Notes on data base operating systems

  • J. N. Gray
Chapter 3.: Issues And Results In The Design Of Operating Systems
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 60)


This paper is a compendium of data base management operating systems folklore. It is an early paper and is still in draft form. It is intended as a set of course notes for a class on data base operating systems. After a brief overview of what a data management system is it focuses on particular issues unique to the transaction management component especially locking and recovery.


Buffer Manager Intention Share High Water Mark Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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1.4. Bibliography

  1. Martin, Computer Data-base Organization, Prentice Hall, 1977. (What every DP vice president should know.)Google Scholar
  2. Martin, Computer Data-base Organization, (2nd edition), Prentice Hall, 1976. (What every application programmer should know.)Google Scholar
  3. Astrahan et. al., "System R: a Relational Approach to Database Management", Astrahan et. al., ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Marill and Stern, "The Datacomputer-A Network Data Utility.", Proc. 1975 National Computer Conference, AFIPS Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. Stonebraker et. al., "The Design and Implementation of INGRESS.", ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 1, No. 3, Sept 1976.Google Scholar
  6. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, June 1977. (describes the facilities and use of IMS and ACP).Google Scholar
  7. "IMS/VS Primer," IBM World Trade Systems Center, Palo Alto California, form number S320-5767-1, January 1977.Google Scholar
  8. "Share Guide IMS User Profile, A Summary of Message Processing Program Activity in Online IMS Systems" IBM Palo Alto-Raleigh Systems Center Bulletin, form number G320-6005, January 1977.Google Scholar
  9. CODASYL Data Base Task Group Report, April 1971. Available from ACM.Google Scholar

2.2. Bibliography

  1. DB/DC Data Dictionary General Information Manual, IBM, form number GH20-9104-1, May 1977.Google Scholar
  2. UCC TEN, Technical Information Manual, University Computing Corporation, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Lefkovits, Data Dictionary Systems, Q.E.D. Information Sciences Inc., 1977. (A buyer's guide for data dictionaries.)Google Scholar
  4. Nijssen (editor), Modeling in Data Base Management Systems, North Holland, 1976. (All you ever wanted to know about conceptual schema.)Google Scholar
  5. "SEQUEL 2: A Unified Approach to Data Definition, Manipulation, and Control." Chamberlin et. al., IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 20, No. 6, November 1976. (presents a unified data definition, data manipulation facility.)Google Scholar

3.9. Bibliography

  1. Chamberlin et. al., "Views, Authorization, and Locking in a Relational Data Base System", 1975 NCC, Spartan Press. 1975. (Explains what views are and the problems associated with them.)Google Scholar
  2. Computing Surveys, Vol. 8 No. 1, March 1976. (A good collection of papers giving current trends and issues related to the data management component of data base systems.)Google Scholar
  3. Date, Introduction to Database Systems, Addison Wesley, 1975. (The seminal book on the data management part of data management systems.)Google Scholar
  4. Date, "An Architecture for High Level Language Database Extensions," Proceedings of 1976 SIGMOD Conference, ACM, 1976. (Unifies the relational, hierarchical and network models.)Google Scholar
  5. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming: Sorting and Searching, Vol. 3, Addison Wesley, 1975. (Explains all about B-trees among other things.)Google Scholar
  6. McGee, IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1977, pp. 84–168. (A very readable tutorial on IMS, what it does, how it works, and how it is used.)Google Scholar
  7. Senko, "Data Structures and Data Accessing in Data Base Systems, Past, Present, Future," IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1977, pp. 208–257. (A short tutorial on data models.)Google Scholar

4.8. Bibliography

  1. Kimbelton, Schneider, "Computer Communication Networks: Approaches, Objectives, and Performance Considerations," Computing Surveys, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sept. 1975. (A survey paper on network managers.)Google Scholar
  2. "Customer Information Control System/ Virtual Storage (CICS/VS), System/Application Design Guide." IBM, form number SC33-0068, 1977 (An eminently readable manual on all aspects of data management systems. Explains various session management protocols and explains a rather nice message mapping facility.)Google Scholar
  3. Eade, Homan, Jones, "CICS/VS and its Role in Systems Network Architecture," IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1977. (Tells how CICS joined SNA and what SNA did for it.)Google Scholar
  4. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan. 1976. (All about SNA, IBM's network manager architecture.)Google Scholar

5.6. Bibliography

  1. Stonebraker, Neuhold, "A Distributed Data Base Version of INGRESS", Proceedings of Second Berkeley Workshop on Networks and Distributed Data, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (1977). (Gives another approach to distributed transaction management.)Google Scholar
  2. "Information Management System / Virtual Storage (IMS/VS) System Manual Vol. 1: Logic.", IBM, form number LY20-8004-2. (Tells all about IMS. The discussion of scheduling presented here is in the tradition of IMS/VS pp 3.36–3.41.)Google Scholar
  3. "OS/VS2 System Logic Library.", IBM, form number SY28-0763, (Documents the subsystem interface of OS/VS pp. 3.159–2.168.)Google Scholar
  4. "OS/VS2 MVS Supervisor Services and Macro Instructions.", IBM, form number GC28-0756, (Explains OS percolation on pages 53–62.)Google Scholar

5.7.8. Bibliography

  1. Engles, "Currency and Concurrency in the COBOL Data Base Facility", in Modeling in Data Base Management Systems. Nijssen editor, North Holland, 1976. (A nice discussion of how locks are used.)Google Scholar
  2. Eswaran et. al. "On the Notions of Consistency and Predicate Locks in a Relational Database System," CACM, Vol. 19, No. 11, November 1976. (Introduces the notion of consistency, ignore the stuff on predicate locks.)Google Scholar
  3. "Granularity of Locks and Degrees of Consistency in a Sharel Data Base", in Modeling in Data Base Management Systems. Nijssen editor, North Holland, 1976. (This section is a condensation and then elaboration of this paper. Hence Franco Putzolu and Irv Traiger should be considered co-authors of this section.)Google Scholar

5.8.8. Bibliography

  1. Alsberg, "A Principle for Resilient Sharing of Distributed Resources," Second National Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Cat. No. 76CH1125-4C, 1976, pp. 562–570. (A novel proposal (not covered in these notes) which proposes a protocol whereby multiple hosts can cooperate to provide very reliable transaction processing. It is the first believable proposal for system duplexing or triplexing I have yet seen. Merits further study and development.)Google Scholar
  2. Bjork, "Recovery Scenario for a DB/DC System," Proceedings ACM National Conference, 1973, pp. 142–146.Google Scholar
  3. Davies, "Recovery Semantics for a DB/DC System," Proceedings ACM National Conference, 1973, pp. 136–141. (The above two companion papers are the seminal work in the field. Anyone interested in the topic of software recovery should read them both at least three times and then once a year thereafter.)Google Scholar
  4. Lampson, Sturgis, "Crash Recovery in a Distributed System," Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 1976. To appear CACM. (A very nice paper which suggests the model of errors presented in section 5.8.1 and goes on to propose a three phase commit protocol. This three phase commit protocol is an elaboration of the two phase commit protocol. This is the first (only) public mention of the two phase commit protocol.)Google Scholar
  5. Rosenkrantz, Sterns, Lewis, "System Level Concurrency Control for Data Base Systems," General Electric Research, Proceedings of Second Berkeley Workshop on Distributed Data Management and Data Management, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, LBL-6146, 1977, pp. 132–145. also, to appear in Transactions on Data Systems, ACM. (Presents a form of nested commit protocol, allows only one cohort at a time to execute.)Google Scholar
  6. "Information Management System/Virtual Storage (IMS/VS), System Programming Reference Manual, IBM Form No. SH20-9027-2, p. 5–2. (Briefly describes WAL.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. N. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.IBM Research LaboratorySan JoseUSA

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