Advertisement

Preparation and properties of star-branched polymers

  • Stanley Bywater
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 30)

Abstract

The methods available for the preparation of star-branched polymers are described. After presentation of theoretical predictions of the effect of this type of branching on the properties of polymers, available experimental data are compared and critically discussed. Thermodynamic and visco-elastic properties at infinite dilution are first presented followed by visco-elastic properties in concentrated solution and the melt. Finally the effect of star-branching on T g of low molecular weight polymers is described.

Keywords

Coupling Agent Intrinsic Viscosity Linear Polymer Star Polymer Segment Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

6 References

  1. 1.
    Schaefgren, J. R., Flory, P. J.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70, 2709 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pfannemüller, B., Burchard, W.: Makromol. Chem. 121, 1 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burchard, W., Eschwey, A., Franken, I., Pfannemüller, B.: Structure of fibrous biopolymers. Colston Papers 26, 365 (1974)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pfannenmüller, B. Burchard, W., Franken, I.: Stärke 28, 1 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Swarc, M.: Carbanions, living polymers and electron transfer processes. New York: Interscience 1968Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bywater, S.: Progr. Polym. Sci. 4, 27 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bywater, S.: Comprehensive chemical kinetics. Amsterdam: Elsevier 15, 1 (1976)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morton, M., Helminiak, T. E., Gadkary, S. D., Bueche, F.: J. Polym. Sci. 57, 471 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wenger, F., Yen, S.-P. S.: Polymer Reprints A.C.S. 3 (1) 162 (1962)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Altares, T., Wyman, D. P., Allen, V. R., Meyerson, K.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part A) 3, 4131 (1965)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meunier, J.-C., van Leemput, R.: Makromol. Chem. 142, 1 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gervasi, J. A., Gosnell, A. B.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part A1) 4, 1391 (1966)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zelinsky, R. P., Wofford, C. F.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part A) 3, 93 (1965)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hsieh, H. L.: Rubber Chem. Tech. 49, 1307 (1976)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roovers, J. E. L., Bywater, S.: Macromolecules 5, 384 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herz, J., Strazielle, C.: C. R. Acad. Sci. 272, 747 (1971)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herz, J., Hert, M., Strazielle, C.: Makromol. Chem. 160, 213 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hert, M., Strazielle, C., Herz, J.: C. R. Acad. Sci. C276, 395 (1973)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bryce, W. A. J., McGibbon, G., Meldrum, J. G.: Polymer 11, 394 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Decker, D., Rempp, P.: C. R. Acad. Sci. 261, 1977 (1965)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zilliox, J.-G., Decker, D., Rempp, P.: C. R. Acad. Sci. 262, 726 (1966)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zilliox, J.-G., Rempp, P., Parrod, J.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part C) 22, 145 (1968)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Worsfold, D. J., Zilliox, J.-G., Rempp, P.: Can. J. Chem. 47, 3379 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Worsfold, D. J.: Macromolecules 3, 514 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eschwey, H., Burchard, W.: Polymer 16, 180 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kohler, A., Zilliox, J.-G., Rempp, P.: Eur. Polym. J. 8, 627 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eschwey, H., Hallensleben, M. L., Burchard, W.: Makromol. Chem. 173, 235 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bi, L.-K., Fetters, L. J.: Macromolecules 9, 732 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Flory, P. J.: Principles of polymer chemistry. Ithaca: Cornell U. Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zimm, B. H., Stockmayer, W. H.: J. Chem. Phys. 17, 1301 (1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Burchard, W.: Macromolecules 7, 835, 840 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Burchard, W.: Macromolecules 10, 919 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burchard, W.: British Polym. J. 9, 103 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Benoit, H.: J. Polym. Sci. 11, 507 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stockmayer, W. H., Fixman, M.: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 57, 334 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Šolc, K.: Macromolecules 6, 378 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thurmond, C. D., Zimm, B. H.: J. Polym. Sci. 8, 477 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rouse, P. E.: J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1272 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zimm, B. H.: J. Chem. Phys. 24, 269 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zimm, B. H., Kilb, R. W.: J. Polym. Sci. 37, 19 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ham, J. S.: J. Chem. Phys. 26, 625 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Osaki, K., Schrag, J. L.: J. Polym. Sci. (Phys. Ed.) 11, 549 (1973)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Osaki, K.: Adv. Polymer Sci. 12, 1 (1973)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bueche, F.: J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1959 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bueche, F.: J. Chem. Phys. 20, 599 (1952)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Berry, G. C., Fox, T. G.: Adv. Polymer Sci. 5, 261 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bueche, F.: J. Chem. Phys. 40, 484 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Orofino, T. A., Wenger, F.: J. Phys. Chem. 67, 566 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Roovers, J. E. L., Bywater, S.: Macromolecules 7, 443 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Berry, G. C.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part A2) 9, 687 (1971)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Strazielle, C., Herz, J.: Eur. Polym. J. 13, 223 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Meunier, J.-C., van Leemput, R.: Makromol. Chem. 147, 191 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zilliox, J.-G.: Makromol. Chem. 156, 121 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hadjichristidis, N., Roovers, J. E. L.: J. Polym. Sci. (Phys. Ed.) 12, 2521 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Candau, F., Rempp, P., Benoit, H.: Macromolecules 5, 627 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mazur, J., McCrackin, F.: Macromolecules 10, 326 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Toporowski, P. M., Roovers, J. E. L.: Macromolecules 11, 365 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Orofino, T. A., Flory, P. J.: J. Chem. Phys. 26, 1067 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Candau, F., Strazielle, C., Benoit, H.: Makromol. Chem. 170, 165 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stockmayer, W. H.: J. Polym. Sci. 15, 595 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Berry, C. G., Orofino, T. A.: J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1614 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kurata, M., Fukatsu, M.: J. Chem. Phys. 41, 2934 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Osaki, K., Mitsuda, Y., Johnson, R. M., Schrag, J. L., Ferry, J. D.: Macromolecules 5, 17 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mitsuda, Y., Osaki, K., Schrag, J. L., Ferry, J. D.: Polym. J. 4, 24 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Roovers, J. E. L.: unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Berry, G. C.: J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4550 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yamakawa, H.: Modern theory of polymer solutions. New York: Harper and Row 1971Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Grubisic, Z., Rempp, P., Benoit, H.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part B) 5, 753 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Benoit, H., Grubisic, Z., Rempp, P., Decker, D., Zilliox, J.-G.: J. Chim. Phys. 63, 1507 (1966)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Casassa, E. F., Tagami, Y.: Macromolecules 2, 14 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Roovers, J. E. L., Hadjichristidis, N.: unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pannell, J.: Polymer 13, 277 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kato, T., Itsubo, A., Yamamoto, Y., Fujimoto, T., Nagasawa, M.: Polym. J. 7, 123 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Utracki, L. A., Roovers, J. E. L.: Macromolecules 6, 366 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Graessley, W. W., Masuda, T., Roovers, J. E. L., Hadjichristidis, N.: Macromolecules 9, 127 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kraus, G., Gruver, J. T.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part A) 3, 105 (1965)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kraus, G., Gruver, J. T.: J. Polym. Sci. (Part A 2) 8, 305 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Graessley, W. W.: Adv. Polymer Sci. 16, 1 (1974)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    de Gennes, P.: J. Chem. Phys. 55, 572 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Masuda, T., Ohta, Y., Onogi, S.: Macromolecules 4, 763 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Graessley, W. W.: Accounts Chem. Res. 10, 332 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ferry, J. D.: Viscoelastic properties of polymers. (2nd edit.). New York: Wiley 1970Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Utracki, L. A., Roovers, J. E. L.: Macromolecules 6, 373 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Roovers, J. E. L., Toporowski, P. M.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 18, 1685 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Meares, P.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 31 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fox, T. G., Flory, P. J.: J. Appl. Phys. 21, 581 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley Bywater
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of ChemistryNational Research Council of CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations