A participative approach to forward planning and system change

  • John Hawgood
  • Frank Land
  • Enid Mumford
Information System Planning And Analysis
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 65)


Forward planning and system design can be improved through the participation of the people who will eventually use the system, if they can be provided with the necessary skills. The authors have developed and tested a framework for participative forward planning and aystem design which includes a set of analytic and design procedures:

1 Variance analysis, for identifying operational deficiencies

2 Job satisfaction analysis, for measuring the lack of fit between employees' actual and preferred work situations

3 Future analysis, to identify significant opportunities and development goals

4 The BASYC approach to multi-attribute utility analysis, to compare the desirability of alternative courses of action (possibly using "fuzzy logic")

5 Socio-technical systems design, to bring human and technical factors to bear simultaneously on system improvements.


Planning Horizon Design Team Forecast Horizon Benefit Assessment Forward Planning 


  1. 1.
    LAND, F.F. Criteria for the evaluation and design of effective systems, Economics of Informatics, A.B. Frielink ed., North Holland, 1975Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ZIMA, K.P. Project-Wirtschaftlichkeitsrechnungen bei der ESSO AG, Proceedings of the Informationsform "Die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Informations-und Kommunikationssystemen", BIFOA, 1977Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    MARSCHAK, J. Economics of information systems, Journal of the American Statistical Association, March 1971Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    LEVEN, P.H. On decision and decision-making, Systems and Management Annual, 1974, R.L. Ackoff ed., Petrocelli Books, 1974Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    FLOWERDEW, A.D.J. & WHITEHEAD, C.M.E. Problems of measuring the benefits of scientific and technical information, Economics of Informatics, A.B. Frielink ed., North Holland, 1975Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ZALANY, M. Introductory notes on conflict dissolution, Proceedings of ORSA/TIMS Joint National Meeting, Philadelphia, 1976Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    DUZMOVIC, J.J. Criteria aggregation technique for evaluation, optimisation and selection of computer systems, University of Belgrade, March 1976Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ZANGEMEISTER, C. ‘Nutzwertanalyse', in The Economics of Informatics, A.B. Frielink, ed., North Holland, 1975Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    GENKINGER, P.F. Implementing ‘Nutzwertanalyse', in Economics of Informatics, A.B. Frielink, ed., North Holland, 1975Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    SIBLEY, E.H. Evaluation and selection of data base systems, Database Systems Infotech State of the Art Report, 1975Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    BUSCH, U. & KROPP, I. Kombination von Monetaren Wirtschaft-Lichkeitścrechnungen und Nutzwertanalysen, Proceedings of the Informationsforum "Die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Informations-und Kommunikationssystemen", BIFOA, 1977Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    LAND, F.F. Evaluation of systems goals in determining a decision strategy for a computer based information system, The Computer Journal, Vol.19, No.4, November 1976Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    HAWGOOD, J. Quinquevalent quantification of computer benefits, Economics of Informatics, A.B. Frielink ed., North Holland 1975Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    MUMFORD, E. Towards the democratic design of work systems, Personnel Management, Vol.8, No.9, September 1971Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    SUSMAN, G. A socio-technical analysis of participative management, Praeger, 1976Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    OZBEKHAN, H. Towards a general theory of planning, in E. Jantsch (ed.), Perspectives of Planning, OECD, 1969Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    BLAKE, R., SHEPARD, H. & MOUTIN, J. Managing intergroup conflict in industry, Houston, Gulf Publishing, 1964Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    GUSTAFSON, H.W. ‘Force-loss lost analysis', paper presented to the AWV-Fachseminar: Das Human Kapital der Unternehem, Bonn, September 1974. Quoted in A. Hopwood ‘Towards assessing the economic costs of new forms of work organisation', Accounting, Organisations and Society, 1977Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    MUMFORD, E. & PETTIGREW, A. Implementing strategic decisions, Longmans, 1975Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    DAVIS, L. Job satisfaction research: the post industrial view, Industrial Relations, Vol.10, 1971Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    TAYLOR, J.C. The human side of work: the socio-technical approach to work design, Personnel Review, Vol.4, No.3, Summer 1975Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    MUMFORD, E. Job satisfaction: a method of analysis, Personnel Review, Vol.1, No.3, Summer 1972Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    HERZBERG, F. Work and the nature of man, London, Staples Press, 1966Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    COOPER, R. How jobs motivate, Personnel Review, Vol.2, Spring 1973Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    LAND, F.F. Evaluation of systems goals in determining a design strategy for a computer based information system, Computer Journal, November 1976Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    HAWGOOD, J. Participative assessment of library benefits, Drexel Library Quarterly, July 1977Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    HAWGOOD, J. How to apply participative planning to your library policy change, Automation Benefit Appraisal Consultants, Durham, 1977Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    ZADEH, L.A. Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes, IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.SMC-3, No.1, January 1973Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    ROUSSEAU, D. Technological differences in job characteristics, employee satisfaction, and motivation: a synthesis of job design research and socio-technical systems theory, Organisational Behaviour and Human Performance, 1977, Vol.19, pp.18–42Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    EARL, M. Prototype systems for management information and control (to be published shortly)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Hawgood
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frank Land
    • 1
    • 3
  • Enid Mumford
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Automation Benefit Appraisal Consultants Ltd.DurhamEngland
  2. 2.University of DurhamDurhamEngland
  3. 3.London School of EconomicsLondonEngland
  4. 4.Manchester Business SchoolManchesterEngland

Personalised recommendations