In-situ records of interplanetary dust particles — methods and results

  • H. Fechtig
2 In Situ Measurements of Interplanetary Dust 2.1 Measurements from Satellites and Space Probes
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 48)


A review is given on the techniques used to record and to quantitatively measure data of individual interplanetary dust particles. New developments in detection techniques are briefly discussed.

The main results from recent space missions at about 1 AU and in the earth-moon neighborhood are discussed and compared with the flux results from lunar microcrater studies. Spatial anisotropies and time fluctuations are found indicating that the earth is exposed to two main micrometeoroid dust populations: the “apex”-population and the β-meteoroids. The near planet-dust enrichments measured by HEOS 2 near the earth and by the Pioneer 10/11 near Jupiter are emphasized. The experimental data strongly suggest a fragmentation process associated with the earth. The role of the moon as a dust source is discussed. The important problems in the dust field for future space missions are summarized.


Dust Particle Lunar Surface Dust Cloud Meteor Shower Interplanetary Dust 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, N.G., and Smith, D. (1971), “Studies of Microparticle Impact Phenomena leading to the Development of a highly sensitive Micrometeoroid Detector”, Planet. Space Sci. 19, 195.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, W.M., Arthur, C.W., Bohn, J.L., Johnson, J.H., and Farmer, B.J. (1972), “Lunar Explorer 35: 1970 Dust Particle Data and Shower related picogram Ejecta Orbits”, Space Research X, 287.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, W.M., and Bohn, J.L. (1974), “Mariner 4: A Study of Cumulative Flux of Dust Particles over a Heliocentric Range of 1–1,56 AU 1964–1967”, Space Research XIV, 749.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, W.M., McCracken, C.W., Secretan, L., and Berg, O.E. (1963), “Review of direct Measurements of Interplanetary Dust from Satellites and Probes”, Space Research III, 891.Google Scholar
  5. Alvarez, J.M. (1976), “The Cosmic Dust Environment at Earth, Jupiter and Interplanetary Space: Results from Langley Experiments on MTS, Pioneer 10, and Pioneer 11”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  6. Auer, S. (1975) “Two high Resolution Velocity Vector Analyzers for Cosmic Dust Particles”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 127.Google Scholar
  7. Bedford, D.K. (1975), “Observations of the Micrometeoroid Flux from Prospero”, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 343, 277.Google Scholar
  8. Bedford, D.K., Adams, N.G., and Smith, D. (1975), “The Flux and Spatial Distribution of Micrometeoroids in the Near-Earth Environment”, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 1451.Google Scholar
  9. Berg, O.E., and Gerloff, U. (1971), “More than two Years of Micrometeorite Data from two Pioneer Satellites”, Space Research XI, 225.Google Scholar
  10. Berg, O.E., and Grün, E. (1973), “Evidence of Hyperbolic Cosmic Dust Particles”, Space Research XIII, 1047.Google Scholar
  11. Bigg, E.K., and Thomson, W.J., (1969), “Daytime Photograph of a Group of Meteor Trails”, Nature 222, 156.Google Scholar
  12. Blanford, G.E., Fruland, R.M., McKay, D.S., and Morrison, D.A. (1974), “Lunar Surface Phenomena: Solar Flare Track Gradients, Microcraters, and Acretionary Particles”, Proc. Fifth Lunar Sci. Conf., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 5, Vol. 3, p. 2501.Google Scholar
  13. Dietzel, H., Eichhorn, G., Fechtig, H., Grün, E., Hoffmann, H.-J., and Kissel, J. (1973), “The HEOS 2 and Helios Micrometeoroid Experiments”, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 6, 209.Google Scholar
  14. Dohnanyi, J.S. (1970), “On the origin and Distribution of Meteoroids”, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 3468.Google Scholar
  15. Dohnanyi, J.S. (1972), “Interplanetary Objects in Review: Statistics of their Masses and Dynamics”, Icarus 17, 1.Google Scholar
  16. Dohnanyi, J.S. (1975), “Gruppen von Mikrometeoriten im Erde-Mond System”, Jahrestagung der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, Berlin.Google Scholar
  17. Dohnanyi, J.S. (1976), “Sources of Interplanetary Dust: Asteroids”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  18. Eichhorn, G. (1976), “Analysis of the Hypervelocity Impact Process from Impact Flash Measurements”, Planet. Space Sci., in press.Google Scholar
  19. Fechtig, H. (1973), “Cosmic Dust in the Atmosphere and in the Interplanetary Space at 1 AU Today and in the Early Solar System” in “Evolutionary and Physical Properties of Meteoroids", ed. C.L. Hemenway, P.M. Millman, A.F. Cook, p. 209, NASA SP-319.Google Scholar
  20. Fechtig, H., and Feuerstein, M. (1970), “Particle Collection Results from a Rocket Flight on August 1, 1968”, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6736.Google Scholar
  21. Fechtig, H., Gentner, W., Hartung, J.B., Nagel, K., Neukum, G., Schneider, E., and Storzer, D. (1974), “Microcraters on Lunar Samples”, Soviet-American Conference on Cosmochemistry of the Moon and the Planets, Moscow.Google Scholar
  22. Fechtig, H., Hartung, J.B., Nagel, K., Neukum, G., and Storzer, D. (1974), “Lunar Microcrater Studies, derived Meteoroid Fluxes, and Comparison with Satellite-borne Experiments”, Proc. Fifth Lunar Sci. Conf., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 5, Vol. 3, p. 2463.Google Scholar
  23. Fechtig, H., and Hemenway, C.L. (1976), “Near Earth Fragmentation of Cosmic Dust”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  24. Gault, D.E., Shoemaker, E.M., and Moore, H.J. (1963), “Spray Ejected from the Lunar Surface by Meteoroid Impact”, NASA Report NASA TND-1767.Google Scholar
  25. Giese, R.H., and Grün, E. (1976), “The Compatibility of recent Micrometeorite Flux Curves with Observations and Models of the Zodiacal Light”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  26. Hartung, J.B., and Storzer, D. (1974), “Meteoroid Mass Distributions and Fluxes from Microcraters on Lunar Sample 15205”, Space Research XIV, 719.Google Scholar
  27. Hemenway, C.L. (1973), “Collections of Cosmic Dust”, Whipple-Symposium, in press.Google Scholar
  28. Hemenway, C.L. (1976), “Submicron Particles from the Sun”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  29. Hemenway, C.L., and Hallgren, D.S. (1970), “Time Variation of the Altitude Distribution of the Cosmic Dust Layer in the Upper Atmosphere”, Space Research X, 272.Google Scholar
  30. Hemenway, C.L., Hallgren, D.S., and Schmalberger, D.C. (1972), “Stardust”, Nature 238, 256.Google Scholar
  31. Hemenway, C.L., Hallgren, D.S., and Tackett, C.D. (1974), “Near Earth Cosmic Dust Results from S-149”, AIAA/AGU Conference on Scientific Experiments of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama.Google Scholar
  32. Hemenway, C.L., and Soberman, R.K. (1962), “Studies of Micrometeorites obtained from a recoverable Sounding Rocket”, Astron. J. 67, 256.Google Scholar
  33. Hoffmann, H.-J., Fechtig, H., Grün, E., and Kissel, J. (1975a), “First Results of the Micrometeoroid Experiment S 215 on the HEOS 2 Satellite”, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 215.Google Scholar
  34. Hoffmann, H.-J., Fechtig, H., Grün, E., and Kissel, J. (1975b), “Temporal Fluctuations and Anisotropy of the Micrometeoroid Flux in the Earth-Moon System”, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 985.Google Scholar
  35. Hörz, F., Brownlee, D.E., Fechtig, H., Hartung, J.B., Morrison, D.A., Neukum, G., Schneider, E., Vedder, J.F., and Gault, D.E. (1975), “Lunar Microcraters: Implications for the Micrometeoroid Complex”, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 151.Google Scholar
  36. Huebner, W.F. (1970), “Dust from Cometary Nuclei”, Astron. Astrophys. 5, 286.Google Scholar
  37. Hughes, D.W. (1974), “Meteorites which “bounce” off the Earth”, Nature 247, 423.Google Scholar
  38. Humes, D.H., Alvarez, J.M., O'Neal, R.L., and Kinard, W.H. (1974), “The Interplanetary and Near Jupiter Meteoroid Environments”, J. Geophys. Res. 25, 3677.Google Scholar
  39. Kaiser, C.B. (1970), “The Thermal Emission of the F-Corona”, Astrophys. J. 159, 77.Google Scholar
  40. Kassel, Jr., P.C. (1973), “Characteristics of Capacitor-Type Micrometeoroid Flux Detectors when Impacted with Simulated Micrometeoroids”, NASA Technical Report TN D-7359.Google Scholar
  41. Mac Queen, R.M. (1968), “Infrared Observations of the Outer Solar Corona”,. Astrophys. J. 154, 1059.Google Scholar
  42. Millman, P.M. (1970), “Meteor Showers and Interplanetary Dust”, Space Research X, 260.Google Scholar
  43. Millman, P.M., and McIntosh, B.A. (1964), “Meteor Radar Statistics I”, Canadian J. Phys. 42, 1730.Google Scholar
  44. Millman, P.M., and McIntosh, B.A. (1966), “Meteor Radar Statistics II”, Canadian J. Phys. 44, 1593.Google Scholar
  45. Nagel, K., Fechtig, H., Schneider, E., and Neukum, G. (1976), “Micrometeorite Impact Craters on Skylab Experiment S 149”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  46. Nazarova, T., and Rybakov, A. (1974), “The Meteoric Particle Space Density Near the Earth and the Moon, according to Data obtained by Simultaneous Observations of Space Vehicles”, Space Research XIV, 773.Google Scholar
  47. Nazarova, T., and Rybakov, A. (1975), “The Meteoric Matter Investigations on Mars-7 and Luna-22 Space Probes”, COSPAR-Meeting 1975, Varna/Bulgaria.Google Scholar
  48. Nilsson, C.S. (1966), “Some Doubts about the Earth's Dust Cloud”, Science 153, 1242.Google Scholar
  49. Peterson, A.W. (1967), “Multicolor Photometry of the Zodiacal Light”, in “The Zodiacal Light and the Interplanetary Medium”, ed. J.L. Weinberg, p. 23, NASA SP-150.Google Scholar
  50. Rauser, P. (1974), “Microparticle Detector based on the Energy Gap Disappearance of Semiconductors (Se, I, Te, Bi, Ge, Sn, Si and InSb) at high Pressure”, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4869.Google Scholar
  51. Rawcliffe, R.D., Bartky, C.D., Li, F., Gordon, E., and Carta, D. (1974), “Meteor of August 10, 1972”, Nature 247, 449.Google Scholar
  52. Schneider, E. (1975), “Impact Ejecta Exceeding Lunar Escape Velocity”, The Moon 13, 173.Google Scholar
  53. Schneider, E., Storzer, D., Hartung, J.B., Fechtig, H., and Gentner, W. (1973), “Microcraters on Apollo 15 and 16 Samples and corresponding Cosmic Dust Fluxes”, Proc. Fourth Lunar Sci. Conf., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 4, Vol. 3, p. 3277.Google Scholar
  54. Sekanina, Z. (1976), “Modeling of the Orbital Evolution of Vaporizing Dust Particles Near the Sun”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, D., Adams, N.G., and Khan, H.A. (1974), “Flux and Composition of Micrometeoroids in the Diameter Range 1–10 μm”, Nature 252, 101.Google Scholar
  56. Whipple, F.L. (1976), “Sources of Interplanetary Dust”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  57. Wyatt, S.P., and Whipple, F.L. (1950), “The Poynting Robertson Effect on Meteor Orbits”, Astrophys. J. 111, 134.Google Scholar
  58. Yeates, C.M., Nock, K.T., and Newburn, R.L. (1976), “Mariner Mission to Encke 1980”, This Volume.Google Scholar
  59. Zook, H.A. (1975), “Hyperbolic Cosmic Dust: Its Origin and its Astrophysical Significance”, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 1391.Google Scholar
  60. Zook, H.A., and Berg, O.E. (1975), “A Source for Hyperbolic Cosmic Dust Particles”, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 183.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Fechtig
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für KernphysikHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations