Advertisement

Degeneration activity after parasympathetic or sympathetic denervation

  • N. Emmelin
  • U. Trendelenburg
Conference paper
Part of the Ergebnisse der Physiologie, biologischen Chemie und experimentellen Pharmakologie book series (ERGEBPHYSIOL, volume 66)

Keywords

Salivary Gland Parotid Gland Submaxillary Gland Superior Cervical Ganglion Nictitate Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andén, N., Häggendal, E., Magnusson, J., Rosengren, T.: The time course of the disapperance of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the spinal cord after transection. Acta physiol. scand. 62, 115–118 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, H. K.: Effect on the pupil of excision of the ciliary ganglion. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 28, xv–xvi (1902).Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, H. K.: The paralysis of involuntary muscle, with special reference to the occurrence of paradoxical contraction. Part I. Paradoxical pupil-dilation and other ocular phenomena caused by lesions of the cervical sympathetic tract. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 30, 290–310 (1904).Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, H. K.: The paralysis of involuntary muscle. Part II. On paralysis of the sphincter of the pupil with special reference to paradoxical constriction and the functions of the cliniary ganglion. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 33, 156–174 (1905).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Assarson, N., Emmelin, N.: On the mechanism of the “degeneration secretion” of saliva. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 170, 17–18P (1964a).Google Scholar
  6. Assarson, N., Emmelin, N.: Leakage of transmitters in salivary glands. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 22, 119–125 (1964b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Axelrod, J., Hertting, G., Patrick, R. W.: Inhibition of H3-norepinephrine release by monoamine oxidase inhibitors. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 134, 325–328 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bacq, Z. M.: Recherches sur la physiologie du système nerveux autonome. Arch. int. Physiol. 36, 167–246 (1933).Google Scholar
  9. Bárány, E. H.: Transient increase in outflow facility after superior cerivcal ganglionectomy in rabbits. Arch. Ophthal. 67, 303–311 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bárány, E. H., Treister, G.: Release of a smooth-muscle-active substance besides noradrenaline from degenerating sympathetic terminals in the rabbit eye. Acta physiol. scand. 79, 287–288 (1970a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bárány, E. H., Treister, G.: Time relations of degeneration mydriasis and degeneration vasoconstriction in the rabbit ear after sympathetic denervation. Effect of bretylium. Acta physiol. scand. 80, 79–92 (1970b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barcroft, H., Walker, A. J.: Return of tone in blood vessels of the upper limb after sympathectomy. Lancet 1949 I, 1035–1039 (1949).Google Scholar
  13. Benmiloud, M., Euler, U. S. von: Effects of bretylium, reserpine, guanethidine and sympathetic denervation on the noradrenaline content of the rat submaxillary gland. Acta physiol. scand. 59, 34–42 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernard, C.: Recherches expérimentales sur les ganglions du grand sympathique. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 55, 341–350 (1862).Google Scholar
  15. Bernard, C.: Du role des actions réflexes paralysantes dans les phénomènes des sécrétions. J. Anat. (Paris) 1, 507–513 (1864).Google Scholar
  16. Birks, R., Katz, B., Miledi, R.: Physiological and structural changes at the amphibian myoneural junction, in the course of nerve degeneration. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 150, 145–168 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brimijoin, S., Pluchino, S., Trendelenburg, U.: On the mechanism of supersensitivity to norepinephrine in the denervated cat spleen. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 175, 503–513 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Budge, J.: Ueber die Bewegung der Iris, S. 123–126. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn 1855.Google Scholar
  19. Burgen, A. S. V.: Techniques for stimulating the auriculotemporal nerve and recording the flow of saliva. In: Salivary glands and their secretions, p. 303–307, ed. by Sreebny, L. M., Meyer, J. Oxford: Pergamon Press 1964.Google Scholar
  20. Cannon, W. B.: A law of denervation. Amer. J. med. Sci. 198, 737–750 (1939).Google Scholar
  21. Cannon, W. B., Rosenblueth, A.: The supersensitivity of denervated structures. New York: Macmillan 1949.Google Scholar
  22. Chang, C. C.: Reversal by amphetamine of the protective effect of bretylium on reserpine-induced depletion of noradrenaline. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 17, 818–819 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Coats, D. A., Emmelin, N.: Salivary secretion in dogs during degeneration of post-ganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibres. Experientia (Basel) 18, 177 (1962a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Coats, D. A., Emmelin, N.: The short-term effects of sympathetic ganglionectomy on the cat’s salivary secretion. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 162, 282–288 (1962b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Collins, G. M., Bravo-Shugarman, M., Terasaki, P. I.: Kidney preservation for transportation. Initial perfusion and 30 hours’ ice storage. Lancet 1969 II, 1219–1222.Google Scholar
  26. Dahlström, A.: Effect of colchicine on transport of amine storage granules in sympathetic nerves of rat. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 5, 111–113 (1968).Google Scholar
  27. Dahlström, A., Häggendal, J.: Studies on the transport and life span of amine storage granules in a peripheral adrenergic neuron system. Acta physiol. scand. 67, 278–288 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Day, H., Bacaner, M.: Use of bretylium tosylate in the management of acute myocardial infarction. Amer. J. Cardiol. 27, 177–189 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Day, M. D.: Effect of sympathomimetic amines on the blocking action of guanethidine, bretylium and xylocholine. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 18, 421–439 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dean, H. G., Hughes, I. E.: Effect of amphetamine on the uptake, release and effectiveness of xylocholine in the guinea-pig vas deferens. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 23, 606–611 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dirnhuber, P., Evans, L. C.: The effects of anticholinesterases on humoral transmission in the submaxillary gland. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 441–458 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eakins, K. E., Eakins, H. M. T.: Adrenergic mechanisms and the outflow of aqueous humour from the rabbit eye. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 144, 60–65 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ebert, P. A., Vanderbeek, R. B., Allgood, R. J., Sabiston, D. C., Jr.: Effect of chronic cardiac denervation on arrhythmias after coronary artery ligation. Cardiovasc. Res. 4, 141–147 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ekström, J., Emmelin, N.: The functional organization of the parasympathetic secretory innervation of the submandibular gland. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 213, 727–740 (1971a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ekström, J., Emmelin, N.: Movement of choline acetyltransferase in axons disconnected from their cell bodies. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 216, 247–256 (1971b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Elliott, T. R.: The action of adrenalin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 32, 401–467 (1905).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Emmelin, N.: “Paralytic secretion” of saliva. An example of supersensitivity after denervation. Physiol. Rev. 32, 21–46 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Emmelin, N.: On spontaneous secretion of saliva. Acta physiol. scand. 30, Suppl. 111, 34–58 (1953).Google Scholar
  39. Emmelin, N.: Supersensitivity of the submaxillary gland following exclusion of the postganglionic parasympathetic neurone. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 15, 356–360 (1960a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Emmelin, N.: Secretion from the submaxillary gland after partial postganglionic denervation. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 154, 1-2P (1060b).Google Scholar
  41. Emmelin, N.: Supersensitivity following “pharmacological denervation”. Pharmacol. Rev. 13, 17–37 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Emmelin, N.: Submaxillary and sublingual secretion in cats during degeneration of post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 162, 270–281 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Emmelin, N.: Influence of degenerating nerve fibres on the responsiveness of salivarygland cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 171, 132–138 (1964a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Emmelin, N.: Action of acetylcholine on the responsiveness of effector cells. Experientia (Basel) 20, 275 (1964b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Emmelin, N.: Action of transmitters on the responsiveness of effector cells. Experientia (Basel) 21, 57–65 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Emmelin, N.: Parotid secretion after cutting the auriculotemporal nerve at different levels. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 188, 44–45P (1967a).Google Scholar
  47. Emmelin, N.: Secretion from denervated salivary glands. In: Secretory mechanisms of salivary glands, ed. by Schneyer, L., Schneyer, Ch. A., p. 127–141. New York: Academic Press 1967b.Google Scholar
  48. Emmelin, N.: Degeneration secretion from parotid glands after section of the auriculotemporal nerves at different levels. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 407–418 (1968a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Emmelin, N.: Degeneration activity after sympathetic denervation of the submaxillary gland and the eye. Experientia (Basel) 24, 44–45 (1968b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Emmelin, N., Engström, J.: Parotid pain during treatment with bretylium. Lancet 1960 II, 263.Google Scholar
  51. Emmelin, N., Garrett, J. R., Ohlin, P.: Neural control of salivary myoepithelial cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 196, 381–396 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Emmelin, N., Garrett, J. R., Ohlin, P.: Motor nerves of salivary myoepithelial cells in dogs. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 200, 539–546 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Emmelin, N., Holmberg, J.: Neuroglandular effects of bretylium and guanethidine studied on salivary glands of cats. J. oral Ther. Pharmacol. 2, 24–31 (1965).Google Scholar
  54. Emmelin, N., Jacobsohn, D., Muren, A.: Effects of prolonged administration of atropine and pilocarpine on the submaxillary gland of the cat. Acta physiol. scand. 24, 128–143 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Emmelin, N., Malm, L.: Development of supersensitivity as dependent on the length of degenerating nerve fibres. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 50, 142–145 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Emmelin, N., Muren, A.: Acetylcholine release at parasympathetic synapses. Acta physiol. scand. 20, 13–32 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Emmelin, N., Muren, A.: Sensitization of the submaxillary gland to chemical stimuli. Acta physiol. scand. 24, 103–127 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Emmelin, N., Muren, A.: The sensitivity of submaxillary glands to chemical agents studied in cats under various conditions over long periods. Acta physiol. scand. 26, 221–231 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Emmelin, N., Ohlin, P.: Skin temperature of the rabbit ear during degeneration of its sympathetic nerve supply. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 54, 207–210 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Emmelin, N., Strömblad, B.C.R.: Sensitization of the submaxillary gland above the level reached after section of the chorda tympani. Acta physiol. scand. 38, 319–330 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Emmelin, N., Strömblad, B. C. R.: The effect of anticholinesterases on the parotid gland after parasympathetic decentralization or denervation. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 13, 193–196 (1958a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Emmelin, N., Strömblad, B. C. R.: A transient, periodic secretion from the parotid gland after postganglionic, parasympathetic denervation. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 140, 21–22P (1958b).Google Scholar
  63. Emmelin, N., Strömblad, B. C. R.: A “paroxysmal” secretion of saliva following parasympathetic denervation of the parotid gland. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 143, 506–514 (1958c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ernyei, S., Young, M. R.: Pulsatile and myeline-forming activities of Schwann cells in vitro. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 183, 469–480 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Feldberg, W.: The peripheral innervation of the vessels of the external ear of the rabbit. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 61, 518–529 (1926).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Feldberg, W., Guimarais, J. A.: Some observations on salivary secretion. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 85, 15–36 (1935).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fleming, A. J., Macintosh, F. C.: The effect of sympathetic stimulation and of autonomic drugs on the paralytic submaxillary gland of the cat. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 25, 207–212 (1935).Google Scholar
  68. Fritz, M. E.: Membrane potentials in parotid glands of cats with degeneration secretion. Amer. J. Physiol. 220, 1025–1027 (1971).Google Scholar
  69. Furchgott, R. F., Sanchez-Garcia, P.: Inhibition of monoamine oxidase of adrenergic nerve terminals by bretylium. Pharmacologist 8, 176 (1966).Google Scholar
  70. Furness, J. B.: The excitatory input to a single smooth muscle cell. Pflügers Arch. 314, 1–13 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Garrett, J. R.: Innervation of salivary glands. Thesis London University 1965, p. 1–170.Google Scholar
  72. Garrett, J. R.: The innervation of salivary glands. I. Cholinesterase-positive nerves in normal glands of the cat. J. roy. micr. Soc. 85, 135–148 (1966a).Google Scholar
  73. Garrett, J. R.: The innervation of salivary glands. II. The ultrastructure of nerves in normal glands of the cat. J. roy. micr. Soc. 85, 149–162 (1966b).Google Scholar
  74. Geffen, L. B., Hughes, C. C.: Degeneration of sympathetic nerves in vitro and development of smooth muscle supersensitivity to noradrenaline. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 221, 71–84 (1971).Google Scholar
  75. Giachetti, A., Shore, P. A.: Monoamine oxidase inhibition in the adrenergic neuron by bretylium, debrisoquin, and other adrenergic neuronal blocking agents. Biochem. Pharmacol. 16, 237–238 (1967).Google Scholar
  76. Greenhalgh, R. M., Rosengarten, D. S., Martin, P.: Role of sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. Brit. med. J. 1971 I, 332–334.Google Scholar
  77. Haeusler, G.: Early pre-and postjunctional effects of 6-hydroxydopamine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 178, 49–62 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Haeusler, G., Haefely, W., Huerlimann, H.: On the mechanism of the adrenergic nerve blocking action of bretylium. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmak. 265, 260–277 (1969a).Google Scholar
  79. Haeusler, G., Haefely, W., Thoenen, H.: Chemical sympathectomy of the cat with 6-hydroxydopamine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 170, 50–61 (1969b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hámori, J., Land, E., Simon, L.: Experimental degeneration of the preganglionic fibers in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat. Z. Zellforsch. 90, 37–52 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hartman, F. A., McCordock, H. A., Loder, M. M.: Conditions determining adrenal secretion. Amer. J. Physiol. 64, 1–34 (1923).Google Scholar
  82. Heidenhain, R.: Die ohne nachweisbare Erregung der Nerven stattfindende Absonderung der Gld. submaxillaris. Leipzig. Stud. Physiol. Inst. Breslau 1868, S. 73–83.Google Scholar
  83. Hendley, E. D., Crombie, A. L.: The 24-hour ganglionectomy effect in rabbits. The influence of adrenergic blockade, adrenalectomy and carotid ligation. Exp. Eye Res. 6, 152–164 (1967).Google Scholar
  84. Hennemann, H.-M., Trendelenburg, U.: Effect of the adrenergic neurone blocker, β-TM10, on the depletion of noradrenaline induced by denervation or reserpine. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmak. exp. Path. 265, 363–371 (1970).Google Scholar
  85. Holman, M.: Junction potentials in smooth muscle. In: Smooth muscle, ed. by Bülbring, E., Brading, A., Jones, A., Tomita, T., p. 244–288. London: Edward Arnold Ltd. 1970.Google Scholar
  86. Holmberg, J.: The secretory nerves of the parotid gland of the dog. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 219, 463–476 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hunt, C. C., Nelson, P. G.: Structural and functional changes in the frog sympathetic ganglion following cutting of the presynaptic nerve fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 177, 1–20 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jewitt, D. E., Mercer, C. J., Reid, D., Valori, C., Thomas, M., Shillingford, J. P.: Free noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion in relation to the development of cardiac arrhythmias and heart-failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1969 I, 635–641.Google Scholar
  89. Karlsson, J.-O., Sjöstrand, J.: The effect of colchicine on the axonal transport of protein in the optic nerve and tract of the rabbit. Brain Res. 13, 617–619 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Koelle, G. B.: A new general concept of the neurohumoral functions of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 14, 65–90 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kovalewsky, N.: Influence du système nerveux sur le dilatation de la pupille. Arch. Slaves Biol. 1, 575–600 (1886).Google Scholar
  92. Kreutzberg, G.: Neuronal dynamics and axonal flow. IV. Blockade of intra-axonal enzyme transport by colchicine. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 62, 722–725 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lancet: Catecholamines and myocardial infarction. Lancet 1969 II, 1051–1052.Google Scholar
  94. Langendorff, O.: Ueber die Beziehungen des oberen sympathischen Halsganglions zum Auge und zu den Blutgefäßen des Kopfes. Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk. 38, 129–159 (1900).Google Scholar
  95. Langer, S. Z.: The degeneration contraction of the nictitating membrane in the unanesthetized cat. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 151, 66–72 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Langer, S. Z., Draskóczy, P. R., Trendelenburg, U.: Time course of the development of supersensitivity to various amines in the nictitating membrane of the pithed cat after denervation or decentralization. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 157, 255–273 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Langer, S. Z., Trendelenburg, U.: The onset of denervation supersensitivity. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 151, 73–86 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Langham, M. E.: The response of the pupil and intraocular pressure of conscious rabbits to adrenergic drugs following unilateral superior cercival ganglionectomy. Exp. Eye Res. 4, 381–389 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Langham, M. E., Taylor, C. B.: The influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on intraocular dynamics. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 152, 447–458 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Langley, J. N.: The salivary glands. In: Textbook of Physiology, ed. by Schaefer, p. 475–530. Edinburgh: Pentland 1898.Google Scholar
  101. Langworthy, O. R.: Innervation of the pelvic organs of the rat. Invest. Urol. 2, 491–511 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Leopold, I. H., Comroe, J. H., Jr.: Effect of neostigmine (Prostigmin) and physostigmine upon the denervated iris of the cat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 60, 382–384 (1945).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lewandowsky, M.: Ueber die Automatie des sympathischen Systems nach am Auge angestellten Beobachtungen. Sitzgsber. Königl. Preuß. Akad. d. Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1900, S. 1136–1140.Google Scholar
  104. Lindmar, R., Löffelholz, K., Muscholl, E.: Unterschiede zwischen Tyramin und Dimethylphenylpiperazin in der Ca++-Abhängigkeit und im zeitlichen Verlauf der Noradrenalin-Freisetzung am isolierten Kaninchenherzen. Experientia (Basel) 23, 933–934 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Linner, E., Prijot, E.: Cervical sympathetic ganglionectomy and aqueous flow. Arch. Ophthal. 54, 831–833 (1955).Google Scholar
  106. Lundberg, A.: The electrophysiology of the submaxillary gland of the cat. Acta physiol. scand. 35, 1–25 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lundberg, A.: Electrophysiology of salivary glands. Physiol. Rev. 38, 21–40 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lundberg, D.: Adrenergic neuron blockers and transmitter release after sympathetic denervation studied in the conscious rat. Acta physiol. scand. 75, 415–426 (1969a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lundberg, D.: Effect of some drugs on the bretylium-induced degeneration release of sympathetic transmitter. Acta physiol. scand., Suppl. 330, 57 (1969b).Google Scholar
  110. Lundberg, D.: Interactions between inhibitors of the axonal amine pump and bretylium in the degeneration release of sympathetic transmitter. Acta physiol. scand. 78, 503–521 (1970a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lundberg, D.: Bretylium and the degeneration contraction of the sympathetically innervated periorbital smooth muscle in the rat. Acta physiol. scand. 79, 411–422 (1970b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lundberg, D.: The degeneration contraction of a sympathetically innervated smooth muscle in the rat after reserpine, inhibition of monoamine oxidase or tyrosine hydroxylase. Acta physiol. scand. 80, 107–116 (1970c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lundberg, D.: Effects of some adrenergic neuron blockers, related quaternary ammonium compounds and guanidine derivatives on degenerating adrenergic nerves in the conscious rat. Acta physiol scand. 80, 323–344 (1970d).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lundberg, D.: Colchicine-induced delay of the degeneration release of sympathetic transmitter in the conscious rat. Acta physiol. scand. 80, 430–432 (1970e).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lundberg, D.: Studies on 6-hydroxydopamine in conscious rats. In: 6-Hydroxydopamine and catecholamine neurons, ed. by Malmfors, T., Thoenen, H., p. 225–237. Amsterdam-London: North Holland Publ. Comp. 1971.Google Scholar
  116. Lundberg, D.: Effects of colchicine, vinblastine and vincristine on degeneration transmitter release after sympathetic denervation studied in the conscious rat. Acta physiol. scand., in press (1972a).Google Scholar
  117. Lundberg, D.: Bretylium and the supersensitivity to exogenous noradrenaline after sympathetic denervation studied in the conscious rat. Acta physiol. scand. (in press) (1972b).Google Scholar
  118. MacIntosh, F. C.: Choline-esterase content of normal and denervated submaxillary gland of the cat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 37, 248–251 (1937).Google Scholar
  119. Maevsky, W. E.: See Babkin, B. P., Secretory mechanism of the digestive glands, 2nd ed. New York: Hoeber 1950.Google Scholar
  120. Malmfors, T., Sachs, C.: Direct studies on the disappearance of the transmitter and changes in the uptake-storage mechanisms of degenerating adrenergic nerves. Acta physiol. scand. 64, 211–223 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. McDonald, L., Baker, C., Bray, C., McDonald, A., Restieaux, N.: Plasma-catecholamines after cardiac infarction. Lancet 1969 II, 1021–1023.Google Scholar
  122. McKinstry, D. N., Koelle, G. B.: Acetylcholine release from the cat superior cervical ganglion by carbachol. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 157, 319–327 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Meltzer, S. J., Meltzer-Auer, C.: Studies on the “paradoxical” pupil-dilatation caused by adrenalin. III. A discussion of the nature of the paradoxical pupil-dilatation caused by adrenalin. Amer. J. Physiol. 11, 40–51 (1904).Google Scholar
  124. Mirkin, B. L., Cervoni, P.: The adrenergic nature of neurohumoral transmission in the cat nictitating membrane following treatment with reserpine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 138, 301–308 (1962).Google Scholar
  125. Mitchell, J. F., Silver, A.: The spontaneous release of acetylcholine from the denervated hemidiaphragm of the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 165, 117–129 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Nishida, S., Sears, M.: Fine structural innervation of the dilator muscle of the iris of the albino guinea pig studied with permanganat fixation. Exp. Eye Res. 8, 292–296 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Nordenfelt, I.: Choline acetylase in normal and denervated salivary glands. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 48, 67–79 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Nordenfelt, I.: Acetylcholine metabolism in salivary glands during the “degeneration secretion”. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 49, 103–111 (1964a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Nordnefelt, I.: Choline acetylase in denervated parotid glands of the rabbit. Acta Univ. Lund, Sectio II, No 9, 1–7 (1964b).Google Scholar
  130. Nordenfelt, I.: Choline acetylase in salivary glands of the rabbit, dog and rat after sympathetic denervation. Acta Univ. Lund, Sectio II, No 10, 1–7 (1964c).Google Scholar
  131. Nordenfelt, I.: Choline acetylase in salivary glands of the cat after sympathetic denervation. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 50, 57–61 (1965a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Nordenfelt, I.: Acetylcholine synthesis in salivary glands. Thesis. Lund: Håkan Ohlssons Boktryckeri 1965b.Google Scholar
  133. Nordenfelt, I.: Metabolism of transmitter substances in salivary glands. In: Secretory mechanisms of salivary glands, ed. by Schneyer, L., Schneyer, Ch. A., p. 142–145. New York: Academic Press 1967.Google Scholar
  134. Nordenfelt, I., Ohlin, P.: Supersensitivity of salivary glands of rabbits. Acta physiol. scand. 41, 12–17 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ochs, S., Ranish, N.: Characteristics of the fast transport system in mammalian nerve. fibers. J. Neurobiol. 2, 247–261 (1969).Google Scholar
  136. Ochs, S., Ranish, N.: Metabolic dependence of fast axoplasmic transport in nerve. Science (N.Y.) 167, 878–879 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ohlin, P.: Secretion of saliva in the rabbit after postganglionic parasympathetic denervation. Experientia (Basel) 19, 156 (1963a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Ohlin, P.: Blood flow through the parotid gland of the cat. Experientia (Basel) 19, 260–262 (1963b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Papp, J. G., Vaughan Williams, E. M.: The effect of bretylium on intracellular cardiac action potentials in relation to its anti-arrhythmic and local anaesthetic activity. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 37, 380–390 (1969).Google Scholar
  140. Paton, W. D. M., Vizi, E. S.: The inhibitory action of noradrenaline and adrenaline on acetylcholine output by guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle strip. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 35, 10–28 (1969).Google Scholar
  141. Pierce, F. R., Gregersen, M. I.: Changes in the submaxillary secretory response to pilocarpine after section of the chorda tympani. Amer. J. Physiol. 120, 246–256 (1937).Google Scholar
  142. Pluchino, S., van Orden, L. S., III, Draskóczy, P. R., Langer, S. Z., Trendelenburg, U.: The effect of β-TM10 on the pharmacological, biochemical and morphological changes induced by denervation of the nictitating membrane of the cat. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 172, 77–90 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Rand, M. J., Wilson, J.: The relationship between adrenergic neurone blocking activity and local anaesthetic activity in a series of guanidine derivatives. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 1, 200–209 (1967).Google Scholar
  144. Reas, H. W., Trendelenburg, U.: Changes in the sensitivity of the sweat glands o the cat after denervation. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 156, 126–136 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Riker, W. F., Wescoe, W. C.: The relationship between cholinesterase inhibition and function in a neuroeffector system. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 95, 515–527 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Robertis, E. de: Submicroscopic morphology of the synapses. Int. Rev. Cytol. 8, 61–96 (1959).Google Scholar
  147. Schmitt, F. O.: Fibrous proteins—neuronal organelles. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 60, 1092–1101 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sears, M. L., Bárány, E. H.: Outflow resistance and adrenergic mechanisms. Arch. Ophthal. 64, 839–848 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sears, M. L., Gillis, C. N.: Mydriasis and the increase in outflow of aqueous humor from the rabbit eye after cervical ganglionectomy in relation to the release of norepinephrine from the iris. Biochem. Pharmacol. 16, 777–782 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sears, M., Mizuno, K., Cintron, C., Alter, A., Sherk, T.: Changes in outflow facility and content of norepinephrine in iris and ciliary processes of albino rabbits after cervical ganglionectomy. Invest. Ophthal. 5, 312–318 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Shen, G. S., Cannon, W. B.: Sensitisation of the denervated pupillary sphincter to acetylcholine. Chin. J. Physiol. 10, 359–372 (1936).Google Scholar
  152. Smith, C. B., Trendelenburg, U., Langer, S. Z., Tsai, T. H.: The relation of retention of norepinephrine-H3 to the norepinephrine content of the nictitating membrane of the spinal cat during development of denervation supersensitivity. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 151, 87–94 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Smithwick, R. H.: Surgical intervention on the sympathetic nervous system for peripheral vascular disease. Arch. Surg. 40, 286–306 (1940).Google Scholar
  154. Steinberg, M. I., Smith, C. B.: Effects of desmethylimipramine and cocaine on the uptake, retention and metabolism of H3-tyramine in rat brain slices. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 173, 176–192 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Strömblad, B. C. R.: Acetylcholine splitting enzyme sin salivary glands after prolonged treatment with pilocarpine and an atropine-like substance. Acta physiol. scand. 36, 47–65 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Strömblad, R.: Sensitivity of the normal and denervated parotid gland to chemical agents. Acta physiol. scand. 33, 83–98 (1955a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Strömblad, R.: Acetylcholine inactivation and acetylcholine sensitivity in denervated salivary glands. Acta physiol. scand. 34, 38–58 (1955b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Taylor, S. H., Saxton, C., Davies, P. S., Stoker, J. B.: Bretylium tosylate in prevention of cardiac disrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Brit. Heart J. 32, 326–396 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Thoenen, H., Huerlimann, A., Haefely: Cation dependence of the noradrenaline-releasing action of tyramine. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 6, 29–37 (1969).Google Scholar
  160. Thoenen, H., Tranzer, J. P.: Chemical sympathectomy by selective destruction of adrenergic nerve endings with 6-hydroxydopamine. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmak. exp. Path. 261, 271–288 (1968).Google Scholar
  161. Treister, G., Bárány, E. H.: Mydriasis and intraocular pressure decrease in the conscious rabbit after unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy. Invest. Ophthal. 9 331–342 (1970a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Treister, G., Bárány, E. H.: The effect of bretylium on the degeneration mydriasis and intraocular pressure decrease in the conscious rabbit after unilateral cervical ganglionectomy. Invest. Ophthal. 9, 343–353 (1970b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Treister, G., Bárány, E. H.: Degeneration mydriasis and hyperemia of the iris after superior cervical ganglionectomy in the rabbit. Evidence for release of more than norepinephrine during degeneration of adrenergic terminals. Invest. Ophthal. 9, 873–887 (1970c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Trendelenburg, U.: Supersensitivity and subsensitivity to sympathomimetic amines. Pharmacol. Rev. 15, 225–276 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Trendelenburg, U., Maxwell, R. A., Pluchino, S.: Methoxamine as a tool to assess the importance of intraneuronal uptake of 1-norepinephrine in the cat’s nictitating membrane. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 172, 91–99 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Tuckett, I. L.: On the structure and degeneration of non-medullated nerve fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 19, 267–311 (1895–96).Google Scholar
  167. Usherwood, P. N. R.: Response of insect muscle to denervation. II. Changes in neuromuscular transmission. J. Insect Physiol. 9, 811–825 (1963).Google Scholar
  168. Van Orden, L. S. III, Bensch, K. G., Langer, S. Z., Trendelenburg, U.: Histochemical and fine structural aspects of the onset of denervation supersensitivity in the nictitating membrane of the spinal cat. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 157, 274–283 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Volle, R. L., Koelle, G. B.: The physiological role of acetylcholinesterase in sympathetic ganglia. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 133, 223–240 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Wagner, K., Trendelenburg, U.: Development of degeneration contraction and supersensitivity in the cat’s nictitating membrane after 6-hydroxydopamine. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmak. 270, 215–236 (1971).Google Scholar
  171. Weiner, N., Perkins, M., Sidman, R. L.: Effect of reserpine on noradrenaline content of innervated and denervated brown adipose tissue of the rat. Nature (Lond.) 193, 137–138 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Weiss, P.: The concept of perpetual neuronal growth and proximo-distal substance convection. In: Regional neurochemistry, ed. by Kety, S. S., Elkes, J., p. 220–242. London: Pergamon 1961.Google Scholar
  173. Weiss, P.: Self-renewal and proximo-distal convection in nerve fibres. In: The effect of use and disuse of neuromuscular functions, ed. by Gutmann, E., Hník, P., p. 171–183. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1963.Google Scholar
  174. Weiss, P., Hiscoe, H. B.: Experiments on the mechanism of nerve growth. J. exp. Zool. 107, 315–395 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Weiss, P., Taylor, A. C., Pillai, P. A.: The nerve fiber as a system in continuous flow: microcinematographic and electronmicroscopic demonstrations. Science (N.Y.) 136, 330 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. White, J. C., Smithwick, R. H., Simeone, F. A.: The autonomic nervous system, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan Company 1952.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Emmelin
  • U. Trendelenburg
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of PhysiologyUniversity of LundSweden
  2. 2.Dept. of Pharmacology and ToxicologyUniversity of WürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations