The Role of GPCR Dimerisation/Oligomerisation in Receptor Signalling
A wide range of techniques have been employed to examine the quaternary structure of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although it is well established that homo-dimerisation is common, recent studies have sought to explore the physical basis of these interactions and the role of dimerisation in signal transduction. Growing evidence hints at the existence of higher-order organisation of individual GPCRs and the potential for hetero-dimerisation between pairs of co-expressed GPCRs. Here we consider how both homo-dimerisation/oligomerisation and hetero-dimerisation can regulate signal transduction through GPCRs and the potential consequences of this for function of therapeutic medicines that target GPCRs. Hetero-dimerisation is not the sole means by which co-expressed GPCRs may regulate the function of one another. Heterologous desensitisation may be at least as important and we also consider if this can be the basis for physiological antagonism between pairs of co-expressed GPCRs.
Although there may be exceptions (Meyer et al. 2006), a great deal of recent evidence has indicated that most G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) do not exist as monomers but rather as dimers or, potentially, within higher-order oligomers (Milligan 2004b; Park et al. 2004). Support for such models has been provided by a range of studies employing different approaches, including co-immunoprecipitation of differentially epitope-tagged but co-expressed forms of the same GPCR, co-operativity in ligand binding and a variety of resonance energy transfer techniques (Milligan and Bouvier 2005). Only for the photon receptor rhodopsin has the organisational structure of a GPCR been studied in situ. The application of atomic force microscopy to murine rod outer segment discs indicated that rhodopsin is organised in a series of parallel arrays of dimers (Liang et al. 2003) and based on this, molecular models were constructed to try to define and interpret regions of contact between the monomers (Fotiadis et al. 2004). Only for relatively few other GPCRs are details of the molecular basis of dimerisation available but within this limited data set, recent studies on the dopamine D2 receptor suggest a means by which information on the binding of an agonist can be transmitted between the two elements of the dimer via the dimer interface (Guo et al. 2005).
Although the availability of cDNAs encoding molecularly defined GPCRs has allowed high-throughput screening for ligands that modulate GPCR function, this is performed almost exclusively in heterologous cell lines transfected to express only the specific GPCR of interest. Given that the human genome contains some 400–450 genes encoding non-chemosensory GPCRs, it is clear that any individual cell of the body may express a considerable number of GPCRs. Interactions between these, either via hetero-dimerisation, via heterologous desensitisation or via the integration of downstream signals can potentially alter the pharmacology, sensitivity and function of receptor agonists and hence produce varied responses. In this article, we will use specific examples to consider the role of homo-dimerisation/oligomerisation in GPCR function and whether either direct hetero-dimerisation or heterologous desensitisation between pairs of co-expressed GPCRs affects the function of the receptor pairs.
KeywordsFluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Yellow Fluorescent Protein Cyan Fluorescent Protein Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Signal Heterologous Desensitisation
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