 705.
    Rama Mohan, T. R. and Kroeger, F. A.: Electrochim. Acta 27, 371 (1982)Google Scholar
  706. 706.
    Bernard, W. J. in: Hampel, C. A. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, p. 140, New York: Reinhold 1964Google Scholar
  707. 707.
    Morley, A. R. and Campbell, D. S.: Radio Electron. Eng. 43, 421 (1973)Google Scholar
  708. 708.
    Campbell, D. S.: Radio Electron. Eng. 41, 5 (1971)Google Scholar
  709. 709.
    Vijh, A. K. in: Diggle, J. W. (ed.): Oxides and Oxide Films, Vol. 2, New York: Dekker 1973Google Scholar
  710. 710.
    Campbell, D. S. in: Chapman, B. N. and Anderson, J. C. (eds.): Science and Technology of Surface Coating, p. 87, London: Academic Press 1974Google Scholar
  711. 711.
    Lacour, H. R.: Elektronische Bauelemente, Vol. 1, Stuttgart: Berliner Union 1978Google Scholar
  712. 712.
    Wood, G. C. in: Diggle, J. W. (ed.): Oxide and Oxide Films, Vol. 2, New York: Dekker 1973Google Scholar
  713. 713.
    Westwood, W. D., Waterhouse, N. and Wilcox, P. S.: Tantalum Thin Films, London: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  714. 714.
    Young, L.: Can. J. Chem. 38, 1141 (1960)Google Scholar
  715. 715.
    Hagihara, M. H. and Takimoto, S. M.: Ger. Pat. 1,614,166 (1973)Google Scholar
  716. 716.
    Höft, H.: Passive Elektronische Bauelemente, Heidelberg: Hüthig 1977Google Scholar
  717. 717.
    Taketani, Y. D. and Niwa, S.: Ger. Offen, 2,508,904 (1978)Google Scholar
  718. 718.
    Pringuet, M. G.: Ger. Pat. 2,449,282 (1975)Google Scholar
  719. 719.
    Jackson, N. F. and Sethi, R. S.: Brit. Pat. 1,445,894 (1976)Google Scholar
  720. 720.
    Mallory, P. R.: Ger. Offen. 2,646,500 (1977)Google Scholar
  721. 721.
    Anderson, D. J.: U.S. Pat. 3,812,038 (1974)Google Scholar
  722. 722.
    Zinke, O.: Widerstände, Kondensatoren, Spulen und ihre Werkstoffe, Berlin: Springer 1965Google Scholar
  723. 723.
    Burger, F. J. and Young, L.: Progress in Dielectrics 5, 1 (1962)Google Scholar
  724. 724.
    Vermileya, D. A. in: Delahay, P. (ed.): Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 3, p. 211, New York: Wiley 1963Google Scholar
  725. 725.
    Burger, F. J. and Wu, J. C.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 2039 (1971)Google Scholar
  726. 726.
    Yahalom, J. and Hoar, T. P.: Electrochim. Acta 15, 877 (1970)Google Scholar
  727. 727.
    Ikonopisov, S.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 1077 (1977)Google Scholar
  728. 728.
    Ikonopisov, S., Girginov, A. and Machkova, M.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 1283 (1977)Google Scholar
  729. 729.
    Ikonopisov, S., Girginov, A. and Machkova, M.: Electrochim. Acta 24, 451 (1979)Google Scholar
  730. 730.
    Tajima, S.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 995 (1977)Google Scholar
  731. 731.
    Mund, K. and Richter, R. in: von Stumm, F. (ed.): DECHEMA-Monographien, Vol. 90, Elektrochemie und Elektronik, p. 173, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1981Google Scholar
  732. 732.
    Sanada, K. and Hosokawa, M.: NEC-Res. and Development 55, 21 (1979)Google Scholar
  733. 733.
    Krumpelt, M., Weissmann, E. Y. and Alkire, R. C. (eds.): Electro-organic Synthesis Technology, AIChE Symp. Ser. No. 185, Vol. 75, AIChE National Meeting, Atlanta, USA, 26. 2.–1. 3. 1978. New York: AIChE 1979Google Scholar
  734. 734.
    Swann, Jr., S. and Alkire, R. C.: in Ref. [733], p. 61Google Scholar
  735. 735.
    Swann, Jr., S. and Alkire, R. C.: Bibliography of Electro-Organic Synthesis 1801–1975, Princeton: The Electrochemical Society 1980Google Scholar
  736. 736.
    Danly, D. in: The Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 8 (3rd ed.), p. 696, New York: Wiley 1979Google Scholar
  737. 737.
    Beck, T. R., Alkire, R. C. and Weinberg, N. L.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 136 C (1979)Google Scholar
  738. 738.
    Weinberg, N. L.: in Ref. [733], p. 31Google Scholar
  739. 739.
    Fitzjohn, J. L.: in Ref. [733], p. 65Google Scholar
  740. 740.
    Bockris, J. O'M. in: Bockris, J. O'M., Rand, D. A. J. and Welch, B. J. (eds.): Trends in Electrochemistry, New York: Plenum 1977Google Scholar
  741. 741.
    Alkire, R. C. and Gould, R. M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 605 (1980)Google Scholar
  742. 742.
    Heinze, J.: Angew. Chem. 93, 186 (1981)Google Scholar
  743. 743.
    Rifi, M. R. and Covitz, F. H.: Introduction to Organic Electrochemistry, New York: Dekker 1974Google Scholar
  744. 744.
    Pietsch, S. J. and Langer, S. H.: in Ref. [733], p. 51Google Scholar
  745. 745.
    Weinberg, N. L. (ed.) in: Weissberger, A. (ser. ed.): Techniques of Chemistry, Vol. 5, Technique of Electro-organic Synthesis, Part I (1974), Part II (1975), Part III (1982). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  746. 746.
    Funt, B. L. and Tanner, J. in Ref. [745], Part II, p. 559Google Scholar
  747. 747.
    Houghton, R. W. and Kuhn, A. T.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 4, 173 (1974)Google Scholar
  748. 748.
    Newman, J. S. and Tiedemann, W. in: Gerischer H. and Tobias, C. W. (eds.): Advances in Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 11, p. 353, New York: Wiley 1978Google Scholar
  749. 749.
    Jansson, R. E. W. and Tomov, N. R.: Electrochim. Acta 25, 497 (1980)Google Scholar
  750. 750.
    Ibl, N.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 465 (1977)Google Scholar
  751. 751.
    Keller, R.: Electrochim. Acta 25, 303 (1980)Google Scholar
  752. 752.
    Gallone, P.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 913 (1977)Google Scholar
  753. 753.
    Beck, T. R. in: Yeager, E. and Salkind, A. J. (eds.): Techniques of Electrochemistry, Vol. 3, p. 1, New York: Wiley 1978Google Scholar
  754. 754.
    Lelandais, D.: Labo-Pharma.-Probl. Techn. 283, 43 (1979)Google Scholar
  755. 755.
    Fioshin, M. Y.: Sov. Electrochem. 13, 1 (1977)Google Scholar
  756. 756.
    Fleischmann, M. and Pletcher, D.: Chem. Brit. 11, 50 (1975)Google Scholar
  757. 757.
    Grimshaw, J. in: Thirsk, H. R. (sen. rep.): Electrochemistry (Spec. Period. Rep.), Vol. 7, London: The Chemical Society 1980Google Scholar
  758. 758.
    Brown, O. R. in: Thirsk, H. R. (sen. rep.): Electrochemistry (Spec. Period. Rep.), Vol. 6, London: The Chemical Society 1978Google Scholar
  759. 759.
    Sawyer, D. T. and Roberts, Jr., J. L.: Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists, New York: Wiley 1974Google Scholar
  760. 760.
    Pletcher, D.: Industrial Electrochemistry, London: Chapman and Hall 1982Google Scholar
  761. 761.
    Brown, O. R. in: Thirsk, H. R. (sen. rep.): Electrochemistry (Spec. Period. Rep.), Vol. 5, London: The Chemical Society 1975Google Scholar
  762. 762.
    Peover, M. E. in: Hush, N. S. (ed.): Reactions of Molecules at Electrodes, p. 259, London: Wiley 1971Google Scholar
  763. 763.
    Fleischmann, M. and Pletcher, D. in: Hush, N. S. (ed.): Reaction of Molecules at Electrodes, p. 347, London: Wiley 1971Google Scholar
  764. 764.
    Fleischmann, M. and Pletcher, D. in: Gold, V. (ed.): Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 10, London: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  765. 765.
    Prescott, J. H.: Chem. Eng. 72, 238 (1965)Google Scholar
  766. 766.
    Baizer, M. M. (ed.): Organic Electrochemistry, New York: Dekker 1973Google Scholar
  767. 767.
    Baizer, M. M.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 10, 285 (1980)Google Scholar
  768. 768.
    Beck, F.: Elektroorganische Chemie, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1973Google Scholar
  769. 769.
    Kyriacou, D. K.: Basis of Electroorganic Synthesis, New York: Wiley 1981Google Scholar
  770. 770.
    Schäfer, H. J.: Angew. Chem. 93, 978 (1981)Google Scholar
  771. 771.
    Miller, L. L.: Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 2125 (1979)Google Scholar
  772. 772.
    Eberson, L. and Weinberg, N. L.: Chem. Eng. News 49 (4), 40 (1971)Google Scholar
  773. 773.
    Fleischmann, M. and Pletcher, D.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1968, 6255Google Scholar
  774. 774.
    Badoz-Lambling, J. and Cauquis, G. in: Nürnberg, H. W. (ed.): Electroanalytical Chemistry, London: Wiley 1974Google Scholar
  775. 775.
    Beck, F.: Chem. Ing. Techn. 42, 153 (1970)Google Scholar
  776. 776.
    Hazelrigg, Jr., M. J. and Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 211 (1975)Google Scholar
  777. 777.
    Ryan, M. D. and Evans, D. H.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 67, 333 (1976)Google Scholar
  778. 778.
    Cipris, D.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1045 (1980)Google Scholar
  779. 779.
    Silvestri, G., Gambino, S., Filardo, G., Spadaro, S. and Palmisano, L.: Electrochim. Acta 23, 413 (1978)Google Scholar
  780. 780.
    Braithwite, D. G.: U.S. Pat. 3,256,161 (1966)Google Scholar
  781. 781.
    Braithwite, D. G. and Bott, L. L.: U.S. Pat. 3,380,899 (1968)Google Scholar
  782. 782.
    Johnson, J. W. in: Bloom, H. and Gutmann, F. (eds.): Electrochemistry. The Past Thirty and the Next Thirty Years, New York: Plenum 1977Google Scholar
  783. 783.
    Kaiser, U. and Heitz, E.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 77, 818 (1973)Google Scholar
  784. 784.
    Skarlos, L.: U.S. Pat. 3,720,591 (1973)Google Scholar
  785. 785.
    Heitz, E. and Kaiser, U.: Ger. Offen. 2,301,032 (1974)Google Scholar
  786. 786.
    Amatore, C. and Savéant, J. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 103, 5021 (1981)Google Scholar
  787. 787.
    Gambino, S. and Silvestri, G.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1973, 3025Google Scholar
  788. 788.
    Silvestri, G., Gambino, S., Filardo, G., Guianazzi, M. and Ercoli, R.: Gazz. Chim. Ital. 102, 818 (1972)Google Scholar
  789. 789.
    Cipris, D. and Mador, I. L.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1954 (1978)Google Scholar
  790. 790.
    Knittel, D. and Kastening, B.: Ger. Offen. 2,328,196 (1974)Google Scholar
  791. 791.
    Knittel, D. and Kastening, B.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 3, 291 (1973)Google Scholar
  792. 792.
    Knittel, D. and Kastening, B.: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 77, 833 (1972)Google Scholar
  793. 793.
    Nyberg, K., Malmberg, M. and Servin, R.: in Ref. [733], p. 36Google Scholar
  794. 794.
    Bauer, R. and Wendt, H.: in Ref. [733], p. 56Google Scholar
  795. 795.
    Barbey, G., Delahaye, D., Lamant, M. and Caullet, C.: Electrochim. Acta 25, 1273 (1980)Google Scholar
  796. 796.
    Lácan, M., Tabaković, I. and Čehović, Ž.: Tetrahedron 30, 2911 (1974)Google Scholar
  797. 797.
    Miller, L. L., Kariv, E. and Behling, J. R. in: Clarke, F. H. (ed.): Annu. Rep. Med. Chem., Vol. 12, p. 309, New York: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
  798. 798.
    Ronlan, A., Hammerich, O. and Parker, V. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 7132 (1973).Google Scholar
  799. 799.
    Falck, J. R., Miller, I. L. and Stermitz, F. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 2981 (1974)Google Scholar
  800. 800.
    Nohe, H.: in Ref. [733], p. 69Google Scholar
  801. 801.
    Jansson, R. E. W. and Fleischmann, M.: in Ref. [733], p. 2Google Scholar
  802. 802.
    Becker, J. Y., Byrd, L. R., Miller, L. L. and Ying-Huong, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 853 (1975)Google Scholar
  803. 803.
    Vincent, F., Tardivel, R. and Mison, P.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1975, 603Google Scholar
  804. 804.
    Bockmair, G., Fritz, H. P. and Gebauer, H.: Electrochim. Acta 23, 21 (1978)Google Scholar
  805. 805.
    Waefler, J. P. and Tissot, P.: Electrochim. Acta 23, 899 (1978)Google Scholar
  806. 806.
    Koester, H. and Wendt, H. in: Bockris, J. O'M., Conway, B. E., Yeager, E. and White, R. A. (eds.): Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry, Vol. 2, p. 251, New York: Plenum 1981Google Scholar
  807. 807.
    Nohe, H.: Chem.-Ing.-Techn. 46, 594 (1974)Google Scholar
  808. 808.
    Pletcher, D. and Razaq, M.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 10, 575 (1980)Google Scholar
  809. 809.
    Pletcher, D. and Razaq, M.: Electrochim. Acta 26, 819 (1981)Google Scholar
  810. 810.
    Hatayama, T., Hamano, Y., Udo, K. and Yamamoto, T.: Japan. Pat. 7,441,192 (1974)Google Scholar
  811. 811.
    Ogumi, Z., Nishio, K. and Yoshizawa, S.: Electrochim. Acta 26, 1779 (1981)Google Scholar
  812. 812.
    Merz, A.: Nachr. Chem. Techn. Lab. 30, 16 (1982)Google Scholar
  813. 813.
    Parker, A. J.: Pure Appl. Chem. 53, 1437 (1981)Google Scholar
  814. 814.
    Toušek, J.: Electrochim. Acta 22, 47 (1977)Google Scholar
  815. 815.
    Gabe, D. R.: Metallography 5, 415 (1972)Google Scholar
  816. 816.
    Breeze, P. A., Hartnagel, H. L. and Sherwood, P. M. A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 454 (1980)Google Scholar
  817. 817.
    Hasegawa, H. and Hartnagel, H. L.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 713 (1976)Google Scholar
  818. 818.
    Müller, H., Eisen, F. H. and Mayer, J. W.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 651 (1975)Google Scholar
  819. 819.
    Turner, D. R. and Pankove, J. I. in: Yeager, E. and Salkind, A. J. (eds.): Techniques of Electrochemistry, Vol. 3, p. 105, New York: Wiley 1978Google Scholar
  820. 820.
    Binder, M., Gilman, S. and Wade, Jr., W.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 897 (1982)Google Scholar
  821. 821.
    Murray, R. W.: Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 135 (1980)Google Scholar
  822. 822.
    Andrieux, C. P., Dumas-Bouchat, J. M. and Savéant, J. M.: J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 131, 1 (1982)Google Scholar
  823. 823.
    Snell, K. D. and Keenan, A. G.: Chem. Soc. Rev. 1979, 259Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josef Barthel
    • 1
  • Heiner-J. Gores
    • 1
  • Georg Schmeer
    • 1
  • Rudolf Wachter
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universität RegensburgFRG

Personalised recommendations