Advertisement

Organic compounds in meteorites and their origins

  • Ryoichi Hayatsu
  • Edward Anders
Conference paper
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 99)

Abstract

C1 and C2 carbonaceous chondrites contain several percent of organic matter, mainly as a bridged aromatic polymer containing COOH, OH, and CO groups, as well as heterocyclic rings containing N, O, and S. The remaining 5–30% includes the following compound classes, either present initially or generated by solvolysis: alkanes (mainly normal), alkenes, arenes, alicyclics, alcohols, aliphatic carboxylic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other basic N-compounds, amino acids, porphyrin-like pigments, carbynes, etc.

On the basis of laboratory experiments, it appears that these compounds formed in the solar nebula, by catalytic (Fischer-Tropsch) reactions of CO, H2, and NH3 at 360–400 K, ∼ 10−5 atm. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures. Such reactions may be a source of prebiotic carbon compounds on the inner planets, and interstellar molecules.

Keywords

Solar Nebula Carbonaceous Chondrite Interstellar Cloud Lunar Planet Hydrated Silicate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

10 References

  1. Alaerts, L., Lewis, R. S., Matsuda, J. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 189–209 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, M. and Robinson, G. W.: Astrophys. J. 212, 396–415 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, W. V. and Ponnamperuma, C.: Currents in Mod. Biol. 1, 24–28 (1967).Google Scholar
  4. Alpern, B. and Benkheiri, Y.: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 19, 422–428 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anders, E.: Acc. Chem. Res. 1, 289–298 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anders, E.: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 9, 1–34 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anders, E., Hayatsu, R., and Studier, M. H.: Science 182, 781–790 (1973)Google Scholar
  8. Anders, E., Hayatsu, R., and Studier, M. H.: Astrophys. J. 192, L101–L105 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anders, E., Higuchi, H., Ganapathy, R. and Morgan, J. W.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 1131–1139 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anders, E. and Owen, T.: Science 198, 453–465 (1977).Google Scholar
  11. Anderson, R. B.: In: Catalysis IV. Hydrocarbon Synthesis, Hydrogenation, and Cyclization (P. H. Emmett, ed.), Reinhold, New York, Ch. 1–3 (1956).Google Scholar
  12. Arrhenius, G. and Alfvén, H.: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 10, 253–267 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arrhenius, G. and Raub, C. J.: J. Less-Common Metals 62, 417–430 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Asinger, F.: Paraffins, Chemistry and Technology, Pergamon Press, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  15. Bandurski, E. L. and Nagy, B.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 1397–1406 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bauer, H.: Naturwissenschaften 67, 1–6 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Belsky, T. and Kaplan, I. R.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 34, 257–278 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boato, G.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 6, 209–220 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brecher, A. and Arrhenius, G.: Nature Physical Science 230, 107–109 (1971).Google Scholar
  20. Breger, I. A., Zubovic, P., Chandler, J. C. and Clarke, R. S.: Nature 236, 155–158 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Briggs, M. H.: Nature 197, 1290 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Broten, N. W., Oka, T., Avery, L. W., MacLeod, J. M. and Kroto, H. W.: Astrophys. J. 223, L105–L107 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bunch, T. E. and Chang, S.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 1543–1577 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cain, D. G., Weitkamp, A. W. and Bowman, N. J.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 45, 359 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Calvin, M.: Chemical Evolution, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Ch. 4–6 (1969).Google Scholar
  26. Cameron, A. G. W.: Icarus 1, 13–69 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cameron, A. G. W.: In: Interstellar Dust and Related Topics (J. M. Greenberg and H. C. Van de Hulst, eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 545–547 (1973).Google Scholar
  28. Cameron, A. G. W.: In: Protostars and Planets (T. Gehrels, ed.) Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, 453–487 (1978).Google Scholar
  29. Cameron, A. G. W. and Pine, M. R.: Icarus 18, 377–406 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chang, S. and Mack, R.: Lunar Planet. Sci. IX, 157–159 (1978).Google Scholar
  31. Churchwell, E., Winnewisser, G. and Walmsley, C. M.: Astron. Astrophys. 67, 139Google Scholar
  32. Clayton, D. D.: Moon and Planets 19, 109–137 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clayton, R. N.: Science 140, 192–193 (1963).Google Scholar
  34. Clayton, R. N.: Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 28, 501–522 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clegg, R. E. S.: Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc. 191, 451–455 (1980).Google Scholar
  36. Crabb, J., Lewis, R. S. and Anders, E.: Lunar Planet. Sci. XI, 174–176 (1980).Google Scholar
  37. Cronin, J. R. and Moore, C. B.: Science 172, 1327–1329 (1971).Google Scholar
  38. Cronin, J. R. and Moore, C. B.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 853 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cronin, J. R., Pizzarello, S., and Moore, C. B.: Science 206, 335 (1979).Google Scholar
  40. Dayhoff, M. O., Lippincott, E. R. and Eck, R. V.: Science 146, 1461–1464 (1964).Google Scholar
  41. Delsemme, A. H.: In: Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites: Interrelations, Evolution, and Origins (A. H. Delsemme, ed.), Univ. of Toledo Press, 3–13 and 453–467 (1977).Google Scholar
  42. DuFresne, E. R. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 26, 1085–1114 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Eberhardt, P., Jungck, M. H. A., Meier, F. O. and Niederer, F.: Astrophys. J. 234, L169–L171 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eck, R. V., Lippincott, E. R., Dayhoff, M. O., and Pratt, Y. T.: Science 153, 628–633 (1966).Google Scholar
  45. Folsome, C. E., Lawless, J. G., Romiez, M. and Ponnamperuma, C.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 455–465 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freeman, C. G., Harland, P. W., and McEwan, M. J.: Astrophys. Lett. 19, 133–135 (1978).Google Scholar
  47. Freeman, C. G., Harland, P. W., and McEwan, M. J.: Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc. 187, 441 (1979).Google Scholar
  48. Friedel, R. A. and Sharkey, A. G. Jr.: Science 139, 1203–1205 (1963).Google Scholar
  49. Friedman, N., Bovee, H. H. and Miller, S. L.: J. Org. Chem. 35, 3230 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Friedman, N., Bovee, H. H. and Miller, S. L.: J. Org. Chem. 36, 2894–2897 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Galwey, A.: Nature 223, 1257–1260 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Galwey, A.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 1115–1130 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gammon, R. H.: Chem. Engr. News 56, 21–34 (1978).Google Scholar
  54. Geiss, J. and Reeves, H.: Astron. Astrophys., in press (1981).Google Scholar
  55. Gelpi, E., Han, J., Nooner, D. W. and Oró, J.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 34, 965–979 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gelpi, E. and Oró, J.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 34, 981–994 (1970a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gelpi, E. and Oró, J.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 34, 995–1005 (1970b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grossman, L.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 597–619 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grossman, L. and Clark, S. P., Jr.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 635–649 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grossman, L. and Larimer, J. W.: Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 32, 71–101 (1974).Google Scholar
  61. Hayatsu, R.: Science 146, 1291–1293 (1964).Google Scholar
  62. Hayatsu, R.: Science 149, 443–447 (1965).Google Scholar
  63. Hayatsu, R., Studier, M. H., Oda, A., Fuse, K. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 32, 175–190 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hayatsu, R., Studier, M. H. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 35, 939–951 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hayatsu, R., Studier, M. H., Matsuoka, S. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 555–571 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hayatsu, R., Studier, M. H., Moore, L. P. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39, 471–488 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hayatsu, R., Matsuoka, S., Scott, R. G., Studier, M. H. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 1325–1339 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hayatsu, R., Winans, R. E., Scott, R. G., McBeth, R. L., Moore, L. P. and Studier, M. H.: Science 207, 1202–1204 (1980a).Google Scholar
  69. Hayatsu, R., Scott, R. G., Studier, M. H., Lewis, R. S. and Anders, E.: Science 208, 1515–1518 (1980b).Google Scholar
  70. Hayes, J. M.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 1395–1440 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hayes, J. M. and Biemann, K.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 32, 239–267 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hayward, D. O. and Trapnell, B. M. W.: Chemisorption, Butterworths, London (1964).Google Scholar
  73. Herbig, G. H.: Mém. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liège XIX, 13–26 (1970).Google Scholar
  74. Herbst, E.: Astrophys. J. 205, 94 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hodgson, G. W. and Ponnamperuma, C.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 59, 22–28 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hodgson, G. W. and Baker, B. L.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 33, 943–958 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Huntress, W. T. Jr.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 33, 495 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Huntress, W. T. Jr. and Mitchell, G. F.: Astrophys. J. 231, 456–467 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jordan, J., Kirsten, T. and Richter, H.: Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 145–170 (1980).Google Scholar
  80. Jungclaus, G., Cronin, J. R., Moore, C. B. and Yuen, G. U.: Nature 261, 126 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kerridge, J. F., Mackay, A. L. and Boynton, W. V.: Science 205, 395–397 (1979).Google Scholar
  82. Khare, B. N. and Sagan, C.: In: Molecules in the Galactic Environment (M. Gordon and L. Snyder, eds.), J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 399–407 (1973).Google Scholar
  83. Kölbel, H. and Trapper, J.: Angew. Chem. 78, 908–909 (1966).Google Scholar
  84. Kolodny, Y., Kerridge, J. F. and Kaplan, I. R.: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 46, 149–158 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kroto, H. W., Kirby, C., Walton, D. R. M., Avery, L. W., Broten, N. W., MacLeod, J. M. and Oka, T.: Astrophys. J. 219, L133–L137 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kung, C.-C. and Clayton, R. N.: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 38, 421–435 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kung, C.-C., Hayatsu, R., Studier, M. H. and Clayton, R. N.: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 46, 141–146 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kvenvolden, K. A.: Orig. of Life 5, 71–86 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kvenvolden, K. A., Lawless, J., Pering, K., Peterson, E., Flores, J., Ponnamperuma, C., Kaplan, I. R. and Moore, C.: Nature 228, 923–926 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kvenvolden, K. A., Lawless, J. G. and Ponnamperuma, C.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68, 486–490 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lancet, M. S.: Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. of Chicago, 1972.Google Scholar
  92. Lancet, M. S. and Anders, E.: Science 170, 980–982 (1970).Google Scholar
  93. Langer, W. D., Schloerb, F. P., Snell, R. L. and Young, J. S.: Astrophys. J. 239, L125 (1980).Google Scholar
  94. Larimer, J. W.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 32, 965–982 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Larimer, J. W.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 1603–1623 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Larimer, J. W.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39, 389–392 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Larimer, J. W. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 1239–1270 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lawless, J. G.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 2207–2212 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lawless, J. G., Kvenvolden, K. A., Peterson, E., Ponnamperuma, C. and Moore, C.: Science 173, 626–627 (1971).Google Scholar
  100. Lawless, J. G., Kvenvolden, K. A., Peterson, E., Ponnamperuma, C.: Nature 236, 66 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lawless, J. G., Zeitman, B., Pereira, W. E., Simmons, R. E., and Duffield, A. M.: Nature 251, 40–42 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lawless, J. G. and Peterson, E.: Orig. of Life 6, 3–8 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lawless, J. G. and Yuen, G. U.: Nature 282, 396 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lederberg, J.: In: Biochemical Applications of Mass Spectrometry (G. R. Waller, ed.), J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 193–207 (1972).Google Scholar
  105. Lederberg, J. and Cowie, D. B.: Science 127, 1473–1475 (1958).Google Scholar
  106. Lemmon, R. M.: Chem. Rev. 70, 95–109 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Levin, B. Yu.: Russ. Chem. Rev. 38, 65–78 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Levy, R. L., Wolf, C. J., Grayson, M. A., Gilbert, J., Gelpi, E., Updegrove, W. S., Zlatkis, A. and Oró, J.: Nature 227, 148–150 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Levy, R. L., Grayson, M. A. and Wolf, C. J.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 467–483 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lewis, J. S.: Icarus 16, 241–252 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lewis, J. S. and Prinn, R. G.: Astrophys. J. 238, 357–364 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lewis, J. S., Barshay, S. S. and Noyes, B.: Icarus 37, 190–206 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lewis, R. S. and Anders, E.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 72, 268–273 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lewis, R. S., Gros, J. and Anders, E.: J. Geophys. Res. 82, 779–792 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lewis, R. S., Alaerts, L., Matsuda, J. and Anders, E.: Astrophys. J. 234, L165–L168 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. McCarthy, E. D. and Calvin, M.: Nature 216, 642–647 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Meinschein, W. G.: Space Sci. Rev. 2, 653–679 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Miller, S. L.: Science 117, 528–529 (1953).Google Scholar
  119. Miller, S. L.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 2351 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Miller, S. L., Urey, H. C., and Oró, J.: J. Molec. Evol. 9, 59–72 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mitchell, G. F. and Huntress, W. T. Jr.: Nature 278, 722–723 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Morris, M., Turner, B. E., Palmer, P. and Zuckerman, B.: Astrophys. J. 205, 82–93 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nagy, B.: Carbonaceous Meteorites, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1975).Google Scholar
  124. Nagy, B., Meinschein, W. G. and Hennessy, D. J.: Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 108, 534–552 (1963).Google Scholar
  125. Nooner, D. W., Gibert, J. M., Gelpi, E., and Oró, J.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 915–924 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Nooner, D. W. and Oró, J.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 1359–1394 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Nooner, D. W. and Oró, J.: Adv. in Chem. Ser. 178 (E. L. Kugler & F. W. Steffgen, eds.), 159–171 (1979).Google Scholar
  128. Norris, T. L.: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 47, 43–50 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Onuma, N., Clayton, R. N. and Mayeda, T. K.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 169–188 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Onuma, N., Clayton, R. N. and Mayeda, T. K.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 189–191 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Oparin, A. I.: The Origin of Life, Dover, New York (1953).Google Scholar
  132. Oró, J.: Space Life Sci. 3, 507–550 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Oró, J. and Skewes, H. B.: Nature 207, 1042–1045 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Oró, J. and Han, J.: Science 153, 1393–1395 (1966).Google Scholar
  135. Oró, J., Gelpi, E. and Nooner, D. W.: J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc. 21, 83–98 (1968).Google Scholar
  136. Oró, J., Gibert, J., Lichtenstein, H., Wikstrom, S. and Flory, D. A.: Nature 230, 105–106 (1971a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Oró, J., Nakaparksin, S., Lichtenstein, H. and Gil-Av, E.: Nature 230, 107–108 (1971b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Peltzer, E. T. and Bada, J. L.: Nature 272, 443 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Penzias, A. A.: Astrophys. J. 228, 430–434 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pering, K. L. and Ponnamperuma, C.: Science 173, 237–239 (1971).Google Scholar
  141. Pichler, H., Schulz, H. and Kühne, D.: Brennstoff-Chem. 49, 344 (1968).Google Scholar
  142. Pikovskiy, Yu. I., Bashkirov, A. N. and Novak, F. I.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Earth Sciences Section) 161, 200–201 (1965).Google Scholar
  143. Podosek, F. A.: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 293–334 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ponnamperuma, C., Lemmon, R. M., Mariner, R. and Calvin, M.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 49, 737 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ponnamperuma, C., Woeller, F., Flores, J., Romiez, M. and Allen, W.: Adv. in Chem. Ser. 80, 280–288 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Porfir'ev, V. B.: Problem of the Inorganic Origin of Oil, Naukova Dumka, Kiev (1971).Google Scholar
  147. Ring, D., Wolman, Y., Friedmann, N. and Miller, S. L.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 69, 765–768 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Robert, F., Merlivat, L. and Javoy, M.: Nature 282, 785–789 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Robert, F. and Epstein, S.: Meteoritics 15 (abstract), 355–356 (1980).Google Scholar
  150. Robert, F., Becker, R. H. and Epstein, S.: Lunar Planet. Sci. XI, 935–937 (1980).Google Scholar
  151. Robinson, R.: Nature 212, 1291–1295 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sagan, C. and Khare, B. N.: Science 173, 417–420 (1971).Google Scholar
  153. Sagan, C. and Khare, B. N.: Nature 277, 102 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Schiff, H. I. and Bohme, D. K.: Astrophys. J. 232, 740–746 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Seelig, H. S., Bowman, N. J. and Cady, W. E.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 45, 343 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Shimoyama, A., Ponnamperuma, C. and Yanai, K.: Nature 282, 394 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Smith, D. and Adams, N. G.: Astrophys. J. 220, L87–L92 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Smith, J. W. and Kaplan, I. R.: Science 167, 1367–1370 (1970).Google Scholar
  159. Snell, R. L. and Wootten, A.: Astrophys. J. 228, 748–754 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Srinivasan, B. and Anders, E.: Science 201, 51–56 (1978).Google Scholar
  161. Stephen-Sherwood, E. and Oró, J.: Space Life Sci. 4, 5–31 (1973).Google Scholar
  162. Stoks, P. G. and Schwartz, A. W.: Nature 282, 709–710 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Stoks, P. G. and Schwartz, A. W.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 563–569 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Studier, M. H., Hayatsu, R. and Anders, E.: Enrico Fermi Institute preprint No. 65–115, 19 pages (1965a).Google Scholar
  165. Studier, M. H., Hayatsu, R. and Anders, E.: Science 149, 1455–1459 (1965b).Google Scholar
  166. Studier, M. H. and Hayatsu, R.: Anal. Chem. 40, 1011–1013 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Studier, M. H., Hayatsu, R. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 32, 151–174 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Studier, M. H., Hayatsu, R. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 189–215 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Studier, M. H., Hayatsu, R. and Winans, R. E.: In: Analytical Methods for Coal and Coal Products, Vol. 2 (C. Karr Jr., ed.), Academic Press, New York, 43 (1978).Google Scholar
  170. Turekian, K. K. and Clark, S. P. Jr.: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 6, 346–348 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Urey, H. C.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 351–363 (1952a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Urey, H. C.: The Planets, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven (1952b).Google Scholar
  173. Urey, H. C.: XII Intl. Congr. Pure & Applied Chem. (Plenary Lectures), 188–214 (1953), Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  174. Urey, H. C.: Quart, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 8, 23–47 (1967).Google Scholar
  175. van der Velden, W. and Schwartz, A. W.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 961 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Vdovykin, G. P.: Carbonaceous Matter of Meteorites (Organic Compounds, Diamonds, Graphite), Nauka Publishing Office, Moscow (1967); English translation, NASA TT F-582, Washington, D.C., (1970).Google Scholar
  177. Vdovykin, G. P.: Usp. Sovrem. Biol. 87, 49–60 (1979).Google Scholar
  178. Walmsley, C. M., Winnewisser, G. and Toelle, F.: Astron. Astrophys. 81, 245–250 (1980).Google Scholar
  179. Watson, W. D.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 513 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Webster, A.: The Observatory 99, 29–30 (1979).Google Scholar
  181. Webster, A.: Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 192, 7P–9P (1980).Google Scholar
  182. Whipple, F. L.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 52, 565–594 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Whittaker, A. G.: Science 200, 763–764 (1978).Google Scholar
  184. Whittaker, A. G., Watts, E. J., Lewis, R. S. and Anders, E.: Science 208, 1512–1514 (1980).Google Scholar
  185. Winnewisser, G., Creswell, R. A. and Winnewisser, M.: Z. Naturforsch. 33a, 1169–1172 (1978).Google Scholar
  186. Wolman, Y., Haverland, W. J. and Miller, S.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 69, 809–811 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Yang, C. C. and Oró, J.: In: Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life (R. Buvet and C. Ponnamperuma, eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam (1971).Google Scholar
  188. Yoshino, D., Hayatsu, R. and Anders, E.: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 35, 927–938 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Yuen, G. U. and Kvenvolden, K. A.: Nature 246, 301–303 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Zeitman, B., Chang, S. and Lawless, J. G.: Nature 251, 42–43 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Zuckerman, B., Turner, B. E., Johnson, D. R., Clark, F. O., Lovas, F. J., Fourikis, N., Palmer, P., Morris, M., Lilley, A. E., Ball, J. A., Gottlieb, C. A., Litvak, M. M. and Penfield, H.: Astrophys. J. 196, L99–L102 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryoichi Hayatsu
    • 1
  • Edward Anders
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemistry DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA
  2. 2.Enrico Fermi Institute and Dept. of ChemistryUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations