Advertisement

Bioenergy pp 93-118 | Cite as

Conversion of hemicellulose carbohydrates

  • Cheng-Shung Gong
  • Li Fu Chen
  • Michael C. Flickinger
  • George T. Tsao
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering book series (ABE, volume 20)

Abstract

Hemicellulose can be converted to a variety of useful products. There are two approaches to hemicellulose bioconversion; hemicellulose can be directly converted, or the hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates can be used as the substrate. The major problem in the bioconversion of hemicellulose carbohydrates is that suitable organisms which convert pentoses efficiently have not been developed. The advantage of bacterial processes is that a diverse range of products can be formed. The advantages of the yeast process is that specific products such as ethanol and polyols can be produced in high yields. The understanding of metabolic pathways and metabolic regulation is important for the improvement of existing microbial strains or the development of new strains. The use of yeasts to produce ethanol from d-xylose through isomerization of d-xylose to d-xylulose and the prospects for future developments in biomass conversion are discussed.

Keywords

Ethanol Production Cellulosic Material Xylose Isomerase Keto Acid Glucose Isomerase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

7 References

  1. 1.
    Blotkamp, P. J., Takagi, M., Pemberton, M. S., Emert, G. H.: AIChE Symp. 74, 85 (1978)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takagi, M., Abe, S., Suzuki, S., Emert, G. H., Yata, N.: Proc. Bioconversion Symp. p. 551. IIT Delhi 1977Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meyers, S. G.: AIChE Symp. 74, 79 (1978)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Han, Y. W., Dunlap, C. E., Callihan, C. S.: Food Technol. 25, 32 (1971)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peitersen, N.: Biotech. Bioeng. 17, 1291 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haggett, K. D., Choi, W. Y., Dunn, N. W.: Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 6, 189 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pye, E. K., Humphrey, A. E.: In 3rd Annual Biomass Energy System Conference, SERI, DOE, p. 69 (1979)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, D. I. C, Biocic, I., Fang, H. Y., Wang, S. D.: see Ref. 7, p. 61 (1979)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brooks, R., Su, T. M., Brennan, M., Frick, J.: see Ref. 7, p. 75 (1979)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gong, C. S., Maun, C. M., Tsao, G. T.: Biotechnol. Letters 3, 77 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, P. Y., Shopsis, C., Schneider, H.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commu 94, 248 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gong, C. S., Chen, L. F., Flickinger, M. C., Chiang, L. C., Tsao, G. T.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41, 430(1981)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doelle, W. H.: Bacteriol Metabolism, 2nd Ed., p. 738. New York: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flickinger, M. C.: Biotech. Bioeng. Suppl. 1, 27 (1980)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosenberg, S. L.: Enzyme Microb. Technol. 2, 185 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zeikus, J. G.: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 34, 423 (1980)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Whistler, R. L., Richard, E. L.: The Carbohydrates (eds., Pigman, W., Hoston, D.), Chap. 37, p. 447, New York: Acad. Press 1970Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aspinall, G. O.: see Ref. 17, Chap. 39, p. 515, 1970Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Timell, T. E.: Adv. Carbohyd. Chem. 19, 247 (1964)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blake, J. D., Murphy, P. T., Richard, G. N.: Carbohydr. Res. 16, 49 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aspinall, G. O.: Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. 14, 429 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Timell, T. E.: Adv. Carbohyd. Chem. 20, 409 (1965)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Polyglase, W. J.: Adv. Carbohyd. Chem. 10, 283 (1955)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Donnelly, B. J., Helm, J. L., Lee, H. A.: Cereal Chem. 50, 548 (1973)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wilkie, K. C. B.: Adv. Carbohyd. Chem. Biochem. 36, 215 (1979)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shafizadeh, F., McGinnis, G. D.: Adv. Carbohyd. Chem. 26, 297 (1971)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Atkins, E. D. T., Preston, R. D.: Proc. Royal Soc. Ser. B 173, 209 (1969)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krull, L. H., Inglett, G. E.: J. Agric. Food Chem. 28, 917 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cowling, E. B., Kirk, T. K.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. 6, 95 (1976)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dekker, R. F. H., Richards, G. N.: Adv. Carbohyd. Chem. Biochem. 32, 277 (1976)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hokanson, A. E., Katzen, R.: Chem. Eng. Progress 74, 67 (1978)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Porteous, A.: Paper Trade J. 156, 30 (1972)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cysewski, G. R., Wilke, C. R.: Biotech. Bioeng. 18, 1297 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wenzl, H. F.: in: The Chemical Technology of Wood, p. 157, New York: Acad. Press 1970Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee, Y. Y., Lin, C. M., Johnson, T., Chambers, R. P.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. 8, 75 (1979)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Johnson, M. J.: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 1, 159 (1947)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Owen, S. P.: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 14, 99 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yoshitake, J., Shimamura, M., Imai, T.: Agr. Biol. Chem. 37, 2251 (1973)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yoshitake, J., Ishizaki, H., Simamura, M.: Agr. Biol. Chem. 37, 2261 (1973)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mortlock, R. P., Wood, W. A.: J. Bacteriol. 88, 838 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Volk, W. A.: J. Biol. Chem. 237, 19 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mortlock, R. P., Fossitt, D. D., Wood, W. A.: Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA 54, 572 (1965)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mortlock, R. P.: Adv. Microb. Physiol. 13, 1 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mortlock, R. P., Wood, W. A.: J. Bacteriol. 88, 845 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    David, J., Weismeyer, H.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 208, 45 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shamanna, D. K., Sanderson, K. E.: J. Bacteriol. 139, 64 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shamanna, D. F., Sanderson, K. E.: J. Bacteriol. 139, 71 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wood, W. A.: Ann. Rev. Biochem. 35, 521 (1966)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pastan, I., Adhya, S.: Bacteriol. Rev. 40, 527 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lockwood, L. B.: In: Microbial Technology: Microbial Processes, (eds.. Peppier, H. J., Perlman, D.), Vol. 1, Chap. 11, p. 356, New York: Acad. Press 1979Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pfeffer, J. T.: Biotech. Bioeng. 16, 771 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kurtzman, R. H.: Ann. Rep. Ferment. Processes 3, 305 (1979)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Humphrey, A. E., Moreira, A., Armiger, W., Zabriskie, D.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. 7, 45 (1977)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bellamy, W. D.: Dev. Indus. Microbiol. 18, 247 (1977)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Litchfield, J. H.: see Ref. 50, Chap. 4, p. 93, 1979Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hirose, Y., Okada, H.: see Ref. 50, Chap. 7, p. 211, 1979Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gottschalk, G.: Bacterial Metabolism, (ed., Starr, M. P.), p. 281, New York: Springer 1979Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Doelle, W. H.: Bacterial Metabolism, New York: Acad. Press, 1975Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Swings, J., Deley, J.: Bacteriol. Rev. 41, 1 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gibbs, M., DeMoss, R. D.: Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 34, 478 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rogers, P. L., Lee, K. H., Tribe, D. E.: Biotechnol. Letters 1, 165 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lee, K. J., Tribe, D. E., Rogers, P. L.: Biotechnol. Letters 1, 421 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lee, K. J., Skotnicki, M. L., Tribe, D. E., Rogers, P. L.: Biotechnol. Letters 2, 339 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cromie, S., Doelle, H. W.: Biotechnol. Letters 2, 357 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stephenson, M. P., Dawes, E. A.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 69, 331 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Buchanan, R. E., Gibbons, N. E.: Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed., Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins 1974Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zeikus, J. G.: Enzyme Microbiol. Technol. 1, 243 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bryant, M. P.: In: Microbiol Energy Conversion, (eds., Schlegel, H. G., Barnea, J.), p. 107, Göttingen: Goltze 1976Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    deVries, W., Kapteijn, W. M., Van der Beek, E. G., Stouthamer, A. H.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 63, 333 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thomas, T. D., Ellwood, P. C., Longyear, V. M.: J. Bacteriol. 138, 109 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yamada, T., Carlson, J.: J. Bacteriol. 124, 55 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lamed, R. J., Zeikus, J. G.: J. Bacteriol. 141, 1251 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lamed, R. J., Zeikus, J. G.: J. Bacteriol. 144, 569 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Patni, N. J., Alexander, J. K.: J. Bacteriol. 105, 220 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jungermann, K., Thauer, R. K., Leimenstoll, G., Decker, K.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 305, 206 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wolin, M. J.: Science 146, 775 (1974)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ledingham, G. A., Neish, A. C.: Ind. Ferment. 2, 27 (1954)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wood, W. A.: In: The Bacteria, (eds., Gunsalus, I. C., Stanier, R. Y.), Vol. 2, p. 59, New York: Acad. Press 1961Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Long, S. K., Patrick, R.: Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 5, 135 (1963)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Altermatt, H. A., Simpson, F. J., Neish, A. C.: Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 33, 615 (1955)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Prescott, S. C., Dunn, C. G.: In: Industrial Microbiology, 2nd ed, p. 923, New York: McGraw-Hill 1949Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Neish, A. C., Simpson, F. J.: Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 32, 147 (1954)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Murphy, D., Stranks, D. W.: Can. J. Technol. 29, 413 (1951)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Perlman, D.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 36, 803 (1944)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Spivey, M. J.: Process Biochem. 13 (11), 2 (1978)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Walton, M. T., Martin, J. L.: see Ref. 50, Chap. 6, p. 187, 1979Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Peterson, W. H., Fred, E. B.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 24, 237 (1932)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Compere, A. L., Griffin, D. G.: Dev. Ind. Microbiol. 20, 509 (1979)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    O'Brien, R. W., Morris, J. G.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 68, 307 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Davies, R., Stephenson, M.: Biochem. J. 35, 1320 (1941)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Langlykke, A. F., Van Lanen, J. M., Fraser, D. R.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 40, 1716 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sjolander, N. O., Langlykke, A. F., Peterson, W. H.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 30, 1251 (1938)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wiley, A. J., Johnson, M. J., McCoy, E., Peterson, W. H.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 33, 606 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Northrop, J. H., Ashe, L. H., Senior, J. K.: J. Biol. Chem. 39, 1 (1919)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wilke, C. R., Blanch, H. W.: see Ref. 7, p. 79, 1979Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Arzberger, C. F., Peterson, W. H., Fred, B. B.: J. Biol. Chem. 44, 465 (1920)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lodder, J., Kreger-van Rij, N. J. W.: In: The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 2nd ed., Amsterdam and London, North-Holland 1970Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chiang, C., Knight, S. G.: Nature (London) 188, 79 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Charkravorty, M., Veiga, L. A., Bacila, M., Horecker, B. L.: J. Biol. Chem. 237, 1014 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Barnett, J. A.: In: The Fungi (eds., Ainsworth, G. C., Sussman, A. S.), Vol. III, p. 557, New York: Acad. Press 1968Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Höfer, M., Betz, A., Kotyk, A.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 252, 1 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Osmond, C. B., Rees, T. A.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 184, 55 (1969)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Horecker, B. L.: In: Pentose Metabolism in Bacteria. New York: Wiley 1962Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kotyk, A., Höfer, M.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 102, 410 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Alcorn, M. E., Griffin, C. C.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 510, 361 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tomoyeda, M., Horitsu, H.: Agr. Biol. Chem. 28, 139 (1964)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wang, P. Y., Schneider, H.: Can. J. Microbiol. 26, 1165 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ueng, P. P., Hunter, C. A., Gong, C. S., Tsao, G. T.: Biotechnol. Letters 3, (in press) (1981)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wang, P. Y., Shopsis, C., Schneider, H.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commu. 2, 273 (1980)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sims, A., Barnett, J. A., J. Gen. Microbiol. 106, 277 (1978)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chiang, L. C, Gong, C. S., Chen, L. F., Tsao, G. T.: Appl. Envion. Microbiol. (in press 1981)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Brandy, R. J., Chambliss, G. H.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commu. 29, 898 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Höfer, M., Becker, J. U., Band, K., Deckner, K., Betz, A.: FEBS Letters 3, 322 (1969)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Höfer, M., Brand, K., Deckner, K., Becker, J. U.: Biochem. J. 123, 855 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hochster, R. M., Watson, R. W.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 3284 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hochster, R. M., Watson, R. W.: Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 48, 120 (1954)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mitsuhashi, S., Lampen, J. O.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 204, 1011 (1953)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Slein, M. W.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 1663 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sanchez, S., Smiley, K. L.: Appl. Microbiol. 29, 745 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Marshall, R. O., Kooi, E. R.: Science 125, 648 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Antrim, R. L., Colilla, W., Schnyder, B. J.: In: Applied Biochemistry and Bioengineering: Enzyme Technology, (eds., Wingard, L. B. Jr., Katchalski-Katzir, E., Goldstein, L.), Vol. 2., p. 97, New York: Acad. Press 1979Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bartfay, J.: Nature (London) 185, 924 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pubols, M. H., Zahnley, J. C., Axelrod, B.: Plant Physiol. 38, 457 (1963)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Gong, C. S., Chen, L. F., Tsao, G. T.: Biotech. Bioeng. 22, 833 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lee, C. K., Long, M. E.: U.S. Pat. Reissue 29, 130 (1977)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Poulsen, P. B., Zittan, L.: In: Methods in Enzymology, (ed., Mosbach, K.), Vol. 44, p. 809, New York: Acad. Press 1976Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bengston, B. L., Lamm, W. R.: U.S. Pat. 3,654,080 (1972)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kubo, T., Komatsu, T., Kawai, K., Sugihata, T., Yamada, Y.: Japanese Pat. 77,61243 (1977)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lloyd, N. E., Khaleeluddin, K., Lamm, W. R.: Cereal Chem. 94, 544 (1972)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Strandberg, G. W., Smiley, K. I.: Biotech. Bioeng. 14, 509 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lee, Y. Y., Fratzke, A. R., Tsao', G. T.: Biotech. Bioeng. 18, 389 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Giovenco, S., Morisi, F., Pansolli, P.: FEBS Letters 36, 57 (1973)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lloyd, N. E., Khaleeludin, K.: Cereal Chem. 53, 270 (1976)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chen, L. F., Gong, C. S., Tsao, G. T.: Starch, 33, 58 (1981)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hemmingsen, S. H.: see Ref. 121, p. 157, 1979Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Park, Y. H., Chung, T. W., Han, M. H.: Enzyme Micro. Technol. 2, 227 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Whistler, R. L., BeMiller, J. N.: Advan. Carbohyd. Chem. 13, 289 (1958)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Shaw, A. J., Tsao, G. T.: Carbohyd. Res. 60, 327 (1978)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Shaw, A. J., Tsao, G. T.: Carbohyd. Res. 60, 376 (1978)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hsiao, H. Y., Chen, L. F., Gong, C. S., Tsao, G. T.: (in press 1981)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Yamanaka, K.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 151, 670 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tsumura, N., Sato, T.: Agric. Biol. Chem. 24, 1123 (1965)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Scallet, B. L., Shieh, K., Ehrenthal, I., Slapshak, L.: Starch 26, 405 (1974)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Takasaki, Y.: Agr. Biol. Chem. 35, 1371 (1971)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Barker, S. A., Somer, P. J.: In: Topics in Enzyme and Fermentation Biotechnology, (ed., Wiseman, A.), Vol. 3, p. 12, New York: Wiley 1979Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mitsuhashi, S., Lampen, J. O.: J. Biol. Chem. 204, 1011 (1953)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Campello, J. P., Veiga, L. A.: Ann. Acad. Brasil Science 45, 309 (1973)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Chad, S., Ghose, T. K.: Proc. Bioconversion Symp. IIT Delhi, p. 573 (1977)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hajny, G. J.: Appl. Microbiol. 12, 87 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Peterson, W. H., Hendershot, W. F., Hajny, G. T.: Appl. Microbiol. 6, 349 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Onishi, H.: Bull. Agr. Chem. Soc. Japan 24, 131 (1960)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Onishi, H., Suzuki, T.: Appl. Microbiol. 16, 1847 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Roxburgh, J. M., Spencer, J. F. T., Sallans, H. R.: Can. J. Technol. 34, 248 (1956)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Spencer, J. F. T., Sallans, H. R.: Can. J. Microbiol. 2, 72 (1956)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Spencer, J. F. T., Roxburgh, J. M., Sallans, H. R.: J. Agr. Food Chem. 5, 64 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Onishi, H., Suzuki, T: Agr. Biol. Chem. 30, 1139 (1966)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Spencer, J. F. T., Shu, P.: Can. J. Microbiol. 3, 559 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Onishi, H., Saito, N., Koshiyama, I.: Rep. Noda Inst. Japan 5, 28 (1961)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hajny, G. J., Smith, J. H., Garver, J. C.: Appl. Microbiol. 12, 240 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Onishi, H.: Rep. Noda Inst. Japan 4, 1 (1960)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Onishi, H.: Rep. Noda Inst. Japan 7, 26 (1963)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Onishi, H.: Rep. Noda Inst. Japan 3, 65 (1959)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Gong, C. S., Chen, L. F., Tsao, G. T.: Biotechnol. Letters 3, 125 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Onishi, H., Suzuki, T.: Appl. Microbiol. 18, 1031 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Onishi, H.: U.S. Pat. 3,619,369 (1971)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ayrapaa, T.: J. Inst. Brew. 74, 169 (1968)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Castor, J. G. B., Guyman, J. F.: Science 115, 147 (1952)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Moutonet, M.: Ann. Technol. Agric. 18, 249 (1969)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ouchi, K., Yamamoto, Y., Takagishi, M., Akiyama, H.: J. Ferment. Technol. 58, 301 (1980)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Thoukis, G.: Am. J. Enol. 9, 161 (1959)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Webb, A. D., Ingraham, J. L.: In: Adv. Appl. Microbiol., Vol. 5, New York: Acad. Press 1963Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Chen, E. C. H.: J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 36, 39 (1978)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Kunkee, R. E., Guyman, J. F., Crowell, E. A.: Sci. Technol. Proc. Spec. Intern. Symp. 1, 531 (1971)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Engan, S.: J. Inst. Brew. 76, 254 (1970)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Nord, F. F., Mull, R. P.: Adv. Enzymology 5, 165 (1966)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hesseltine, C. W.: Mycologia 57, 149 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Gong, C. S., Cheng, L. J., Tsao, G. T.: Abstract, Am. Chem. Soc. 178th Ann. Meeting, September 1979Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Gibbs, M., Cochrane, V. W., Paege, L. M., Wolin, H.: Arch. Biochem. 50, 237 (1954)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Cochrane, V. M.: Mycologia 48, 1 (1956)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Foster, J. W.: In: Chemical Activities of Fungi, Chap. 9, p. 648, New York: Acad. Press 1949Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Margulies, M., Vishniac, W.: J. Bacteriol. 181, 1 (1961)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Pelman, D.: Am. J. Bot. 37, 237 (1950)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Gleason, F. H.: Mycologia 63, 906 (1971)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Obajashi, A., Yorifuji, H., Yamagata, T., Ljichi, T., Kanie, M.: Agr. Biol. Chem. 30, 717 (1966)Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Stuart, T. D., LaForce, R. L., Gleason, F. H.: Mycologia 65, 963 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Sciarini, L. J., Wirth, J. C.: Cereal Chem. 22, 11 (1945)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Loughran, G. A., Soodak, M., Nord, F. F.: Arch. Biochem. 6, 163 (1945)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Wiley, A. J., Johnson, M. J., McCoy, E., Peterson, W. H.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 33, 606 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Batter, T. R., Wilke, C. R.: In: A Study of the Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., University of Calif. 1977Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Flickinger, M. C, Mehlberg, R. L., Gong, C. S., Chen, L. F., Tsao, G. T.: Canadian National Power Alcohol Converence, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, June 1980Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Terenzi, H. F., Stock, R.: J. Bacteriol. 97, 1248 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Peberdy, J. F.: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 33, 21 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Peberdy, J. F.: Enzyme Microbiol. Technol. 2, 23 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng-Shung Gong
    • 1
  • Li Fu Chen
    • 1
  • Michael C. Flickinger
    • 1
    • 2
  • George T. Tsao
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Renewable Resources EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Frederick Cancer Research CenterFrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations