Real-time processing of binary images for industrial applications

  • Foith J. P. 
  • Eisenbarth C. 
  • Enderle E. 
  • Geisselmann H. 
  • Ringshauser H. 
  • Zimmermann G. 
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 109)


This paper deals with problems and solutions in applications of Image Analysis Systems. Important applications are visual inspection, sensor-controlled handling and assembly, and the control of tools, machines, or processes. When designing Image Analysis Systems one must not only solve image analysis problems: the whole workplace must be engineered in order to reach practical solutions.

One particular requirement for Image Analysis Systems is the capability of real-time processing. Selected methods of image processing and analysis are discussed under this aspect. It is pointed out why practical systems perform binary image processing, and it is argued that this suffices for many practical tasks. A brief survey of existing systems shows the state-of-the-art and a discussion of applications illustrates the power of these systems.

In the third part is presented a system — ‘S.A.M.’ (for: Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) — that the authors have developed. S.A.M. is a kit whose modules can be combined into configurations that are adapted to particular tasks. S.A.M. hardware consists of three groups of modules that perform: 1) video input processing, 2) image processing and analysis (including image storage), and 3) data processing. The purpose of the second group of processors is the reduction of data (TV on-line feature extraction). Extracted features are: component labels, area, perimeter, number of holes, and centroid coordinates for up to 255 blobs in a binary image. These data are collected and highly organized by the Data Processing Modules. S.A.M. software is implemented in three layers: 1) basic software, 2) problem oriented software, and 3) operator oriented software. With the aid of S.A.M. hardware and software the analysis of complex binary images can be performed in less than 500 ms — despite the use of a micro-processor. In concluding, the authors give an example where a S.A.M. configuration was coupled with an industrial robot for grasping parts from a running conveyor belt.


Binary Image Edge Point Industrial Robot Polar Code Assembly Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

4. Literature

  1. /1/.
    Abbraham, R.G. Stewart, R.J.S. Shum, L.Y. "State-Of-The-Art in Adaptable-Programmable Assembly Systems". International Fluidics Services Ltd. (Publ.), Kempston, Bedford, UK, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. /2/.
    Agin, G.J. "An Experimental Vision System for Industrial Applications". Stanford Res. Lab., Tech. Note 103, Menlo Park, CA, USA, June 1975.Google Scholar
  3. /3/.
    Agin, G.J. Duda, R.O. "SRI Vision Research for Advanced Industrial Automation". Proc. USA-Japan Computer Conference, Tokyo, August 1975.Google Scholar
  4. /4/.
    Agin, G.J. "An Experimental Vision System for Industrial Application". Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Chicago, Ill., September 1975.Google Scholar
  5. /5/.
    Agin, G.J. (A) "Vision Systems for Inspection and for Manipulator Control". Proc. of the 1977 Joint Automatic Control Conference, pp. 132–138Google Scholar
  6. /6/.
    Agin, G.J. (B) "Servoing With Visual Feedback". Proc. 7th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Tokyo, October 1977, pp. 551–560.Google Scholar
  7. /7/.
    Agin, G. "Real Time Control of a Robot with a Mobile Camera". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Washington D.C., March 1979 pp. 233–246Google Scholar
  8. /8/.
    Agrawala, A.K. Kulkarni, A.V. "A Sequential Approach to the Extraction of Shape Features". Computer Graphics and Image Processing 6 (1977), pp. 538–557Google Scholar
  9. /9/.
    Albrecht, M. Hille, G. Karow, P. Schöne, H. Weber, J. "Teileprüfung im Automobilbau mittels Fernsehkamera und Prozessrechner". Proc. INTERKAMA 1977, Syrbe, M. & Will, B. (Eds.), Fachberichte Messen-Steuern-Regeln 1, Springer-Verlag 1977, pp. 107–117.Google Scholar
  10. /10/.
    Allen, G.R. Juetten, P.G. "SPARC — Symbolic Processing Algorithm Research Computer". Proc. ‘Image Understanding Workshop’ Nov. 78, pp. 182–190.Google Scholar
  11. /11/.
    Armbruster, K. Martini, P. Nehr, G. Rembold, U. Olzmann, W. "A Very Fast Vision System for Recognizing Parts and their Location and Orientation". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Washington D.C., March 1979, pp. 265–280.Google Scholar
  12. /12/.
    Ashkar, G.P. Modestino, J.W. "The Contour Extraction Problem with Biomedical Applications". Computer Graphics & Image Processing 7 (1978), pp. 331–355.Google Scholar
  13. /13/.
    Batchelor, B.G. (A) "A Preliminary Note on the Automatic Inspection of Male Screw Threads". Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Automated Inspection and Product Control, Nottingham, UK, April 1978, pp. 139–176.Google Scholar
  14. /14/.
    Batchelor, B.G. (B) "SUSIE: A Prototyping System for Automatic Visual Inspection". 4th Int. Conf. on Automated Inspection and Product, Chicago, Ill, November 1978, pp. 49–80.Google Scholar
  15. /15/.
    Baird, M. (A) "An Application of Computer Vision to Automated IC Chip Manufacture". Proc. 3rd Int. Joint Conf. on Pattern Recognition Coronado, CA, November 1976, pp. 3–7.Google Scholar
  16. /16/.
    Baird, M.L. (B) "Sequential Image Enhancement Technique for Locating Automotive Parts on Conveyor Belts". Gerneral Motors Res. Lab. Publ. GMR-2293, CS Dept., Warren, MI, USA, Nov. 1976.Google Scholar
  17. /17/.
    Baird, M.L. "Image Segmentation Technique for Locating Automotive Parts on Belt Convevors". Proc. Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Tokyo, Japan, Aug. 1977, pp. 694–695.Google Scholar
  18. /18/.
    Baird, M. "SIGHT-I: A Computer Vision System for Automated IC Chip Manufacture". IEEE Trans. Systems, Man & Cybernetics SMC-8 (1978) 2, pp. 133–139.Google Scholar
  19. /19/.
    Barrow, H.G. Popplestone, R.J. "Relational Descriptions in Picture Processing". in: B. Meltzer & Michie, D. (Eds.): ‘Machine Intelligence 6', University Press, Edinburgh, 1971 pp. 377–396.Google Scholar
  20. /20/.
    Barrow, H.G. Ambler, A.P. Burstall, R.M. "Some Techniques for Recognizing Structures in Pictures". in: S. Watanabe (Ed.), ‘Frontiers of Pattern Recognition', Academic Press, N.Y., 1971, pp. 1–32Google Scholar
  21. /21/.
    Birk, J. Kelley, R.B. "Orientation of Workpieces by Robots Using the Triangle Method". SME Tech Paper MR 76-612 Univ. Rhode Island, EE Dept. Kingston, RI, USA, 1976Google Scholar
  22. /22/.
    Birk, J. Kelley, R. Chen, N. (A) "Visually Estimating Workpiece Pose in a Robot Hand Using the Feature Points Method". Proc. IEEE Conf. on Decision & Control, San Diego, CA, January 1979, pp. A1-1–A1-6Google Scholar
  23. /23/.
    Birk, J. Kelley, R. et al. (B) "General Methods to Enable Robots with Vision to Acquire, Orient, and Transport Workpieces". 5th report, EE Dept., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA, Aug. 1979Google Scholar
  24. /24/.
    Birk, J. Kelley, R. et al. "General Methods to Enable Robots with Vision to Acquire, Orient and Transport Workpieces". 6th report EE Dept., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA, Aug. 1980.Google Scholar
  25. /25/.
    Bjorklund, C.M. "Syntactic Analysis & Description of Stroke-Based Shapes". Proc. IEEE Conf. Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, Troy, NY, USA, June 1977, pp. 198–202.Google Scholar
  26. /26/.
    Bolles, R.C. (A) "Robust Feature Matching through Maximal Cliques". SPIE Vol 182 ‘Imaging Applications for Automated Industrial Inspection & Assembly;Washington, D.C., USA, April 1979, pp. 140–149.Google Scholar
  27. /27/.
    Bolles, R.C. (B) "Part Acquisition Using the SRI Vision Module". Proc. 3rd IEEE Computer Software & Applications Conference COMPSAC-79, Chicago, Ill., November 79, pp. 872–877Google Scholar
  28. /28/.
    Bretschi, J. "A Microprocessor Controlled Visual Sensor for Industrial Robots". The Industrial Robot 3 (1976) 4, pp. 167–172.Google Scholar
  29. /29/.
    Brook, R.A. Purll, D.J. Jones, G.H. Lewis, D.O. "Practical Experience of Image Processing in On-Line Industrial Inspection Applications". SPIE Proc. Vol. 130, Automation and Inspection Applications of Image Processing Techniques, London, Sept. 1977, pp. 84–97.Google Scholar
  30. /30/.
    Burow, M. Wahl, F. "Eine verbesserte Version des Kantendetektionsverfahrens nach Mero/Vassy". ‘Angewandte Szenenanalyse', J.P. Foith (Ed.), Informatik-Fachbericht 20, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1979, pp. 36–42.Google Scholar
  31. /31/.
    Callen, J.E. Anderson, P.N. "Checking Labeled Bottles Electro-Optically". Electro-Optical Systems Designs, July 1975, pp. 44–46.Google Scholar
  32. /32/.
    Claridge, J.F. Purll, D.J. "Automatic Inspection & Gauging Using Solid-Sate Image Scanners". 3rd Int. Conf. on Automated Inspection and Product Control, Nottingham, UK, April 1978, pp. 31–41.Google Scholar
  33. /33/.
    Colding, B. Colwell, L.V. Smith, D.N. "Delphi Forecasts of Manufacturing Technology". International Fluidics Services (Publ.) Kempston, Bedford, UK, 1979Google Scholar
  34. /34/.
    Cronshaw, A.J. Heginbotham, W.B. Pugh, A. "Software Techniques for an Optically Tooled Bowl Feeder". 3rd Int. Conf. on Trends in On-Line Computer Control Systems, Univ. of Sheffield, UK, March 1979, pp. 145–150.Google Scholar
  35. /35/.
    Cronshaw, A. J. Heginbotham, W.B. Pugh, A. "A Practical Vision System for use with Bowl Feeders". Proc. ist Int. Conf. on Assembly Automation, Brighton, UK, March 1980, pp. 265–274.Google Scholar
  36. /36/.
    Davis, L.S. "A Survey of Edge Detection Techniques". Computer Graphics and Image Processing 4 (1975) pp. 248–270.Google Scholar
  37. /37/.
    De Coulon, D. Kammenos, P. "Polar Coding of Planar Objects in Industrial Robot Vision". Neue Technik (NT) (1977) 10, pp. 663–671Google Scholar
  38. /38/.
    Dessimoz, J.-D. "Identification et Localisation Visuelle D'Objets Multiples Par Poursuite de Contour et Codage de Courbure". Compte-Rendus Journées de Microtechnique, EPF-Lausanne, Suisse, Sept. 1978Google Scholar
  39. /39/.
    Dessimoz, J.D. Kunt, M. Zurcher, J.M. Granlund, G.H. "Recognition and Handling of Overlapping Industrial Parts". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Washington D.C., USA, March 1979, pp. 357–366.Google Scholar
  40. /40/.
    Dodd, G.G. Rossol, L. "Computer Vision and Sensor-Based Robots". Plenum Press, New York, 1979Google Scholar
  41. /41/.
    Duda, R. Hart, P. "Pattern Classification & Scene Analysis" John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 1973Google Scholar
  42. /42/.
    Duff, M.J.B. "CLIP 4 — A large Scale Integrated Circuit Array Parallel Processor." Proc. Int. Joint Conf. Pattern Recognition, Coronado, CA. USA, Nov. 1976, pp. 728–733Google Scholar
  43. /43/.
    Ehrich, R.W. "Detection of Global Edges in Textured Images". IEEE. Trans. Comp. C-26 (1977) 6, pp. 289–603Google Scholar
  44. /44/.
    Ejiri, M. Uno, T. Mese, M. Ikeda, S. "A Process for Detecting Defects in Complicated Patterns". Computer Graphics and Image Processing (1973) 2, pp. 326–339.Google Scholar
  45. /45/.
    Enderle, E. "Ein Baukastensystem für Bildsensoren zur Sichtprüfung und Prozeßsteuerung". PDV-Bericht "INTERKAMA'80", W. Hofmann, (Ed.), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, August 1980, Kfk-PDV, pp. 358–365.Google Scholar
  46. /46/.
    Eskenazi, R. Wilf, J. "Low Level Processing for Real-Time Image Analysis". Proc. IEEE Comp. Soc. 3rd Int. Comp. — Software & Applications Conference (COMPSAC '79), Nov. 79, Chicago, Ill, USA, pp. 340–343.Google Scholar
  47. /47/.
    Eversole, W.L. Mayer, D.J. Frazee, F.B. Cheek, Jr. J.F. "Investigation of VLSI Technologies for Image Processing". Proc. ‘Image Understanding Workshop', Palo Alto, CA, USA, April 1979, pp. 159–163.Google Scholar
  48. /48/.
    Feng, H.F. Pavlidis, T. "Decomposition of Polygons into Simpler Components: Feature Generation for Syntactic Pattern Recognition". IEEE Trans. Comp. C-24 (1975) 6, pp. 636–650.Google Scholar
  49. /49/.
    Flöscher, R. Partmann, T. "Sensorsystem zum automatischen Aussortieren fehlerhafter Kleinteile". Mitteilungen aus dem Fraunhofer-Institut für Informations-und Datenverarbeitung (IITB), FhG-Berichte 2–80, Karlsruhe 1980, pp. 23–25Google Scholar
  50. /50/.
    Foith, J.P. "Lage-Erkennung von beliebig orientierten Werkstücken aus der Form ihrer Silhouetten". Proc. 8th Int. Symposium on Industrial Robots, Böblingen, W.-Germany, May/June 1978, pp. 584–599.Google Scholar
  51. /51/.
    Foith, J.P. Geisselmann, H. Lübbert, U. Ringshauser, H. "A Modular System for Digital Imaging Sensors for Industrial Vision." Proc. 3rd CISM-IFToMM Symposium in Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators, Udine, Italy, Sept. 1978, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980, pp. 399–422Google Scholar
  52. /52/.
    Foith, J.P. "A TV-Sensor for Top-Lighting and Multiple Part Analysis." Proc. 2nd IFAC/IFIP Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing Technology, Stuttgart, Oct. 1979, U. REMBOLD (Ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979, pp. 229–234.Google Scholar
  53. /53/.
    Foith, J.P. Eisenbarth, C. Enderle, E. Geisselmann, H. Ringshauser, H. Zimmermann, G. "Optischer Sensor für Erkennung von Werkstücken auf dem laufenden Band — realisiert mit einem modularen System." in: H. Steusloff (Ed.): "Wege zu sehr fortgeschrittenen Handhabungssystemen", Messen — Steuern — Regeln Band 4, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1980, pp. 135–155.Google Scholar
  54. /54/.
    Frei, W. Chen, Ch.-Ch. "Fast Boundary Detection: A Generalization and A New Algorithm". IEEE Trans. on Comp. C-26 (1977) 10, pp. 988–998Google Scholar
  55. /55/.
    Fries, R.W. Modestino, J.W. "An Empirical Study of Selected Approaches to the Detection of Edges in Noisy Digitized Images". Proc. IEEE Conf. on Patt. Rec. & Image Processing, Troy, N.Y. USA, June 1977, pp. 225–230Google Scholar
  56. /56/.
    Geisselmann, H. "Griff in die Kiste durch Vereinzelung und optische Erkennung." in: H. Steusloff (Ed.): 'Wege zu sehr fortgeschrittenen Handhabungssystemen', Fachberichte Messen-Steuern-Regeln Band 4, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1980, pp. 156–165Google Scholar
  57. /57/.
    Giralt, G. Ghallab, M. Stuck, F. "Object Identification and Sorting with an Optimal Sequential Pattern Recognition Method". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Washington, D.C., USA, March 1979, pp. 379–389Google Scholar
  58. /58/.
    Gleason, G.J. Agin, G.J. "A Modular Vision System for Sensor-Controlled Manipulation and Inspection." Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots Washington D.C., March 1979, pp. 57–70.Google Scholar
  59. /59/.
    Goto, N. Kondo, T. Ichikawa, K. Kanemoto, M. "An Automatic Inspection System for Mask Patterns". Proc. 4th Int. Joint Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Kyoto, 1978 pp. 970–974Google Scholar
  60. /60/.
    Haralick, R.M. Shapiro, L.G. "Decomposition of Polygonal Shapes by Clustering". Proc. IEEE Conf. Pattern Recognition and Image Processing `77, Troy, N.Y., USA, June 1977, pp. 183–190Google Scholar
  61. /61/.
    Hasegawa, K. Masuda, R. "On Visual Signal Processing for Industrial Robot". Proc. 7th Int. Symposium on Industrial Robots, Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 1977, pp. 543–550Google Scholar
  62. /62/.
    Heginbotham, W.B. et al. "The Nottingham 'sirch’ Assembly Robot". Proc. 1st Conf. on Industrial Robots Nottinghm, UK; 1973 pp. 129–142Google Scholar
  63. /63/.
    Hill, J.W. Sword, A.J. "Programmable Part Presenter Based on Computer Vision and Controlled Tumbling". Proc. 10th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Milan, Italy, March 1980, pp. 129–140Google Scholar
  64. /64/.
    Holland, S.W. "A Programmable Computer Vision System Based on Spatial Relationships". General Motors Res. Lab. Publication GMR-2078 CS Dept., Warren, MI, USA, Feb. 1976Google Scholar
  65. /65/.
    Holland, S.W. Rossol, L. Ward, M.R. "CONSIGHT-I: A Vision Controlled Robot System for Transferring Parts from Belt Conveyors". in: ‘Computer Vision and Sensor-Based Robots', G.G. Dodd & L. Rossol (Eds), Plenum Press, N.Y., 1979, pp. 81–97Google Scholar
  66. /66/.
    Hsieh, Y.Y. Fu, K.S. "A Method for Automatic IC Chip Alignment and Wire Bonding". Proc. IEEE Conf. on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, Chicago Ill., August 1979, pp. 101–108Google Scholar
  67. /67/.
    Hueckel, M.H. "An Operator which Locates Edges in Digitized Pictures" Journal of the ACM 18 (1971) 1, pp. 113–125.Google Scholar
  68. /68/.
    Iannino, A. Shapiro, S.D. "A Survey of the Hough Transform and its Extensions for Curve Detection". Proc. IEEE Conf. on Patt. Rec. & Image Processing, Chicago, Ill, June 1978, pp. 32–38Google Scholar
  69. /69/.
    Jarvis, J.F. (A) "A Method for Automating the Visual Inspection of Printed Wiring Boards". IEEE Trans. Pami-2 (1980) 1, pp. 77–82.Google Scholar
  70. /70/.
    Jarvis, J.F. (B) "Visual Inspection Automation" IEEE Computer may 1980, pp. 32–38Google Scholar
  71. /71/.
    Kamin, G. "Der Geometrie Computer". rme 40 (1974) 3, pp. 105–109Google Scholar
  72. /72/.
    Karg, R. "A Flexible Opto-Electronic Sensor". Proc. 8th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Stuttgart, W.-Germany, May/June 1978, pp. 218–29Google Scholar
  73. /73/.
    Karg, R. Lanz, O.E. "Experimental Results with a Versatile Optoelectronic Sensor in Industrial Applications". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots Washington D.C., March 1979, pp. 247–264.Google Scholar
  74. /74/.
    Kashika, S. Ejiri, M. Sakamoto, Y. "A Transistor Wire-Bonding System Utilizing Multiple Local Pattern Matching Techniques." IEEE Trans. on System, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-6 (1976) 8, pp. 562–570Google Scholar
  75. /75/.
    Kashioka, S. Takeda, S. Shima, Y. Uno, T. Hamada, T. "An Approach to the Integrated Intelligent Robot with Multiple Sensory Feedback: Visual Recognition Techniques". Proc. of 7th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Tokyo, October 1977, pp. 531–538Google Scholar
  76. /76/.
    Kelley, R.B. Birk,J. Wilson, L "Algorithms to Visually Acquire Workpieces". Proc. 7th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 1977, pp. 497–506Google Scholar
  77. /77/.
    Kelley, R.B. Birk, J. Martins, H. Tella, R. "A Robot System which Feeds Workpieces Directly from Bins into Machines". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Washington D.C., March 1979, pp. 339–355Google Scholar
  78. /78/.
    Korn, A. "Segmentierung und Erkennung eines Objektes in natürlicher Umgebung". in: E. Triendl. (ED.): 'Bildverarbeitung und Mustererkennung', DAGM-Symposium Oct. 78, Informatik-Fachberichte Band 17, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1978, pp. 265–274Google Scholar
  79. /79/.
    Kruse, B. "A Parallel Picture Processing Machine". IEEE Trans. Comp. C-22 (1973) 12, pp. 1075–1087Google Scholar
  80. /80/.
    Levialdi, S. "Finding the Edge". Proc. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Digital Image Processing and Analysis, June 23–July 4, 1980, Bonas, France, publ. by INRIA, Le Chesnay, pp. 167–208Google Scholar
  81. /81/.
    Löffler, H. Jäger, J. "Meßverfahren der Bildanalyse zur Fertigungskontrolle feinmechanischer Präzisionsteile oder elektronischer Bauelemente". messen + prüfen/automatik, Oct. 79, pp. 755–758Google Scholar
  82. /82/.
    Martelli, A. "Edge Detection Using Heuristic Search Methods". Computer Graphics & Image Processing 1 (1972) pp. 169–182.Google Scholar
  83. /83/.
    Martini, P. Nehr, G. "Recognition of Angular Orientation of Objects with the Help of Optical Sensors". The Industrial Robot (1979) June, pp. 62–69.Google Scholar
  84. /84/.
    McGhie, D. Hill, J.W. "Vision Controlled Subassembly Station". Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) Paper No. MS78-685, 1978Google Scholar
  85. /85/.
    McKee, J.W. Aggarwal, J.K. "Computer Recognition of Partial Views of Curved Objects". IEEE Trans. Comp. C-26 (19–7) 8, pp. 790–800Google Scholar
  86. /86/.
    Mero, L. Vassy, Z. "A Simplified and Fast Version of the Hueckel Operator for Finding Optimal Edges in Pictures". Proc. IJCAI '75, Tbilisi, USSR, 1975Google Scholar
  87. /87/.
    Milgram, D.L. (A) "Region Extraction Using Convergent Evidence". L.S. Baumann (Ed.), Proc. ‘Image Understanding Workshop', Science Applications, Inc. Arlington, VA, April 1977, pp. 58–64Google Scholar
  88. /88/.
    Milgram, D.L. (B) "Progress Report on Segmentation Using Convergent Evidence". L.S. Baumann (Ed.), Proc. ‘Image Understanding Workshop', Science Applications, Inc., Arlington VA, Oct. 1977, pp. 104–108Google Scholar
  89. /89/.
    Milgram, D. Herman, M. "Clustering Edge Values for Threshold Selection". Computer Graphics and Image Processing 10 (1979), pp. 272–280Google Scholar
  90. /90/.
    Montanari, U. "On the Optimal Detection of Curves in Noisy Pictures". Communications of the ACM 14 (1971), pp. 335–345.Google Scholar
  91. /91/.
    Mori, K. Kidode, M. Shinoda, H. et al. "Design of Local Parallel Pattern Processor for Image Processing". Proc. AFIPS, Vol 47, June 1978, pp. 1025–1031.Google Scholar
  92. /92/.
    Mundy, J.L. Joynson, R.E. "Automatic Visual Inspection Using Syntactic Analysis". Proc. IEEE Conf. on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, Troy, N.Y., June 1977, pp. 144–147.Google Scholar
  93. /93/.
    Nakagawa, Y. Rosenfeld, A. "Some Experiments on Variable Thresholding". CS Report TR 626, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD, January 1978Google Scholar
  94. /94/.
    Nakagawa, Y. Rosenfeld, A. "A Note on Polygonal and Elliptical Approximation of Mechanical Parts". Pattern Recognition 11 (1979), pp. 133–142.Google Scholar
  95. /95/.
    Nakamura, K. Edamatsu, K. Sano, Y. "Automated Pattern Inspection Based on ‘Boundary Length Comparison Method'". Proc. 4th Int. Joint Conf. on Pattern Recognition Kyoto, 1978.Google Scholar
  96. /96/.
    Nawrath, R. "LEITZ-T.A.S., neue Möglichkeiten der Bildanalyse". LEITZ-Mitteilungen Wiss.-u. Techn, Band VII (1979) 6, Wetzlar, pp. 168–173Google Scholar
  97. /97/.
    Nevatia, R. Babu, K.R. "Linear Feature Extraction and Description". Proc. 6th Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Tokyo, Auf. 1979, pp. 639–641Google Scholar
  98. /98/.
    Nitta, Y. "Visual Identification and Sorting with TV-Camera Applied to Automated Inspection Apparatus". Proc. 10th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots Milan,Italy, March 1980, pp. 141–152Google Scholar
  99. /99/.
    Nudd, G.R. Nygard, P.A. Erickson, J.L. "Image Processing Techniques Using Charge-Transfer Devices". Proc. ‘Image Understanding Workshop'. Palo Alto, CA.USA, Oct. 1977, pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  100. /100/.
    Nudd, G.R. Nygard, P.A. Fouse, S.D. Nussmeier, T.A. "Implementation of Advanced Real-Time Image Understanding Algorithms". Proc. ‘Image Understanding Workshop', Palo Alto, CA. USA, April 1979, pp. 151–157Google Scholar
  101. /101/.
    O'Gorman, F. "Edge Detection Using Walsh Functions". Artificial Intelligence 10 (1978), pp. 215–223.Google Scholar
  102. /102/.
    Ohlander, R. Price, K. Reddy, D.R. "Picture Segmentation Using a Recursive Region Splitting Method". Computer Graphics and Image Processing 8 (1978), pp. 313–333.Google Scholar
  103. /103/.
    Olsztyn, J.T. Rossol, L Dewar, R. Lewis, N.R. "An Application of Computer Vision to a Simulated Assembly Task". Proc. 1st Int. Joint Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Washington D.C., Oct./Nov. 1973, pp. 505–513Google Scholar
  104. /104/.
    Panda, D.P. Rosenfeld, A. "Image Segmentation by Pixel Classification in (Gray-Level, Edge Value) Space". IEEE Trans. Comp. C-27 (1978) 9, pp. 875–879Google Scholar
  105. /105/.
    Pavlidis, T. "Structural Pattern Recognition: Primitives and Juxtaposition Relations". in: S. Watanabe (ed.) "Frontiers of Pattern Recognition, Academic Press, N.Y., 1972 pp. 421–451Google Scholar
  106. /106/.
    Pavlidis, T. "Structural Pattern Recognition". Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1977.Google Scholar
  107. /107/.
    Pavlidis, T. "A Review of Algorithms for Shape Analysis". Computer Graphics and Image Processing 7 (1978) pp. 243–258Google Scholar
  108. /108/.
    Perkins, W.A. "Model-Based Vision System for Scenes Containing Multiple Parts". Proc. Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Tokyo, Japan, Aug. 1977, pp. 678–684Google Scholar
  109. /109/.
    Perkins, W.A. "Computer Vision Classification of Automotive Control Arm Bushings". Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Computer Software & Applications Conference COMPSAC 79, Chicago, Ill., November 1979, pp. 344–349Google Scholar
  110. /110/.
    Perkins, W.A. "Area Segmentation of Images Using Edge Points". IEEE Trans. PAMI-2 (1980) 1, pp. 8–15.Google Scholar
  111. /111/.
    Prager, J.M. "Extracting and Labeling Boundary Segments in Natural Scenes". IEEE Trans. PAMI-2 (1980) 1, pp. 16–27.Google Scholar
  112. /112/.
    Prewitt, J.M.S. "Object Enhancement and Extraction". in: B. Lipkin, A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). ‘Picture Processing and Psychopictorics'. Academic Press. 1970, pp. 75–149Google Scholar
  113. /113/.
    Pugh, A. Waddon, K. Heginbotham, W.B. "A Microprocessor-Controlled Photo-Diode Sensor for the Detection of Gross Defects". Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Automated Inspection and Product Control, Nottingham, UK, April 1978, pp. 299–312.Google Scholar
  114. /114/.
    Restrick III, R.C. "An Automatic Optical Printed Circuit Inspection System". Proc. SPIE Vol. 116 'solid State Imaging Devices', 1977, pp. 76–81Google Scholar
  115. /115/.
    Ridler, T.W. Calvard, S. "Picture Thresholding Using an Iterative Selection Method". IEEE Trans. SMC-8 (1978) 8, pp. 630–632.Google Scholar
  116. /116/.
    Ringshauser, H. "Digitale Bildsensoren für industrielle Anwendungen in Sichtprüfung, Handhabung, Ablaufsteuerung und Prozeßregelung". LEITZ-Symposium ‘Quantitative Bildauswertung und Mikroskopphotometrie, Wetzlar, Sept. 79, Sonderheft MICROSCOPICA ACTA, Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart, 1980, pp. 298–302.Google Scholar
  117. /117/.
    Riseman, E.M. Arbib, M.A. "Computational Techniques in the Visual Segmentation of Static Scenes". Computer Graphics and Image Processing 6 (1977) pp. 221–276Google Scholar
  118. /118/.
    Riseman, E.M. Hanson, A.R. "Segmentation of Natural Scenes". in: HANSON & RISEMAN (Eds.): ‘Computer Vision Systems', Academic Press, N.Y. 1978, pp. 129–163Google Scholar
  119. /119/.
    Roberts, L.G. "Machine Perception of Three-Dimensional Solids." in: J. Tipett, D. Berkowitz, L. Clapp, C. Koester, & A. Vanderbrugh (Eds.), Optical and Electro-optical Information, M.I.T. Press, 1965, pp. 159–197Google Scholar
  120. /120/.
    Robinson, G.S. Reis, J.J. "A Real-Time Edge Processing Unit". Proc. of IEEE Workshop on ‘Picture Data Description and Management', Chicago, Ill., U.S.A., April 1977, pp. 155–164.Google Scholar
  121. /121/.
    Robinson, G.S. "Detection and Coding of Edges Using Directional Masks". Opt. Engr. 16 (1977) 6, pp. 580–585Google Scholar
  122. /122/.
    Rosen, C. Nitzan, D. et al. "Exploratory Research in Advanced Automation". 5th Report, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, USA, Jan. 1976Google Scholar
  123. /123/.
    Rosen, C.A. "Machine Vision and Robotics: Industrial Requirements". in: ‘Computer Vision and Sensor-Based Robots’ G.G. Dodd & L. Rossol (Eds.), Plenum Press, N.Y., 1979, pp. 3–20Google Scholar
  124. /124/.
    Rosenfeld, A. Thurston, M. "Edge and Curve Detection for Visual Scene Analysis". IEEE Trans. Comp. C-20 (1971), pp. 562–569Google Scholar
  125. /125/.
    Rosenfeld, A. Kak, A. "Digital Picture Processing". Academic Press, N.Y., 1 76Google Scholar
  126. /126/.
    Rosenfeld, A. "Interactive Methods in Image Analysis" Proc. IEEE Conf. on Pattern Recognition & Image Proc. Troy, N.Y., June 1977 pp. 14–18Google Scholar
  127. /127/.
    Rosenfeld, A. Hummel, Zucker, S. "Scene Labeling by Relaxation Operations". IEEE Trans. SMC-6 (1976), pp. 420–433Google Scholar
  128. /128/.
    Saraga, P. Skoyles, D. R. "An Experimental Visually Controlled Pick and Place Machine for Industry". Proc. 3rd International Joint Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Coronado, CA, November 1976, pp. 17–21Google Scholar
  129. /129/.
    Schärf, R. "Untersuchungen zur mehrkanaligen Bildverarbeitung und Objektseparierung". Proc. ‘Digital Image Processing', GI/NTG conference, March 1977, Munich, H.-H. Nagel (Ed.), Informatik-Fachberichte 8 Springer-Verlag, 1977, pp. 280–294Google Scholar
  130. /130/.
    Shapiro, L.G. "A Structural Model of Shape". CS Dept. Tech. Report CS 79003-R, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA, USA April 1979Google Scholar
  131. /131/.
    Slansky, J. "Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction". IEEE Trans on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-8 (1978) 4, pp. 237–247.Google Scholar
  132. /132/.
    Shirai, Y. "Recognition of Real-World Objects Using Edge Cues". in: Hanson, A. & E. Riseman (Eds.): ‘Computer Vision Systems', Academic Press, N.Y., 1978, pp. 353–362Google Scholar
  133. /133/.
    Spur, G. Kraft, H.-R. Sinning, H. "Optisches Erkennungssystem mit Halbleiterbildsensoren zur Steuerung von Industrierobotern". ZwF 73 (1978) 7, pp. 363–366.Google Scholar
  134. /134/.
    Steusloff, H. (Ed.) "Wege zu sehr forgeschrittenen Handhabungs-systemen". Fachberichte Messen-Steuern-Regeln, Band 4, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980Google Scholar
  135. /135/.
    Sterling, W.M. "Automatic Non-Reference Inspection of Printed Wiring Boards". Proc. IEEE Conf. on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, Chicago, Ill., August 1979, pp. 93–100Google Scholar
  136. /136/.
    Stockman, G.C. Agrawala, A.K. "Equivalence of Hough Transformation To Template Matching". ‘Interactive Screening of Reconnaissance Imagery’ L.N.K. Corp., AMRL-TR-76-15 Silver Spring, Md June 76 pp. 105–114Google Scholar
  137. /137/.
    Tani, K. Abe, M. Tanie, K. Ohno, T. "High Precision Manipulator with Visual Sense". Proc. 7th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Tokyo, October 1977, pp. 561–568.Google Scholar
  138. /138/.
    Tenenbaum, J.M. Kay, A.C. Binford, T. Falk, G. Feldman, J. Grape, G. Paul, R. Pingle, K. Sobel, I. Proc. Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, D.A. Walker & L.M. Norton (Eds. 1969) pp. 521–526 a.Google Scholar
  139. /139/.
    Thissen, F.L.A.M. "Ein Gerät für die automatische optische Kontrolle von Verbindungsleiterbahnmustern für integrierte Schaltungen". Philips Technische Rundschau 37 (1977/78) Nr. 4, pp. 85–96.Google Scholar
  140. /140/.
    Toda, H. Masaki, I. "Kawasaki Vision System — Model 79A". Proc. 10th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Milan, Italy, March 1980, pp. 163–174Google Scholar
  141. /141/.
    Tokumitsu, J. Kawata, S. Ichioka, Y. Suzuki, T. "Adaptive Binarization Using A Hybrid Image Processing System". Applied Optics 17 (1978) No. 16, Aug., pp. 2655–2657Google Scholar
  142. /142/.
    Tropf. H. "Analysis-by-Synthesis Search to Interpret Degraded Image Data. 1st International Conference on Robot Vision and Sensory Controls, Stratford-on-Avon, UK. April 1–3, 1981Google Scholar
  143. /143/.
    Vanderbrug, G.J. Albus, J.S. Barkmeyer, E. "A Vision System for Real Time Control of Robots". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Washington D.C., March 1979 pp. 213–231Google Scholar
  144. /144/.
    Veillon, F. "One Pass Computation of Morphological and Geometrical Properties of Objects in Digital Pictures". Signal Processing 1 (1979) 3, pp.Google Scholar
  145. /145/.
    Ward, M.R. Rossol. L. Holland, S.W. Dewar, R. "CONSIGHT: A Practical Vision-Based Robot Guidance System". Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Washington D.C., March 1979 pp. 195–211Google Scholar
  146. /146/.
    Wedlich, G. "Serienreifes Gerät zur lokaladaptiven Videosignalverarbeitung". IITB-Mitteilungen 1977 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Karlsruhe, pp. 24–26Google Scholar
  147. /147/.
    Willett, T.J. Bluzer, N. "CCD Implementation of An Image Segmentation Algorithm". Proc. ‘Image Understanding Workshop', Science Applications, Palo Alto, CA, USA, 1977, pp. 9–11.Google Scholar
  148. /148/.
    Willett, T.J. Brooks, C.W. Tisdale, G.E. "Relaxation, Systolic Arrays, and Universal Arrays". Proc. Image Understanding Workshop' Palo Alto, CA, USA, April 79, pp. 164–170Google Scholar
  149. /149/.
    Wolf, H. "Optisches Abtastsystem zur Identifizierung und Lageerkennung dreidimensionaler Objekte”. Feinwerktechnik & Messtechnik 87 (1979) 2, pp. 86–88.Google Scholar
  150. /150/.
    Yachida, M. Ikeda, M. Tsuji, S. "A Knowledge Directed Line Finder for Analysis of Complex Scenes". Proc. IJCAI '79, Tokyo, August 79, pp. 984–991Google Scholar
  151. /151/.
    Zamperoni, P. "Darstellung von Binärbildern mit Hilfe von dilatierten Kernen" in: J.P. Foith (Ed.): ‘Angewandte Szenenanalyse', Informatik-Fachbericht 20, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978, pp. 124–128.Google Scholar
  152. /152/.
    Zucker, S.W. Hummel, R.A. Rosenfeld, A. "An Application of Relaxation Labeling to Line and Curve Enhancement". IEEE Trans. Comp. C-26 (1977) 4, pp. 394–403Google Scholar
  153. /153/.
    Zurcher, J.M. "Conception D'Un Systeme De Perception Visuelle Pour Robot Industriel". Compte rendus des Journées de Microtechnique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne, 1978, pp. 175–193.Google Scholar
  154. /154/.
    Zurcher, J.-M. "Extraction de contours en traitment électronique des images II: Processeur spécialisé pour signal vidéo". Bull. ASE/UCS (Switzerland) 70 (1979) 11, 9 juin, pp. 532–536Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Foith J. P. 
    • 1
  • Eisenbarth C. 
    • 1
  • Enderle E. 
    • 1
  • Geisselmann H. 
    • 1
  • Ringshauser H. 
    • 1
  • Zimmermann G. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institut für Informations- und DatenverarbeitungKårlsruheW-Germany

Personalised recommendations