Advertisement

The conditions for total symmetry stabilizing molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons

  • Christian K. Jørgensen
Conference paper
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 43)

Abstract

Though the totally symmetric (and-non-degenerate) wave-function both represents the neutral element of Hund vector-coupling and the origin of the repetitive pattern in the Periodic Table, it has not always low energy, and groundstates having J up to 8 are known. Both in compounds and monatomic entities, Russell-Saunders coupling is usually a good approximation, and classifies the levels correctly (like electron configurations). In nuclei with even Z and N, the groundstate (with I zero) is nearly always followed by an excited state having I = 2 at energies being a function of Z and N clearly connected with M. G. Mayer's shell model. The question of constituents (also α-particles) is further studied in baryons and mesons constructed from quarks. It is still undecided whether quarks and leptons (falling in at least 3 generations) conceivably involve subquarks (such as rishons or preens) and whether an indefinite stratification of further divisibility is suggested by the observed properties. Protons and neutrons are not considered elementary particles any longer.

Keywords

Black Hole Neutral Atom Electric Dipole Moment Atomic Weight Internuclear Distance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hund, F.: Linienspektren und Periodisches System der Elemente. Berlin, Julius Springer 1927Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Condon, E. U., Shortley, G. H.: Theory of Atomic Spectra (2. Ed.) London, Cambridge University Press 1953Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Orbitals in Atoms and Molecules. London, Academic Press 1962Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Oxidation Numbers and Oxidation States. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer 1969Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Adv. Quantum Chem. 11, 51 (1978)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moore, C. E.: Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. Circular no. 467, vols. I (1949), II (1952) and 111 (1958)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Martin, W. C., Zalubas, R., Hagan, L.: Atomic Energy Levels, the Rare-Earth Elements. NSRDS-NBS 60, Washington, Nat. Bur. Standards 1978Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Modern Aspects of Ligand Field Theory. Amsterdam, North-Holland 1971Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Israeli J. Chem. 19, 174 (1980)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reisfeld, R., Jørgensen, C. K.: Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer 1977Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Gmelins Handbuch d. anorgan. Chemie, Seltene Erden 39 B1, 17 (1976)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths 3, 111. Amsterdam, North-Holland 1979Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Structure and Bonding 22, 49 (1975)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Campagna, M., Wertheim, G. K., Bucher, E.: Structure and Bonding 30, 99 (1976)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wallace, W. E., Sankar, S. G., Rao, V. U. S.: Structure and Bonding 33, 1 (1977)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Lanthanides and Elements from Thorium to 184. London, Academic Press (in preparation)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: J. chim. physique 76, 630 (1979)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Keller, C.: The Chemistry of the Transuranium Elements Weinheim/Bergstr., Verlag Chemie 1971Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Edelstein, N., Brown, D., Whittaker, B.: Inorg. Chem. 13, 563 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gruber, J. B., Morrey, J. R., Carter, R. G.: J. Chem. Phys. 71, 3982 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fricke, B.: Structure and Bonding 21, 89 (1975)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pyykkö, P.: Adv. Quantum Chem. 11, 353 (1978)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Englman, R.: The Jahn-Teller Effect in Molecules and Crystals. London, Wiley 1972Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Chimia 31, 445 (1977)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bourcet, J. C., et al.: Chem. Phys. Letters 61, 23 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reinen, D., Friebel, C.: Structure and Bonding 37, 1 (1979)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Structure and Bonding 30, 141 (1976)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sutton, L. E. (ed.): Tables of Interatomic Distances and Configurations in Molecules and Ions. London, Chemical Society 1958 and 1965Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Elton, L. R. B.: in Landolt-Börnstein, Group 1, Vol. 2 (Nuclear Radii). Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer 1967Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Griffith, J. S.: The Theory of Transition-metal Ions. London, Cambridge University Press 1961Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lucken, E. A. C.: Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Constants. London, Academic Press 1969Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lederer, C. M., Shirley, V. S. (eds.): Table of Isotopes, 7. Ed. New York, Wiley 1978Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gallagher, C., Rasmussen, J. O.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 28, 741 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trimble, V.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 47, 877 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weinberg, S.: The First Three Minutes. New York, Bantam Books 1979Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Unsöld, A.: Naturwissenschaften 63, 443 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lorenz, D., Reinhardt, M.: Naturwissenschaften 66, 390 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bohr, A., Mottelson, B. R.: Nuclear Structure. New York, Benjamin (Vol. 1) 1969 and (Vol. 2) 1975Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Green, A. E. S., Engler, N. A.: Phys. Rev. 91, 40 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zeldes, N., Grill, A., Simievic, A.: Mat. Fys. Skrifter Dan. Vid. Selskab 3, no. 5 (1967)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Myers, W. D., Swiatecki, W. J.: Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 55, 395 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hasse, R. W.: Annals Phys. (N.Y.) 68, 377 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mayer, M. G.: Phys. Rev. 74, 235 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mayer, M. G.: Phys. Rev. 78, 16 and 22 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hund, F.: Handbuch d. Physik (ed. S. Flügge) 36 (Atome II) 1 (1956)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jørgensen, C. K., Berthou, H.: Mat. fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selskab 38, no. 15 (1972)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pirner, H. J.: Phys. Lett. 85B, 190 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Klinkenberg, P.F.A.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 24, 63 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Larsson, S. E., Leander, G., Ragnarsson, I., Randrup, J.: Physica Scripta 10A, 65 (1974)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nurmia, M.: Physica Scripta (Stockholm) 10A, 77 (1974)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kolb, D.: Z. Physik A280, 143 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Myers, W. D., Swiatecki, W. J.: Nucl. Phys. 81, 1 (1966)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mottelson, B. R., Nilsson, S. G.: Phys. Rev. 99, 1615 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ragnarsson, I., Nilsson, S. G., Sheline, R. K.: Physics Reports (Phys. Lett. C) 45, 1 (1978)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Robson, D.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 876 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Feynman, R. P.: Science 183, 601 (1974)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Close, F. E.: An Introduction to Quarks and Partons. London, Academic Press 1979Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gell-Mann, M.: Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 214 (1964)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Glashow, S. L., Iliopoulos, J., Maiani, L.: Phys. Rev. D2, 1285 (1970)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Richter, B.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 251 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mulvey, J.: Nature 278, 403 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Marciano, W., Pagels, H.: Nature 279, 479 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hoshino, M.: Amer. J. Phys. 47, 573 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chanowitz, M. S.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 59 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lipkin, H. J.: Physics Reports (Phys. Lett. C) 8, 173 (1973)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Structure and Bonding 34, 19 (1978)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Drell, S. D.: Physics Today 31 (June 1978), 23 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Capra, F.: Amer. J. Phys. 47, 11 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jones, L. W.: Phys. Rev. D17, 1462 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    LaRue, G. S., Fairbank, W. M., Phillips, J. D.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 142 and 1019 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jones, L. W.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 717 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Orear, J.: Phys. Rev. D20, 1736 (1979)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    De Rújula, A., Giles, R. C., Jaffe, R. L.: Phys. Rev. D17, 285 (1978)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yock, P.C.M.: Phys. Rev. D18, 641 (1978)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Middleton, R. et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 429 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wagoner, R. V., Steigman, G.: Phys. Rev. D20, 285 (1979)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Arch. Sciences (Genève) 32, 201 (1979)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nambu, Y.: Sci. Amer. 235 (Nov. 1976), 48 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wilczek, F., Zee, A.: Phys. Rev. D16, 860 (1977)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Quigg, C.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 297 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gell-Mann, M., Ramond, P., Slansky, R.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 721 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Robinson, A. L.: Science 206, 670 (1979)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sparrow, D. A.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 625 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ruderman, M., Truran, J. W.: Nature 284, 328 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zweig, G.: Science 201, 973 (1978)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Alvarez, L. W., et al.: Phys. Rev. 105, 1127 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hubert, S., Hussonnois, M., Guillaumont, R.: Structure and Bonding 34, 1 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Franklin, J.: Phys. Rev. D21, 241 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wills, J. G., Lichtenberg, D. B., Kiehl, J. T.: Phys. Rev. D15, 3358 (1977)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dominguez, C. A.: Phys. Lett. 86B, 171 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Y. J. Ng, S. H. H. Tye: Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 6 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    King, M., Rohrlich, F.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 621 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rau, A. R. P.: Phys. Rev. A 17, 1721 (1978)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Robinson, A. L.: Science 199, 1191 (1978)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Naturwissenschaften 65, 484 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Poggio, E. C., Schnitzer, H. J.: Phys. Rev. D15, 1973 (1977)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cahn, R. N.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 80 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zee, A.: Phys. Lett. 84B, 91 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Logique et Analyse (Louvain) 7, 233 (1964) and 10, 141 (1967)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Harari, H.: Phys. Lett. 86B, 83 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Shupe, M. A.: Phys. Lett. 86B, 87 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Barut, A. O.: Phys. Lett. 73B, 310 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Barut, A. O.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1251 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Steigman, G., Olive, K., Schramm, D. N.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 239 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schramm, D., Steigman, G.: Phys. Lett. 87B, 141 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kolb, E. W., Goldman, T.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 897 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Georgi, H., Glashow, S. L.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 438 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Georgi, H., Quinn, H. R., Weinberg, S.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 451 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gross, D. J., Wilczek, F.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1343 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Politzer, H. D.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1346 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Frampton, P. H., Nandi, S., Scanio, J. J. G.: Phys. Lett. 85B, 225 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Naturwissenschaften 67, 35 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Franklin, J.: Phys. Rev. D20, 1742 (1979)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Glück, M.: Phys. Lett. 87B, 247 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lipkin, H. J.: Phys. Lett. 89B, 358 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Taylor, J. G.: Phys. Lett. 88B 291 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Quigg, C., Thacker, H. B., Rosner, J. L.: Phys. Rev. D21, 234 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Casalbuoni, R., Gatto, R.: Phys. Lett. 88B, 306 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Krolikowski, W.: Phys. Lett. 90B, 241 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Elbaz, E., Meyer, J.: preprints from Uníversíté Lyon 1 (Vílleurbanne)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ballentine, L. E.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 42, 358 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Theoret. Chim. Acta 34, 189 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fechner, W. B., Joss, P. C.: Nature 274, 347 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Marinescu, N., Stech, B.: Naturwissenschaften 63, 155 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hurst, G. S., et al.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian K. Jørgensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de Chimie minérale, analytique et appliquéeUniversité de GenèveGeneva 4

Personalised recommendations