Advertisement

Study of polymers by inverse gas chromatography

  • Jean-Marie Braun
  • James E. Guillet
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 21)

Abstract

As a result of the experimental work summarized in this review the value of the gas chromatographic method for studying polymers seems to be well established. Surface and bulk properties of polymers can be measured both from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. Because of its simplicity and precision it should become the method of choice for the study of thermodynamic interactions of small molecule “probes” or solutes in systems where the polymer is the major phase. Further advances in the kinetic theory of the GC process should provide even more reliable data about time dependent processes such as diffusion, adsorption, complex formation and possibly even chemical reaction.

The use of GC to determine polymer crystallinity is of particular interest, since it is one of the few methods which do not depend on X-ray determinations of crystal structure for calibration. Presumably the method will be used more generally when suitable instruments are commercially available.

Keywords

Interaction Parameter Vinyl Chloride Infinite Dilution Vinyl Acetate Retention Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

X. References

  1. 1.
    Smidsrød, O., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 2, 272 (1969).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Purnell, J. H.: Gas chromatography. New York: Wiley 1962.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Littlewood, A. B.: Gas chromatography. New York: Academic Press 1970.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kiselev, A. V., and Yashin, Ya. I.: Gas adsorption chromatography. New York: Plenum 1969.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Young, C. L.: Chromatogr. Rev. 10, 129 (1968).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alishoev, V. R., Berezkin, V. G., and Mel'nikova, Yu. V.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 39, 105 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guillet, J. E., and Stein, A. N.: Macromolecules 3, 102 (1970).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guillet, J. E. in: New developments in gas chromatography (Ed. J. H. Purnell). New York: Wiley 1973.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guillet, J. E.: J. Macromol. Sci. — Chem. A4, 1669 (1970).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lavoie, A., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 2, 443 (1969).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Galin, M., and Guillet, J. E.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed. 11, 233 (1973).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Braun, J.-M., Lavoie, A., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 8, 311 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Braun, J.-M., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 8, 882 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Braun, J.-M.: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Toronto, 1975.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Galassi, S., and Audisio, G.: Makromol. Chem. 175, 2975 (1974).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Braun, J.-M., and Guillet, J. E.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., in press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liebman, S. A., Ahlstrom, D. H., and Foltz, C. R.: J. Chromatogr. 67, 153 (1972).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamamoto, Y., Tsuge, S., and Takeuchi, T.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 44, 1145 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gray, D. G., and Guillet, J. E.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed. 12, 831 (1974).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wallace, J. R., Kozak, P. J., and Noel, F.: SPE J. 26, 43 (1970).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Valentin, N., Chabert, B., Chauchard, J., and Edel, G.: Bull. Scient. ITF 3, 5 (1974).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perrault, G., Tremblay, M., Bedard, M., Duchesne, G., and Voyzelle, R.: Eur. Polym. J. 10, 143 (1974).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ateya, K., Chabert, B., Chauchard, J., and Edel, G.: C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 274C, 506 (1972).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chabert, B., Chauchard, J., Edel, G., and Soulier, J. P.: Eur. Polym. J. 9, 993 (1973).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chabert, B., Chauchard, J., Edel, G., Soulier, J. P., and Valentin, N.: J. Chim. Phys., Phys.-Chim. Biol. 72, 215 (1975).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nakamura, S., Shindo, S., and Matsuzaki, K.: J. Polym. Sci., B 9, 591 (1971).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Calugaru, E.-M., and Schneider, I. A.: Eur. Polym. J. 10, 729 (1974).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martin, R. L.: Anal. Chem. 33, 347 (1961).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Braun, J.-M., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 9, 340 (1976).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nesterov, A. Y., and Lipatov, Y. S.: Vysokomol Soyed. A15, 2601 (1973); Macromolecules, 8, 889 (1975).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Martire, D. E. in: Progress in gas chromatography (Ed. J. H. Purnell). New York: Wiley 1968.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gray, D. G., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 7, 244 (1974).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Courval, G. J., and Gray, D. G.: Macromolecules 8, 916 (1975).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Braun, J.-M., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 8, 557 (1975).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Braun, J.-M., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules, in press.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fujita, H., Kishimoto, A., and Matsumoto, K.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 56, 424 (1960).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cruikshank, A. J. B., Windsor, M. L., and Young, C. L.: Proc. Roy. Soc. A295, 259, 271 (1966).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Conder, J. R., and Purnell, J. H.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 1505 (1968).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Patterson, D., Tewari, Y. B., Schreiber, H. P., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 4, 356 (1971).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Roberts, G. L., and Hawkes, S. J.: J. Chromatogr. Sci. 11, 16 (1973).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Delmas, G., Patterson, D., and Somcynsky, T.: J. Polym. Sci. 57, 79 (1962); Patterson, D.: J. Polym. Sci., C 16, 3379 (1968).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Flory, P. J., Orwoll, R. A., and Vrij, A.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86, 3507, 3515 (1964); Orwoll, R. A., and Flory, P. J.: ibid. 89, 6814, 6822 (1967); Eichinger, B. E., and Flory, P. J.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 2035 (1968).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Prigogine, I., (with A. Mathot and A. Bellemans): The molecular theory of solutions. Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co. 1957.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Summers, W. R., Tewari, Y. B., and Schreiber, H. P.: Macromolecules 5, 12 (1972).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tewari, Y. B., and Schreiber, H. P.: Macromolecules 5, 329 (1972).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chahal, R. S., Kao, W. P., and Patterson, D.: JCS Faraday I 69, 1834 (1973).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Morimoto, S.: Makromol. Chem. 133, 197 (1970).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hammers, W. E., and DeLigny, C. L.: Rec. Trav. Chim. 90, 912 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hammers, W. E., and DeLigny, C. L.: J. Polym. Sci., C 39, 273 (1972).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Marcille, P., Audebert, R., and Quivoron, C.: C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, C 277, 9 (1973); J. Chim. Phys. 1, 78 (1975).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Newman, R. D., and Prausnitz, J. M.: AIChE J. 19, 704 (1973); J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1492 (1972).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leung, Y. K., and Eichinger, B. E.: J. Phys. Chem. 78, 60 (1974); Macromolecules 7, 685 (1974).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schreiber, H. P., Tewari, Y. B., and Patterson, D.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 11, 15 (1973).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Patterson, D., Tewari, Y. B., and Schreiber, H. P.: JCS Faraday II 68, 885 (1972).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lichtenthaler, R. N., Liu, D. D., and Prausnitz, J. M.: Ber. Buns. Gesellsch. 78, 470 (1974).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lichtenthaler, R. N., Abrams, D. S., and Prausnitz, J. M.: Can. J. Chem. 51, 3071 (1973).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hammers, W. E., and DeLigny, C. L.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 12, 2065 (1974).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hammers, W. E., Bos, B. C., Loomans, Y. J. W. A., and DeLigny, C. L.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 13, 401 (1975).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Covitz, F. H., and King, J. W.: J. Polym. Sci., A1 10, 689 (1972).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Varsano, J. L., and Gilbert, S. G.: J. Pharm. Sci. 62, 87 92 (1973).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gosh, S. K.: Makromol. Chem. 143, 181 (1971).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Newman, R. D., and Prausnitz, J. M.: AIChE J. 19, 704 (1973).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cheng, Y. L., and Bonner, D. C.: Macromolecules 7, 687 (1974); Chang, Y. H., and Bonner, D. C.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 19, 2439 (1975).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lichtenthaler, R. N., Newman, R. D., and Prausnitz, J. M.: Macromolecules 6, 650 (1973).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lichtenthaler, R. N., Prausnitz, J. M., Su, C. S., Schreiber, H. P., and Patterson, D.: Macromolecules 7, 136 (1974).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lichtenthaler, R. N., Liu, D. D., and Prausnitz, J. M.: Macromolecules 7, 565 (1974).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Reichert, K. H.: J. Oil Col. Chem. Assoc. 54, 887 (1971).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Newman, R. D., and Prausnitz, J. M.: J. Paint Techn. 45, no. 585, 33 (1973).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    McCathern, V. R., and Thompson, D. C.: Rubber World 167, 33 (1972).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Conder, J. R., and Purnell, J. H.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 3100 (1968); 65, 824, 839 (1969).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Brockmeier, N. F., McCoy, R. W., and Meyer, J. A.: Macromolecules, 5, 130, 1464 (1972); 6, 176 (1973).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Brockmeier, N. F., Carlson, R. E., and McCoy, R. W.: AIChE J. 19, 1133 (1973).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chang, Y. H., and Bonner, D. C.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 19, 2457 (1975).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Deshpande, D. D., Patterson, D., Schreiber, H. P., and Su, C. S.: Macromolecules 7, 530 (1974).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Patterson, D., and Schreiber, H. P.: Soc. Plast. Eng., Tech. Pap. 21, 120 (1975).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Su, C. S., Patterson, D., and Schreiber, H. P.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 20, 1025 (1976).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nesterov, A. E., and Lipatov, Y. S.: Vysokomol. Soyed. A16, 1919 (1974).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nesterov, A. E., and Lipatov, Y. S.: Vysokomol. Soyed. A17, 671 (1975).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Olabisi, O.: Macromolecules 8, 316 (1975).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Purnell, J. H., and Vargas de Andrade, J. M.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 3585, 3590 (1975); Laub, R. J., and Purnell, J. H.: ibid., 98, 30, 35 (1976).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    McCrea, P. F. in: New Developments in gas chromatography (Ed. J. H. Purnell). New York: Wiley 1973.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gray, D. G., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 4, 129 (1971).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stein, A. N., Gray, D. G., and Guillet, J. E.: Br. Polym. J. 3, 175 (1971).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Braun, J.-M., and Guillet, J. E.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 13, 1119 (1975).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Courval, G., and Gray, D. G.: Macromolecules 8, 326 (1975).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nesterov, A. E., and Lipatov, Y. S.: Sint. Fiz. — Khim. Polim. 15, 60 (1975).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Braun, J.-M., and Guillet, J. E.: manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hollis, O. L.: Anal. Chem. 38, 309 (1966).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gearhart, H. L., and Burke, M. F.: J. Chromatogr. Sci. 11, 411 (1973); Rakshieva, N. R., Novak, J., Vicar, S., and Janak, J.: J. Chromatogr. 91, 51 (1974).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gluekauf, E.: J. Chem. Soc., 1302 (1947).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Edel, G., and Chabert, B.: C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris C268, 226 (1969); ibid. C267, 54 (1968).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gray, D. G., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 5, 316 (1972).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mohlin, U. B., and Gray, D. G.: J. Coll. Interf. Sci. 47, 747 (1974).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Houriet, J. P., Ghiste, P., and Stoeckli, F.: Helv. Chim. Acta 57, 851 (1974).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Janneret, C., and Stoeckli, H. F.: ibid., 56, 2509 (1973).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stoeckli, H. F.: ibid., 55, 101 (1972).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tremaine, P. R., and Gray, D. G.: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday I 71, 2170 (1975).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Huber, J. F. K., and Gerritse, R. G.: J. Chromatogr. 58, 137 (1971).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tremaine, P. R., and Gray, D. G.: Anal. Chem. 48, 380 (1976).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    DeVries, M. J., and Smit, J. H.: J. S. Afr. Chem. Inst. 20, 11 (1967); Smit, J. H., Smith, J. H., and DeVries, M. J.: ibid., 20, 144 (1967).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sund, E., Haanaes, E., Smidsrød, O., and Ugelstad, J.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 16, 1869 (1972).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Salovey, R., Cortellucci, R., and Roaldi, A.: Polym. Eng. Sci. 14, 120 (1974).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kiselev, A. V., Kovaleva, N. V., Khopina, V. V., and El'tekov, Y. A.: Vyskomol. Soyed. A16, 1142 (1974).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Van Deemter, J. J., Zuiderweg, F. J., and Klinkenberg, A.: Chem. Eng. Sci. 5, 271 (1956).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gray, D. G., and Guillet, J. E.: Macromolecules 6, 223 (1973).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Braun, J.-M., Poos, S., and Guillet, J. E.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed., in press.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Perrault, G., Duchesne, G., and Tremblay, M.: Eur. Polym. J. 10, 747 (1974).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    H. Niederstrass, H., Dr. rer. nat., Braunschweig, 1975.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hsiung, P. L., and Cates, D. M.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 19, 3051 (1975).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Maloney, D. P., and Prausnitz, J. M.: AIChE J. 22, 74 (1976).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Maloney, D. P., and Prausnitz, J. M.: Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Res. Dev. 15, 216 (1976).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stiel, L. I., and Harnish, D. F.: AIChE J. 22, 117 (1976).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sunol, A. B., and Barker, P. E.: J. Chromatogr. Sci. 13, 541 (1975).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bonner, D. C.: J. Macromol. Sci., Rev. Chem. C13, 263 (1975).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Martire, D. E.: Anal. Chem. 48, 398 (1976).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kong, J. M., and Hawkes, S. J.: Macromolecules 8, 685 (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Marie Braun
    • 1
  • James E. Guillet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations