Localized Scleroderma

  • Catherine H. Orteu
  • Jan P. Dutz


Connective Tissue Growth Factor Lichen Sclerosus Progressive Systemic Sclerosis Localize Scleroderma Acta Derm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aberer E, Neumann R, and Stanek G (1985) Is localised scleroderma a Borrelia infection? Lancet, 2: 278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiba S, Tabata N, Ohtani H, Tagami H (1994) CD34+ spindle-shaped cells selectively disappear from the skin lesion of scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 130: 593–597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akimoto S, Hayashi H, Ishikawa H (1992). Disaccharide analysis of the skin glycosaminoglycans in systemic sclerosis. Br J Dermatol, 126: 29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnett FC, Tan FK, Uziel Y, Laxer RM, Krafchik BR, Antohi S, and Bona C (1999) Autoantibodies to the extracellular matrix microfibrillar protein, fibrillin 1, in patients with localized scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 42: 2656–2659CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Balat A, Akinci A, Turgut M, Mizrak B, Aydin A (1999) Eosinophilic fasciitis — progression to linear scleroderma: a case report. Turk J Pediatr, 41: 381–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrera P, Haagsma CJ, Boerbooms AM, Van Riel PL, Borm GF, Van de Putte LB, Van der Meer JW (1995) Effect of methotrexate alone or in combination with sulphasalazine on the production and circulating concentrations of cytokines and their antagonists. Longitudinal evaluation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol, 34: 747–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Birdi N, Shore A, Rush P, Laxer RM, Silverman ED, Krafchik B (1992). Childhood linear scleroderma: a possible role of thermography for evaluation. J Rheumatol, 19: 968–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaszczyk M, Jablonska S (1999) Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre. Relationship with progressive facial hemiatrophy (PFH). RheumaDerm, M. a. Uitto, ed., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 101–104Google Scholar
  9. Blaszczyk M, Krysicka-Janiger K, Jablonska S (2000) Primary atrophic profound linear scleroderma. Report of three cases. Dermatology, 200: 63–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blaszczyk M, Krolicki L, Krasu M, Glinska O, Jablonska S (2003). Progressive facial hemiatrophy: central nervous system involvement and relationship with scleroderma en coup de sabre. J Rheumatol, 30: 1997–2004Google Scholar
  11. Bleasel NR, Stapleton KM, Commens C, Ahern VA (1999) Radiation-induced localized scleroderma in breast cancer patients. Australas J Dermatol, 40: 99–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bodemer C, Belon M, Hamel-Teillac D, Amoric JC, Fraitag S, Prieur AM, De Prost Y (1999) Scleroderma in children: a retrospective study of 70 cases. Ann Dermatol Venereol, 126: 691–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boelsma E, Pavel S, Ponec M (1995) Effects of calcitriol on fibroblasts derived from skin of scleroderma patients. Dermatology, 191: 226–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bottomley WW, Jutley J, Wood EJ, Goodfield MD (1995) The effect of calcipotriol on lesional fibroblasts from patients with active morphoea. Acta Derm Venereol, 75: 364–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Branchet MC, Boisnic S, Bletry O, Robert L, Charron D, Frances C (1992) Expression of HLA class II antigens on skin fibroblasts in scleroderma. Br J Dermatol, 126: 431–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Caca-Biljanovska NG, Vlckova-Laskoska MT, Dervendi DV, Pesic NP, Laskoski DS (1999) Treatment of generalized morphea with oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Adv Exp Med Biol, 455: 299–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Camacho NR, Sanchez JE, Martin RF, Gonzalez JR, Sanchez JL (2001). Medium-dose UVA1 phototherapy in localized scleroderma and its effect in CD34-positive dendritic cells. J Am Acad Dermatol, 45: 697–699CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Canizares O, Sachs P, Jaimovich L, Torres V (1958) Idiopathic atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini. Arch Dermatol, 77: 42–59Google Scholar
  19. Cannick L, 3rd, Douglas G, Crater S, Silver R (2003). Nodular scleroderma: case report and literature review. J Rheumatol, 30: 2500–2502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Castanet J, Lacour JP, Perrin C, Taillan B, Dubois D, Ortonne JP (1994) Association of eosinophilic fasciitis, multiple morphea and antiphospholipid antibody. Dermatology, 189: 304–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Christianson H, Dorsey C, O’Leary P, Kierland R (1956) Localized scleroderma: a clinical study of twohundred thirty-five cases. Arch Dermatol, 74: 629–639Google Scholar
  22. Chung MH, Sum J, Morrell MJ, Horoupian DS (1995) Intracerebral involvement in scleroderma en coup de sabre: report of a case with neuropathologic findings. Ann Neurol, 37: 679–681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chung H, Hann S (1997) Lupus panniculitis treated by a combination therapy of hydroxychloroquine and quinacrine. J Dermatol, 24: 569–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Clemens TL, Adams JS, Horiuchi N, Gilchrest BA, Cho H, Tsuchiya Y, Matsuo N, Suda T, Holick MF (1983) Interaction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 with keratinocytes and fibroblasts from skin of normal subjects and a subject with vitamin-D-dependent rickets, type II: a model for study of the mode of action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 56: 824–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cosnes A, Anglade MC, Revuz J, Radier C (2003). Thirteen-megahertz ultrasound probe: its role in diagnosing localized scleroderma. Br J Dermatol, 148: 724–729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cribier B, Faradji T, Le Coz C, Oberling F, Grosshans E (1995) Extracorporeal photo-chemotherapy in systemic sclerosis and severe morphea. Dermatology, 191: 25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cunningham BB, Landells ID, Langman C, Sailer DE, Paller AS (1998) Topical calcipotriene for morphea/linear scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 39: 211–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Curley RK, Macfarlane AW, Evans S, Woodrow JC (1987) The treatment of linear morphoea with D-penicillamine. Clin Exp Dermatol, 12: 56–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Czarnecki DB, Taft EH (1982) Generalized morphoea successfully treated with salazopyrine. Acta Derm Venereol, 62: 81–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Daoud MS, Su WP, Leiferman KM, Perniciaro C (1994) Bullous morphea: clinical, pathologic, and immunopathologic evaluation of thirteen cases. J Am Acad Dermatol, 30: 937–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. David J, Wilson J, Woo P (1991) Scleroderma "en coup de sabre". Ann Rheum Dis, 50: 260–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dehen L, Roujeau JC, Cosnes A, Revuz J (1994) Internal involvement in localized scleroderma. Medicine (Baltimore), 73: 241–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Diaz-Perez J, Connolly S, Winkelmann R (1980) Disabling pansclerotic morphea of children. Arch Dermatol, 116: 169–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dillon WI, Saed GM, Fivenson DP (1995) Borrelia burgdorferi DNA is undetectable by polymerase chain reaction in skin lesions of morphea, scleroderma, or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of patients from North America. J Am Acad Dermatol, 33: 617–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Doyle JA, Ginsburg WW (1989) Eosinophilic fasciitis. Med Clin North Am, 73: 1157–1166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Drago F, Rampini P, Lugani C, Rebora A (1998) Generalized morphoea after antitetanus vaccination. Clin Exp Dermatol, 23: 142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dubois EL, Chandor S, Friou GJ, Bischel M (1971) Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and localized scleroderma (morphea) with positive LE cell test and unusual systemic manifestations compatible with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE): presentation of 14 cases including one set of identical twins, one with scleroderma and the other with SLE. Review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore), 50: 199–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eisen D, Alster TS (2002). Use of a 585 nm pulsed dye laser for the treatment of morphea. Dermatol Surg, 28: 615–616CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. El-Mofty M, Zaher H, Bosseila M, Yousef R, Saad B (2000) Low-dose broad-band UVA in morphea using a new method for evaluation. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed, 16: 43–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. El-Mofty M, Mostafa W, El-Darouty M, Bosseila M, Nada H, Yousef R, Esmat S, El-Lawindy M, Assaf M, El-Enani G (2004). Different low doses of broad-band UVA in the treatment of morphea and systemic sclerosis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed, 20: 148–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. El-Mofty M, Mostafa W, Esmat S, Youssef R, Bousseila M, Nagi N, Shaker O, Abouzeid A (2004). Suggested mechanisms of action of UVA phototherapy in morphea: a molecular study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed, 20: 93–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Elst EF, Van Suijlekom-Smit LW, Oranje AP (1999) Treatment of linear scleroderma with oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) in seven children. Pediatr Dermatol, 16: 53–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Falanga V, Medsger TA, Reichlin M (1985) High titers of antibodies to single-stranded DNA in linear scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 121: 345–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Falanga V, Medsger TA, Jr, Reichlin M, Rodnan GP (1986) Linear scleroderma. Clinical spectrum, prognosis, and laboratory abnormalities. Ann Intern Med, 104: 849–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Falanga V, Medsger TA, Jr, Reichlin M (1987) Antinuclear and anti-single-stranded DNA antibodies in morphea and generalized morphea. Arch Dermatol, 123: 350–353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Falanga V, Medsger TA, Jr (1990) D-penicillamine in the treatment of localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 126: 609–612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fleischmajer R, Nedwich A (1972) Generalized morphea. I. Histology of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Arch Dermatol, 106: 509–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fleischmajer R, Perlish JS (1972). Glycosaminoglycans in scleroderma and scleredema. J Invest Dermatol, 58: 129–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fleischmajer R, Prunieras M (1972) Generalized morphea. II. Electron microscopy of collagen, cells, and the subcutaneous tissue. Arch Dermatol, 106: 515–524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fleischmajer R, Perlish JS, Krieg T, Timpl R (1981) Variability in collagen and fibronectin synthesis by scleroderma fibroblasts in primary culture. J Invest Dermatol, 76: 400–403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Foeldvari I (1998) Progressive linear scleroderma and morphea in a child. J Pediatr, 133: 308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fry A, Alvarellos A, Fink C, Blaw M, Roach E (1992) Intracranial findings in progressive facial hemiatrophy. J Rheumatol, 19: 956–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fujimoto M, Sato S, Ihn H, Takehara K (1995) Autoantibodies to the heat-shock protein hsp73 in localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol Res, 287: 581–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gambichler T, Kreuter A, Rotterdam S, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K (2003). Linear scleroderma ‘en coup de sabre’ treated with topical calcipotriol and cream psoralen plus ultraviolet A. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 17: 601–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Garcia-Bustinduy M, Noda A, Sanchez R, Gonzalez de Mesa MJ, Guimera F, Garcia-Montelongo R (1998) PUVA therapy in localized scleroderma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 10: 283–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Garzon M, Paller A (1999) Ultrapotent topical corticosteroids treatment of childhood genital lichen sclerosus. Arch Dermatol, 135: 525–528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gordon GV (1981) Eosinophilic fasciitis. A case report and review of the literature. Cutis, 28:268, 271–273Google Scholar
  58. Grundmann-Kollmann M, Ochsendorf F, Zollner TM, Spieth K, Sachsenberg-Studer E, Kaufmann R, Podda M (2000) PUVA-cream photochemotherapy for the treatment of localized scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 43: 675–678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gruss C, Reed JA, Altmeyer P, McNutt NS, Kerscher M (1997a) Induction of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) by UVA-1 phototherapy in morphea fibroblasts. Lancet, 350:1295–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gruss C, Stucker M, Kobyletzki G, Schreiber D, Altmeyer P, Kerscher M (1997b) Low dose UVA1 phototherapy in disabling pansclerotic morphoea of childhood. Br J Dermatol, 136: 293–294Google Scholar
  61. Hasegawa M, Sato S, Nagaoka T, Fujimoto M, Takehara K (2003). Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-13 are elevated in patients with localized scleroderma. Dermatology, 207: 141–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hatamochi A, Ono M, Arakawa M, Takeda K, Ueki H (1992) Analysis of collagen gene expression by cultured fibroblasts in morphoea. Br J Dermatol, 126: 216–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hauser C, Skaria A, Harms M, Saurat JH (1996) Morphoea following Blaschko’s lines. Br J Dermatol, 134: 594–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hayakawa I, Hasegawa M, Takehara K, Sato S (2004). Anti-DNA topoisomerase IIalpha autoantibodies in localized scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 50: 227–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Higley H, Persichitte K, Chu S, Waegell W, Vancheeswaran R, Black C(1994). Immunocytochemical localization and serologic detection of transforming growth factor beta 1. Association with type I procollagen and inflammatory cell markers in diffuse and limited systemic sclerosis, morphea, and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Arthritis Rheum, 37: 278–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Holick MF, Smith E, Pincus S (1987) Skin as the site of vitamin D synthesis and target tissue for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Use of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) for treatment of psoriasis. Arch Dermatol, 123: 1677–1683aCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hsu S, Lee MW, Carlton S, Kramer EM (1999) Nodular morphea in a linear pattern. Int J Dermatol, 38: 529–530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hulshof MM, Pavel S, Breedveld FC, Dijkmans BA, Vermeer BJ (1994) Oral calcitriol as a new therapeutic modality for generalized morphea. Arch Dermatol, 130: 1290–1293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Humbert PG, Dupond JL, Rochefort A, Vasselet R, Lucas A, Laurent R, Agache P (1990) Localized scleroderma — response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Clin Exp Dermatol, 15: 396–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Humbert P, Aubin F, Dupond JL, Delaporte E (1995) Oral calcitriol as a new therapeutic agent in localized and systemic scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 131: 850–851Google Scholar
  71. Hunzelmann N, Anders S, Fierlbeck G, Hein R, Herrmann K, Albrecht M, Bell S, Muche R, Wehner-Caroli J, Gaus W, Krieg T (1997) Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of intralesional interferon gamma for the treatment of localized scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 36: 433–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hunzelmann N, Scharffetter Kochanek K, Hager C, Krieg T (1998) Management of localized scleroderma. Semin Cutan Med Surg, 17: 34–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Igarashi A, Nashiro K, Kikuchi K, Sato S, Ihn H, Fujimoto M, Grotendorst GR, Takehara K (1996) Connective tissue growth factor gene expression in tissue sections from localized scleroderma, keloid, and other fibrotic skin disorders. J Invest Dermatol, 106: 729–733CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ihn H, Sato S, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Takehara K (1994) Demonstration of interleukin 8 in serum samples of patients with localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 130: 1327–1328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Ihn H, Sato S, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Takehara K (1995) Demonstration of interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interleukin-6 in sera from patients with localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol Res, 287: 193–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Ihn H, Sato S, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Takehara K (1996) Clinical significance of serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with localized scleroderma. Br J Dermatol, 134: 843–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ihn H, Yazawa N, Kubo M, Yamane K, Sato S, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Soma Y, Tamaki K (2000) Circulating levels of soluble CD30 are increased in patients with localized scleroderma and correlated with serological and clinical features of the disease. J Rheumatol, 27: 698–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Itin PH, Schiller P (1999) Double-lined frontoparietal scleroderma en coup de sabre. Dermatology, 199: 185–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jablonska S (1975a) Facial hemiatrophy and it’s relation to localized scleroderma. In: Jablonska S (ed) Scleroderma and pseudoscleroderma. PZWL, Warsaw, pp 537–548Google Scholar
  80. Jablonska S (1975b) Localised Scleroderma.In: Jablonska S (ed) Scleroderma and pseudo-scleroderma. PZWL, Warsaw, pp 277–303Google Scholar
  81. Jablonska S, Rodnan G (1979) Localized forms of scleroderma. Clin Rheumatol Dis, 5: 215–241Google Scholar
  82. Jablonska S, Blaszczyk M (2004). Is superficial morphea synonymous with atrophoderma Pasini-Pierini? J Am Acad Dermatol, 50: 979–980CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Janzen L, Jeffery JR, Gough J, Chalmers IM (1995) Response to methotrexate in a patient with idiopathic eosinophilic fasciitis, morphea, IgM hypergammaglobulinemia, and renal involvement. J Rheumatol, 22: 1967–1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jaworsky C (1997) Connective tissue diseases. In: Elder D (ed) Lever’s Histopathology of the Skin. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 253–285Google Scholar
  85. Joly P, Bamberger N, Crickx B, Belaich S (1994) Treatment of severe forms of localized scleroderma with oral corticosteroids: follow-up study on 17 patients. Arch Dermatol, 130: 663–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Jones SM, Mathew CM, Dixey J, Lovell CR, McHugh NJ (1996) VCAM-1 expression on endothelium in lesions from cutaneous lupus erythematosus is increased compared with systemic and localized scleroderma. Br J Dermatol, 135: 678–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kahari VM, Heino J, Vuorio T, Vuorio E (1988a) Interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma reduce excessive collagen synthesis and procollagen mRNA levels of scleroderma fibroblasts in culture. Biochim Biophys Acta, 968: 45–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kahari VM, Sandberg M, Kalimo H, Vuorio T, Vuorio E (1988b) Identification of fibroblasts responsible for increased collagen production in localized scleroderma by in situ hybridization. J Invest Dermatol, 90: 664–670CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kanekura T, Fukumaru S, Matsushita S, Terasaki K, Mizoguchi S, Kanzaki T (1996) Successful treatment of scleroderma with PUVA therapy. J Dermatol, 23: 455–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Karrer S, Abels C, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM (2000) Topical photodynamic therapy for localized scleroderma. Acta Derm Venereol, 80: 26–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kencka D, Blaszczyk M, Jablonska S (1995) Atrophoderma Pasini-Pierini is a primary atrophic abortive morphea. Dermatology, 190: 203–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kerscher M, Volkenandt M, Meurer M, Lehmann P, Plewig G, Rocken M (1994) Treatment of localised scleroderma with PUVA bath photochemotherapy. Lancet, 343: 1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kerscher M, Dirschka T, Volkenandt M (1995) Treatment of localised scleroderma by UVA1 phototherapy. Lancet, 346: 1166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kerscher M, Meurer M, Sander C, Volkenandt M, Lehmann P, Plewig G, Rocken M (1996) PUVA bath photochemotherapy for localized scleroderma. Evaluation of 17 consecutive patients. Arch Dermatol, 132: 1280–1282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kerscher M, Volkenandt M, Gruss C, Reuther T, von Kobyletzki G, Freitag M, Dirschka T, Altmeyer P (1998) Low-dose UVA phototherapy for treatment of localized scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 38: 21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kobayashi KA, Lui H, Prendiville JS (1991) Solitary morphea profunda in a 5-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol, 8: 292–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kobayasi T, Serup J (1985) Vascular changes in morphea. Acta Derm Venereol, 65: 116–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kobayasi T, Willeberg A, Serup J, Ullman S (1990) Generalized morphea with blisters. A case report. Acta Derm Venereol, 70: 454–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Koeger AC, Rozenberg S, Fautrel B (1999) Effectiveness of topical calcitriol for localized scleroderma. J Rheumatol, 26: 239–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kowalewski C, Kozlowska A, Zawadzka M, Wozniak K, Blaszczyk M, Jablonska S (2004). Alterations of basement membrane zone in bullous and non-bullous variants of extragenital lichen sclerosus. Am J Dermatopathol, 26: 96–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Krell JM, Solomon AR, Glavey CM, Lawley TJ (1995) Nodular scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 32: 343–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kreuter A, Gambichler T, Avermaete A, Jansen T, Hoffmann M, Hoffmann K, Altmeyer P, von Kobyletzki G, Bacharach-Buhles M (2001). Combined treatment with calcipotriol ointment and low-dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy in childhood morphea. Pediatr Dermatol, 18:241–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kubo M, Ihn H, Yamane K, Tamaki K (2001). Up-regulated expression of transforming growth factor beta receptors in dermal fibroblasts in skin sections from patients with localized scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 44: 731–734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Labandeira J, Leon-Mateos A, Suarez-Penaranda JM, Garea MT, Toribio J (2003). What is nodular-keloidal scleroderma? Dermatology, 207: 130–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lee HJ, Kim MY, Ha SJ, Kim JW (2002). Two cases of morphea associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Acta Derm Venereol, 82: 58–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Levy JJ, Gassmuller J, Audring H, Brenke A, Albrecht-Nebe H (1993) Imaging subcutaneous atrophy in circumscribed scleroderma with 20 MHz B-scan ultrasound. Hautarzt, 44:446–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Liu P, Uziel Y, Chuang S, Silverman E, Krafchik B, Laxer R (1994) Localized scleroderma: Imaging features. Pediatr Radiol, 24: 207–209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Luer W, Jockel D, Henze T, Schipper HI (1990) Progressive inflammatory lesions of the brain parenchyma in localized scleroderma of the head. J Neurol, 237: 379–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Man J, Dytoc MT (2004). Use of Imiquimod Cream 5% in the Treatment of Localized Morphea. J Cutan Med Surg, 8: 166–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mancuso G, Berdondini RM (2003). Topical tacrolimus in the treatment of localized scleroderma. Eur J Dermatol, 13: 590–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Martini G, Murray KJ, Howell KJ, Harper J, Atherton D, Woo P, Zulian F, Black CM (2002). Juvenile-onset localized scleroderma activity detection by infrared thermography. Rheumatology (Oxford), 41: 1178–1182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Marzano AV, Menni S, Parodi A, Borghi A, Fuligni A, Fabbri P, Caputo R (2003). Localized scleroderma in adults and children. Clinical and laboratory investigations on 239 cases. Eur J Dermatol, 13: 171–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mattila L, Airola K, Ahonen M, Hietarinta M, Black C, Saarialho-Kere U, Kahari VM (1998) Activation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) mRNA expression in scleroderma skin fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol, 110: 416–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. McColl G, Buchanan RR (1994) Unilateral scleroderma following ischemic hand injury. J Rheumatol, 21: 380–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. McNiff JM, Glusac EJ, Lazova RZ, Carroll CB (1999) Morphea limited to the superficial reticular dermis: an underrecognized histologic phenomenon. Am J Dermatopathol, 21: 315–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Menni S, Marzano AV, Passoni E (1997) Neurologic abnormalities in two patients with facial hemiatrophy and sclerosis coexisting with morphea. Pediatr Dermatol, 14: 113–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Micalizzi C, Parodi A, Rebora A (1994) Morphea with nodular lesions. Br J Dermatol, 131: 298–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Micalizzi C, Parodi A, Rebora A (1996) Generalized bullous morphoea. Efficacy of salazopyrin. Clin Exp Dermatol, 21: 246–247Google Scholar
  119. Miller J (1992) The fasciitis-morphea complex in children. Am J Dis Child, 146: 733–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Mitchet C, Doyle J, Ginsburg W (1981) Eosinophilic fascitis: report of 15 cases. Mayo Clin Proc, 56: 27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Mizutani H, Yoshida T, Nouchi N, Hamanaka H, Shimizu M (1999) Topical tocoretinate improved hypertrophic scar, skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis and morphea. J Dermatol, 26: 11–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mohrenschlager M, Jung C, Ring J, Abeck D (1999) Effect of penicillin G on corium thickness in linear morphea of childhood: An analysis using ultrasound technique. Pediatr Dermatol, 16: 314–316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Moller R, Serup J, Ammitzboll T (1985) Glycosaminoglycans in localized scleroderma (morphoea). Connect Tissue Res, 13: 227–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Monteiro MR, Murphy EE, Galaria NA, Whitaker-Menezes D, Murphy GF (2000) Cytological alterations in dermal dendrocytes in vitro: evidence for transformation to a non-dendritic phenotype. Br J Dermatol, 143: 84–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Morison WL (1997) Psoralen UVA therapy for linear and generalized morphea. J Am Acad Dermatol, 37: 657–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Morita A, Werfel T, Stege H, Ahrens C, Karmann K, Grewe M, Grether-Beck S, Ruzicka T, Kapp A, Klotz LO, Sies H, Krutmann J (1997) Evidence that singlet oxygen-induced human T helper cell apoptosis is the basic mechanism of ultraviolet-A radiation phototherapy. J Exp Med, 186: 1763–1768CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Mork NJ (1981) Clinical and histopathologic morphea with immunological evidence of lupus erythematosus: a case report. Acta Derm Venereol, 61: 367–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Morley SM, Gaylarde PM, Sarkany I (1985) Epidermal thickness in systemic sclerosis and morphoea. Clin Exp Dermatol, 10: 51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Moynahan EJ (1973) Morphoea (localized cutaneous scleroderma) treated with low-dosage penicillamine (4 cases, including coup de sabre). Proc R Soc Med, 66: 1083–1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Nagai M, Hasegawa M, Takehara K, Sato S (2004). Novel autoantibody to Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in patients with localized scleroderma. J Invest Dermatol, 122: 594–601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Narvaez D, Kanitakis J, Faure M, Claudy A (1996) Immunohistochemical study of CD34-positive dendritic cells of human dermis. Am J Dermatopathol, 18: 283–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Neldner KH (1978) Treatment of localized linear scleroderma with phenytoin. Cutis, 22: 569–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Neuhofer J, Fritsch P (1984) Treatment of localized scleroderma and lichen sclerosus with etretinate. Acta Derm Venereol, 64: 171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Oikarinen A, Knuutinen A (2001). Ultraviolet A sunbed used for the treatment of scleroderma. Acta Derm Venereol, 81: 432–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. O’Leary P, Montgomery H, Ragsdale W (1957) Dermatohistopathology of various types of scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 75: 78–87Google Scholar
  136. Oyama N, Chan I, Neill SM, Hamada T, South AP, Wessagowit V, Wojnarowska F, D’Cruz D, Hughes GJ, Black MM, McGrath JA (2003). Autoantibodies to extracellular matrix protein 1 in lichen sclerosus. Lancet, 362: 118–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Oyama N, Chan I, Neill SM, South AP, Wojnarowska F, Kawakami Y, D’Cruz D, Mepani K, Hughes GJ, Bhogal BS, Kaneko F, Black MM, McGrath JA (2004). Development of antigen-specific ELISA for circulating autoantibodies to extracellular matrix protein 1 in lichen sclerosus. J Clin Invest, 113: 1550–1559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Passos CO, Werneck CC, Onofre GR, Pagani EA, Filgueira AL, Silva LC (2003). Comparative biochemistry of human skin: glycosaminoglycans from different body sites in normal subjects and in patients with localized scleroderma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 17: 14–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Perlish JS, Lemlich G, Fleischmajer R (1988) Identification of collagen fibrils in scleroderma skin. J Invest Dermatol, 90: 48–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Person JR, Su WP (1979) Subcutaneous morphoea: a clinical study of sixteen cases. Br J Dermatol, 100: 371–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Peter RU, Ruzicka T, Eckert F (1991) Low-dose cyclosporine A in the treatment of disabling morphea. Arch Dermatol, 127: 1420–1421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Peterson LS, Nelson AM, Su WP (1995) Classification of morphea (localized scleroderma). Mayo Clin Proc, 70: 1068–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Peterson LS, Nelson AM, Su WP, Mason T, O’Fallon WM, Gabriel SE (1997) The epidemiology of morphea (localized scleroderma) in Olmsted County 1960–1993. J Rheumatol, 24: 73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Rai R, Handa S, Gupta S, Kumar B (2000) Bilateral en coup de sabre-a rare entity. Pediatr Dermatol, 17: 222–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Rencic A, Brinster N, Nousari CH (2003). Keloid morphea and nodular scleroderma: two distinct clinical variants of scleroderma? J Cutan Med Surg, 7: 20–24Google Scholar
  146. Rigby WF, Denome S, Fanger MW (1987) Regulation of lymphokine production and human T lymphocyte activation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Specific inhibition at the level of messenger RNA. J Clin Invest, 79: 1659–1664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Rigby WF, Waugh MG (1992) Decreased accessory cell function and costimulatory activity by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated monocytes. Arthritis Rheum, 35: 110–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Rodnan GP, Lipinski E, Luksick J (1979) Skin thickness and collagen content in progressive systemic sclerosis and localized scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 22: 130–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Rose CD, Fawcett PT, Gibney K, Doughty RA, Singsen BH (1994) Serial measurements of soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels (sIL2-R) in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated with oral methotrexate. Ann Rheum Dis, 53: 471–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Rosenberg AM, Uziel Y, Krafchik BR, Hauta SA, Prokopchuk PA, Silverman ED, Laxer RM (1995) Antinuclear antibodies in children with localized scleroderma. J Rheumatol, 22: 2337–2343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ruffatti A, Peserico A, Rondinone R, Calligaro A, Del Ross T, Ghirardello A, Germino M, Todesco S (1991) Prevalence and characteristics of anti-single-stranded DNA antibodies in localized scleroderma. Comparison with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol, 127: 1180–1183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Sakuraoka K, Tajima S, Nishikawa T (1992) Progressive facial hemiatrophy: report of five cases and biochemical analysis of connective tissue. Dermatology, 185: 196–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Salmon-Ehr V, Serpier H, Nawrocki B, Gillery P, Clavel C, Kalis B, Birembaut P, Maquart FX (1996) Expression of interleukin-4 in scleroderma skin specimens and scleroderma fibroblast cultures. Potential role in fibrosis. Arch Dermatol, 132: 802–806CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sato S, Fujimoto M, Ihn H, Kikuchi K, Takehara K (1994) Antigen specificity of antihistone antibodies in localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 130: 1273–1277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Sato S, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Ihn H, Tamaki K, Takehara K (1996a) Elevated soluble CD23 levels in the sera from patients with localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol Res, 288: 74–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sato S, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Ihn H, Tamaki K, Takehara K (1996b) Soluble CD4 and CD8 in serum from patients with localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol Res, 288: 358–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sato S, Fujimoto M, Hasegawa M, Takehara K (2003). Antiphospholipid antibody in localised scleroderma. Ann Rheum Dis, 62: 771–774CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Schaffer JV, Carroll C, Dvoretsky I, Huether MJ, Girardi M (2000) Postirradiation morphea of the breast presentation of two cases and review of the literature. Dermatology, 200: 67–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Goldermann R, Lehmann P, Holzle E, Goerz G (1995) PUVA therapy in disabling pansclerotic morphoea of children. Br J Dermatol, 132: 830–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Scharffetter K, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Krieg T (1988) Localization of collagen mRNA in normal and scleroderma skin by in-situ hybridization. Eur J Clin Invest, 18: 9–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Schiener R, Behrens-Williams SC, Gottlober P, Pillekamp H, Peter RU, Kerscher M (2000) Eosinophilic fasciitis treated with psoralen-ultraviolet A bath photochemotherapy. Br J Dermatol, 142: 804–807CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Seitz M, Loetscher P, Dewald B, Towbin H, Rordorf C, Gallati H, Baggiolini M, Gerber NJ (1995) Methotrexate action in rheumatoid arthritis: stimulation of cytokine inhibitor and inhibition of chemokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Br J Rheumatol, 34: 602–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Seitz M, Zwicker M, Loetscher P (1998) Effects of methotrexate on differentiation of monocytes and production of cytokine inhibitors by monocytes. Arthritis Rheum, 41: 2032–2038CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Seyger MM, van den Hoogen FH, de Boo T, de Jong EM (1997) Reliability of two methods to assess morphea: skin scoring and the use of a durometer. J Am Acad Dermatol, 37: 793–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Seyger MM, van den Hoogen FH, de Boo T, de Jong EM (1998) Low-dose methotrexate in the treatment of widespread morphea. J Am Acad Dermatol, 39: 220–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Seyger MM, van den Hoogen FH, van Vlijmen-Willems IM, van de Kerkhof PC, de Jong EM (2001). Localized and systemic scleroderma show different histological responses to methotrexate therapy. J Pathol, 193: 511–516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Sgonc R, Gruschwitz MS, Dietrich H, Recheis H, Gershwin ME, Wick G (1996) Endothelial cell apoptosis is a primary pathogenetic event underlying skin lesions in avian and human scleroderma. J Clin Invest, 98: 785–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Shulman L (1974) Diffuse fasciitis with hypergammaglobulinemia and eosinophilia: a new syndrome? Clinical Reaserch, 23: 443AGoogle Scholar
  169. Silman A, Jannini S, Symmons D, Bacon P (1988) An epidemiological study of scleroderma in the West Midlands. Br J Rheumatol, 27: 286–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Skobieranda K, Helm KF (1995) Decreased expression of the human progenitor cell antigen (CD34) in morphea. Am J Dermatopathol, 17: 471–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Soma Y, Fujimoto M (1998). Frontoparietal scleroderma (en coup de sabre) following Blaschko’s lines. J Am Acad Dermatol, 38: 366–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Soma Y, Tamaki T, Kikuchi K, Abe M, Igarashi A, Takehara K, Ishibashi Y (1993) Coexistence of morphea and systemic sclerosis. Dermatology, 186: 103–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Stava Z, Kobikova M (1977) Salazopyrin in the treatment of scleroderma. Br J Dermatol, 96: 541–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Stefanec T (2000) Endothelial apoptosis: could it have a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of disease? Chest, 117: 841–854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Stege H, Berneburg M, Humke S, Klammer M, Grewe M, Grether-Beck S, Boedeker R, Diepgen T, Dierks K, Goerz G, Ruzicka T, Krutmann J (1997) High-dose UVA1 radiation therapy for localized scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 36: 938–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Steger JW, Matthews JH (1999) UVA therapy for scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 40: 787–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Stone J, Franks AJ, Guthrie JA, Johnson MH (2001). Scleroderma "en coup de sabre": pathological evidence of intracerebral inflammation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 70: 382–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Su WP, Person JR (1981) Morphea profunda. A new concept and a histopathologic study of 23 cases. Am J Dermatopathol, 3: 251–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Su WP, Greene SL (1986) Bullous morphea profunda. Am J Dermatopathol, 8: 144–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Takehara K, Moroi Y, Nakabayashi Y, Ishibashi Y (1983) Antinuclear antibodies in localized scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 26: 612–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Taveira M, Selores M, Costa V, Massa A (1999) Generalized morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus successfully treated with sulphasalazine. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 12: 283–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Todd DJ, Askari A, Ektaish E (1998) PUVA therapy for disabling pansclerotic morphoea of children. Br J Dermatol, 138: 201–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Torres JE, Sanchez JL (1998) Histopathologic differentiation between localized and systemic scleroderma. Am J Dermatopathol, 20: 242–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Tuffanelli DL (1998) Localized scleroderma. Semin Cutan Med Surg, 17: 27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Uitto J, Santa Cruz DJ, Bauer EA, Eisen AZ (1980) Morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Clinical and histopathologic studies in patients with combined features. J Am Acad Dermatol, 3: 271–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Umbert P, Winkelmann RK (1978) Concurrent localized scleroderma and discoid lupus erythematosus. Cutaneous ‘mixed’ or ‘overlap’ syndrome. Arch Dermatol, 114: 1473–1478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Unterberger I, Trinka E, Engelhardt K, Muigg A, Eller P, Wagner M, Sepp N, Bauer G (2003). Linear scleroderma "en coup de sabre" coexisting with plaque-morphea: neuroradiological manifestation and response to corticosteroids. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 74: 661–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Uziel Y, Krafchik BR, Feldman B, Silverman ED, Rubin LA, Laxer RM (1994). Serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor. A marker of disease activity in localized scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 37: 898–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Uziel Y, Krafchik BR, Silverman ED, Thorner PS, Laxer RM (1994b) Localized scleroderma in childhood: a report of 30 cases. Semin Arthritis Rheum, 23: 328–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Uziel Y, Feldman BM, Krafchik BR, Yeung RS, Laxer RM (2000) Methotrexate and corticosteroid therapy for pediatric localized scleroderma. J Pediatr, 136: 91–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. van Bergen BH, van Dooren-Greebe RJ, Fiselier TJ, Koopman RJ (1997) D-penicillamine in treatment of scleroderma "en coup de sabre". Hautarzt, 48: 42–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. van den Hoogen FH, Boerbooms AM, Swaak AJ, Rasker JJ, van Lier HJ, van de Putte LB (1996) Comparison of methotrexate with placebo in the treatment of systemic sclerosis: a 24 week randomized double-blind trial, followed by a 24 week observational trial. Br J Rheumatol, 35: 364–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Venneker GT, Das PK, Naafs B, Tigges AJ, Bos JD, Asghar SS (1994) Morphoea lesions are associated with aberrant expression of membrane cofactor protein and decay accelerating factor in vascular endothelium. Br J Dermatol, 131: 237–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Wach F, Ullrich H, Schmitz G, Landthaler M, Hein R (1995) Treatment of severe localized scleroderma by plasmapheresis — report of three cases. Br J Dermatol, 133: 605–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Wakelin SH, James MP (1995) Zosteriform atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini. Clin Exp Dermatol, 20: 244–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Weedon D (1997) Disorders of collagen. In: Skin Pathology, Churchill Livingstone, HongKong, pp 288–293Google Scholar
  197. Weide B, Walz T, Garbe C (2000) Is morphoea caused by Borrelia burgdorferi? A review. Br J Dermatol, 142: 636–644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Whittaker SJ, Smith NP, Jones RR (1989) Solitary morphoea profunda. Br J Dermatol, 120: 431–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Winkelmann RK, Connolly SM, Doyle JA (1982) Carpal tunnel syndrome in cutaneous connective tissue disease: generalized morphea, lichen sclerosus, fasciitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, and lupus panniculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol, 7: 94–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Winkelmann R (1985) Localized cutaneous scleroderma. Seminars in Dermatology, 4: 90–103Google Scholar
  201. Wlaschek M, Briviba K, Stricklin GP, Sies H, Scharffetter-Kochanek K (1995) Singlet oxygen may mediate the ultraviolet A-induced synthesis of interstitial collagenase. J Invest Dermatol, 104: 194–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Wollenberg A, Baumann L, Plewig G (1995) Linear atrophoderma of Moulin: a disease which follows Blaschko’s lines. Br J Dermatol, 135: 277–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wollina U, Looks A, Schneider R, Maak B (1998) Disabling morphoea of childhood-beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Clin Exp Dermatol, 23: 292–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Wuthrich RC, Roenigk HH, Steck WD (1975) Localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol, 111: 98–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Yamaguchi K, Takeuchi I, Yoshii N, Gushi A, Kanekura T, Kanzaki T (1998) The discrepancy in hardness between clinical and histopathological findings in localized scleroderma treated with PUVA. J Dermatol, 25: 544–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Yamanaka CT, Gibbs NF (1999) Trauma-induced linear scleroderma. Cutis, 63: 29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Yamane K, Ihn H, Kubo M, Yazawa N, Kikuchi K, Soma Y, Tamaki K (2000) Increased serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin in patients with localized scleroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 42: 64–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Young EM, Jr, Barr RJ (1985) Sclerosing dermatoses. J Cutan Pathol, 12: 426–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Zheng XY, Zhang JZ, Tu P, Ma SQ (1998) Expression of platelet-derived growth factor B-chain and platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor in fibroblasts of scleroderma. J Dermatol Sci, 18: 90–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine H. Orteu
  • Jan P. Dutz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations