The Intermediate State in Fission and Shape Isomers

  • Daniel Sperber
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 22)


The purpose of the present paper is to survey different versions for the calculation of 1) isomer ratios for shape (fission isomers), 2) the ratio between the cross section for isomeric (fission) and prompt fission and the ratio between the cross section for neutron evaporation to prompt fission. The models discussed for the evaluation of the above observable quantities are based on the statistical compound nucleus model. Although the models have much in common they differ in detail. Certain models are time dependent but no explicitly energy dependent. Others are energy dependent but time dependent. An energy dependent model is discussed in detail. In this model the neutron evaporation is discussed in a rigorous way. Also in the latter calculation there are no adjustable parameters. All parameters are obtained from other sources. The predictions of the theory are compared with experiments. Very good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.


Potential Surface Compound Nucleus Isomeric State Isomer Ratio Observable Quantity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bjørnholm, S., Borggreen, J., Westgaard, L. and Karnaukov, V.A., Nucl. Phys. A95, 513 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blatt, J.M. and Weisskopf, V.F., Theoretical Nuclear Physics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1952) p. 389.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bohr, A. and Mottelson, B.R., in Beta and Gammy Spectroscopy, Edited by K. Sieagbahn (North Holland Publishing House, Amsterdam, 1955) p. 448.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bohr, N. and Wheeler, J.A., Phys. Rev. 56, 426 (1939).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Britt, H.C., Burnett, S.C., Erkkila, B.H., Lynn, J.E. and Stein, W.E., Phys. Rev. C4, 1444 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Britt, H.C. and Cranier, J.D., Phys. Rev. C2, 1758 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Britt, H.C, private communication.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cramer, D. and Nix, J.R., Phys. Rev. C2, 1048 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elwyn, A.J. and Ferguson, T.G., Nucl. Phys. A148, 337 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flerov, G.N., Pleve, A.A., Polikanow, S.M., Tretyakova, S.P., Montalogu, N., Poenaru, D., Sezon, M., Vilcov, I. and Vilcov, N., Nucl. Phys. A97, 444 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Flerov, G.N. and Polikanov, S.M., Comptes Rendus du Congress Inter national de Physique Nucleaire, edited by P. Gugenberger (Edition du Centre National de la Researche Scientifique, Paris, 1964). p. 407.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gangransky, Yu., Gavinkov, K.A., Markov, B.N., Kahn, N.K. and Polikanov, S.M., Yad. Fiz. 10, 65 (1969) (English translation: Soviet Journal of Nucl. Phys. 10, 38 (1970)).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gilbert, A. and Cameron, A.G.W., Cand. J. Phys. 43, 1446 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Greiner, W., private communication.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hill, D.L. and Wheeler, J.A., Phys. Rev. 89, 1102 (1953).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huizenga, J.R. and Vandenbosch, R., Phys. Rev. 120, 1305 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vandenbosch, R. and Huizenga, J.R., Phys. Rev. 120, 1313 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    Jackson, J.D., Cand. J. Phys. 34, 767 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Jagare, S., Nucl. Phys. A137, 241 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Jagare, S., Nucl. Phys. A103, 241 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Jungclaussen, H., Yad. Fiz. 7, 88 (1968) (English translation Soviet J. of Nucl. Phys. 7, 60 (1968)).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Lask, N.L., Slelten, G.S., Pederson, J. and Bjørnholm, S., Nucl. Phys. A139, 481 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Liggett, G. and Sperber, D., Phys. Rev. C2, 447 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Lynn, J.E., in Theory of Neutron Resonance Reactions (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1968).Google Scholar
  25. Lynn, E., in Physics and Chemistry of Fission, Procedings of a Symposium, Vienna, July 28–aug. 1, 1969 (IAEA, Vienna 1969) p. 249.Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    Malkin, J.D., At. Energ. (USSR) 15, 158 (1963) (trans. Soviet J. Atomic Energ. 15 851 (1964)Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    Mandler, J.W. and Sperber, D., NucL. Phys. A113, 689 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    Examples for the calculation of potential surfaces and shell corrections are given in this list of references, which is by no means complete. Mosel, U., Phys. Rev. Let. 25, 678 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Baba, H., Nucl. Phys. A-159, 625 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scharnweber, D., Greiner, W. and Mosel, U., Nucl. Phys. A-164, 257 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gneuss, G. and Greiner, W., Nucl. Phys. A-171, 449 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pashkevich, V.V., Nucl. Phys. A-169, 257 (1971).Google Scholar
  33. Gaeev, F.A., Ivanova, S.P., Pashkevich, V.V., Sov. Jour. Nucl. Phys. 11, 667 (1970).Google Scholar
  34. Adeev, G.D., Gamalya, I.A. and Cherdantsev, P.A., Sov. Jour. Nucl. Phys. 12, 148 (1971).Google Scholar
  35. Ramamurthy, V.S., Kapoor, S.S. and Kataria, S.K., Phys. Rev. Let. 25, 386 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nilsson, S.G., et al., Nucl. Phys. A-131, 1 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsang, C.F. and Nilsson, S.G., Nucl. Phys. A-140, 289 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bassichis, W.H. and Kerman, A.K., Phys. Rev. C-2, 1768 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Larsson, S.E., Ragnarsson, I. and Nilsson, S.G., Phys. Let. 38B, 269 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gotz, U, Pauli, H.G., Alder, K., Junker, K., Phys. Let. 38B, 274 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Brack, M., Damgaard, J., Jensen, A.S., Pauli, H.C., Strutinskii, V.M., Wong, C.Y., Rev. Mod. Phys. Vol. 44, 321 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hasse, R.E., Nucl. Phys. A-128, 609 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nilsson, B., Nucl. Phys. A-129, 445 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moller, P. and Nillson, B., Phys. Let. 31B, 171 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Moller, P. and Nilsson, S.G., Phys. Let. 31B, 283 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bjørnholm, S. and Strutinskii, V.M., Nucl. Phys. A-136, 1 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moller, P., Nucl. Phys. A-142, 1 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Scharnweber, D., Mosel, U. and Greiner, W., Phys. Rev. Let. 24, 601 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Bunatian, G.G., Kolomietz, V.M. and Strutinsky, V.M., Nucl. Phys. A-188, 225 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ross, C.K. and Bhaduri, R.K., Nucl. Phys. A-188, 566 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ledergerber, T. and Pauli, H.C., Phys. Let. 39B, 307 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gotz, U., Pauli, H.C. and Junker, K., Phys. Let. 39B, 436 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Adeev, G.D. and Cherdantsev, P.A., Phys.Let. 39B, 485 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Faessler, A., Gotz, U., Slavov, B., Ledergerber, T., Phys. Let. 39B, 579 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moretto, L.G., Phys. Let. 38B, 393 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moretto, L.G., Thompson, S.G., Routti, J. and Gatti, R.C., Phys. Let. 38B, 471 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dickmann, F., Metag, V. and Repnow, R., Phys. Let. 38B, 207 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Williams, F.C., Jr., Cham, G. and Huizenga, J.R., Nucl. Phys. A-187, 225 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Johansson, T.A., Nucl. Phys. A-183, 33 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maharry, D.E. and Davidson, J.P., Nucl. Phys. A-182, 371 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moretto, L.G., Nucl. Phys. A-182, 641 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Bolsterli, M., Fiset, E.O., Nix, J.R. and Norton, J.L., Phys. Rev. C5, 1050 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Moeller, P., Nilsson, B. et al., Phys. Let. 26B, 418 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hasse, R.W., Nucl. Phys. A-118, 577 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Strutinsky, V.M., Nucl. Phys. A-122, 1 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lammn, I., Nucl. Phys. A-125, 504 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nilsson, S.G. et al., Phys. Let. 30B, 437 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Swiatecki, W.J., Nucl. Phys. A-81, 1 (1966).Google Scholar
  69. Strutinsky, V.M., Nucl. Phys. A-95, 420 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Geilikman, B.T., Sov. Jour. Nucl. Phys. 9, 521 (1969).Google Scholar
  71. Pauli, H.C. and Ledergerber, T., Nucl. Phys. A-175, 54 5 (1971).Google Scholar
  72. Slavov, B., Galonska, J.E. and Faesseler, A., Phys. Let. 37B, 483 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mosel, U., Maruhn, J. and Greiner, W., Phys. Let. 34B, 578 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Anderson, B.L., Dickman, F. and Dietrich, K., Nucl. Phys. A-159, 337 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mosel, U. and Schmitt, W., Nucl. Phys. A-165, 73 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 27.
    Myers, L. and Swiatecki, W., Nucl. Phys. 81, 1 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 28.
    Potniz, W.P, Z. Physik. 197, 262 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 29.
    Sarantites, D.G., Nucl. Phys. A93, 576 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 30.
    Sikkeland, T., Clarkson, J.E., Steyer-Shafrir, N.H. and Viola, V.E., Phys. Rev. C3, 329 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 31.
    Sobiczewski, A., Szymanski, Z., Wycech, S., Nilsson, S.G., Nix, J.R., Tsang, C.F., Gustafson, C., Möller, P. and Nilsson, B., Nucl. Phys. A131, 67 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 32.
    Sperber, D., Nucl. Phys. A90, 665 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 33.
    Strutinsky, V.M., Nucl. Phys. A95, 420 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 34.
    Vandenbosch, R. and Huizenga, J.R., in Procedings of Second United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva (1958)(United Nationa, Geneva, Switzerland), Vol. 15. 35. Weizsäcker, C.F., Z. Physik 96, 431 (1935).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Sperber
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroy, Now YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations