Advertisement

The rheumatoid foot. Pathomechanics, clinical and radiological features. Therapeutic conditions

  • M. Bouysset
  • P. Hugueny

Abstract

The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the general population is 0.5%. This progressive disease affects 3 times more women than men and occurs at any age, but especially between 40 and 60 years. Initially, it may remain localized to the foot and ankle for a long time. During its progress, the foot is affected in 90% or more of cases (1,19, 78, 82, 97, 104, 109).

Keywords

Rheumatoid Arthritis Hallux Valgus Metatarsal Head Metatarsophalangeal Joint Posterior Tibial Tendon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allieu Y, Claustre J, Simon L (1977) Étude anatomo-clinique et genèse des déformations du pied dans la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. In: Le pied inflammatoire. Maloine, Paris, pp 15–33Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amico (d’) JC (1976) The pathomechanics of adult rheumatoid arthritis affecting the foot. J Am Podiatr Assco 66: 227–36Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amor B, Herson D, Cherot A, et al. (1981) Polyarthrites rhumatoïdes évoluant depuis plus de dix ans (1966–1978). An Med Interne (Paris) 132: 168–73Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson EG (1990) The rheumatoid foot: a sideways look. Ann Rheum Dis 4: 851–7Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arangio GA, Phillippy DC, Xiao D, et al. (2000) Subtalar pronation — relationship to the medial longitudinal arch loading in the normal foot. Foot and Ankle International 21, no 3, 216–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asencio G, Bertin R, Megy B, et al. (1991) Intrication de l’arrière-pied dans la chirurgie de l’avant-pied rhumatoïde. Médecine et Chirurgie du Pied 7: 185–191Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Awerbuch MS, Shepard E, Vernon-Roberts B (1982) Morton’s metatarsalgia due to intermetatarso-phalangeal bursitis as an early manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop 167: 214–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barrett JP Jr (1976) Plantar pressure measurements: rational shoewear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA: 235: 1138–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bassiouni M. (1965) Incidence of calcaneal spurs in osteoarthrosis and rheumatoid arthritis and in control patients. Ann Rheum Dis 24: 490–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benson GM, Johnson EW Jr (1971) Management of the foot in rheumatoid arthritis. Orthop Clin North Am 2: 733–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blotman F, Claustre J, Allieu Y, et al. (1977) Ténosynovites et syndromes canalaires du pied rhumatoïde. In: Le pied inflammatoire. Paris, Maloine p 35Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bonnel F, Farenc C, Claustre J, et al. (1989) Etude biométrique et radiographique du pied. Médecine et Chirurgie du Pied 5: 105–11Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bossley CJ, Cairney PC (1980) The intermetatarsophalangeal bursa: its significance in Morton’s metatarsalgia. J Bone Joint Surg 62B: 184Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bouysset M, Bonvoisin B, Lejeune E, et al. (1987) Flattening of the rheumatoid foot in tarsal arthritis on X-ray. Scand J Rheumatol 16: 127–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bouysset M, Tebib J, Weil E, et al. (1989) The rheumatoid heel: its relationship to other disorders in the rheumatoid foot. Clin Rheumatol 8: 208–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bouysset M, Tebib J, Noël E, et al. (1993) When should orthopaedic treatment be prescribed to avoid the flattening of the rheumatoid foot? Clin rheumatol vol 12, no 1Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bouysset M, Tavernier T, Tebib J, et al. (1995) CT and MRI evaluation or tenosynovitis of the rheumatoid hindfoot. Clin Rheumatol 14: 303–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bouysset M, Tebib J, Noël E, et al. (2002) Rheumatoid flatfoot and deformity of the first ray. J Rheumatol, 29: 903–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braun S (1975) Le pied dans les grands rhumatismes inflammatoires chroniques. Rhumatologie 27: 47–56Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brook A, Corbett M. (1977) Radiographic changes in early rheumatoid disease. Ann Rheum Dis 36: 71–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Budiman-Mak K, Conrad K, Roach J, et al. (1993) Can foot orthoses prevent deformity in rheumatoid arthritis? American College of Rheumatology, San Antonio nov 7–11Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bywaters EGL (1953) Hell lesions of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 13: 42–50Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chatter EH (1970) Tarsal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (letter to the editor). Br Med J (Clin Res) 3: 406Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Claustre J (1979) Le pied rhumatoïde. Problèmes podologiques pratiques. Rev Rhum 46: 673–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clayton ML (1960) Surgery of the forefoot in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop 16: 136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clayton ML (1967) Surgical treatment of the rheumatoid foot. In: Giannestras NJ (ed) Foot and Disorders. Medical and Surgical Management. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Clayton ML (1963) Surgery of the lower extremity in rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg (AM) 45: 1517–36Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coughlin MJ (1988) The rheumatoid foot. In: Chapman MW (ed). Operative Orthopedics, Philadelphia, JB Lippincott vol 3, pp 1845–55Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cracchiolo A (1997) Rheumatoid arthritis. Hindfoot Disease. Clin Orthop 340: 58–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cracchiolo AC III (1984) Surgery for rheumatoid disease. Part I: foot abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis. In American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Instructional Course Lectures. Vol 33. St Louis, Mosby-Year Book 386–404Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Craxford AD, Stevens J, Park C (1982) Management of the deformed rheumatoid forefoot: a comparison of conservative and surgical methods. Clin Ortho 166:121–6Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dedrick DK, Mc Cune J, Smith WS (1990) Rheumatoid arthritis presenting as spreading of the toes. J Bone Joint Surg 72A: 463Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dixon ASJ (1971) The rheumatoid foot. Mod Trands Rheumatol 2: 158–73Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Downey DJ, Simkin PA, Mack LA, et at. (1988) Tibialis posterior tendon rupture: a cause of rheumatoid flat foot. Arthritis Rheum 31: 441–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Duncan GS (1990) Recurrent rheumatoid nodule of the foot. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 80, number 10:552–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Elbaor JE, Thomas WH, Weinfeld MS, et al. (1976) Talonavicular arthrodesis for rheumatoid arthritis of the hindfoot. Orthop Clin North Am 7: 821Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Enjalbert M, Claustre J, Herisson C, Simon L (1989) Synovites du médio-tarse révélatrices d’un rhumatisme inflammatoire chronique. In: Claustre J, Simon L (ed). Le médio-pied. Paris, Masson 191–7Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Forslind K, Larsson EM, Johansson A, et al. (1997) Detection of joint pathology by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 36(6): 683–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gerster JC, Wichert L, Bennami A, et al. (1977) The painful heel. Ann Rheum Dis 36: 343–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gheith and Dixon (1973) Tangential X-ray of the forefoot in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 32: 92–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gold RH, Basset LW (1982) Radiologic evaluation of the arthritis foot. Foot and Ankle, 2: 332–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gould JS (1982) Conservative management of the hypersensitive foot in rheumatoid arthritis. Foot Ankle, 2: 224–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grabois M, Puentes J, Lidsky M. (1981) Tarsal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 62: 401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gracchiolo A III, Kitaoka HB, Pearson S (1988) Treatment of the painful, arthritic hindfoot (abstract). Orthop Transactions 12: 765Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Grifka JK (1997) Shoes and insoles for patients with rheumatoid foot disease. Clin Orthop 340: 18–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Haines RW, Mac Dougall A (1954) The anatomy of hallux valgus. J Bone Joint Surg 36-B:272Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hamalainen M, Raunio P (1997) Long term follow-up of rheumatoid forefoot surgery. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 340: 34–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Huber-Levernieux C (1993) La rupture du tendon du jambier postérieur. Synoviale 20: 10–7Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Inman VT (1976) The joints of the Ankle. Baltimore, Williams and WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jacoby RK et al. (1976) The great toe as a clinical problem in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Rehabil 15: 143–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jakubowski (1959) Early synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis. Excerpta Medica Foundation: 149Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jan C, Delagoutte JP, Lobeuille D, et al. (1995) Polyarthrite rhumatoïde et kyste synovial: une localisation inhabituelle. Méd Chir Pied 11: 45–8Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Janisse DJ, Ped C (1998) Prescription footwear for arthritis of the Foot and Ankle. Clin Orthop 349: 100–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jernberg ET, Simkin P, Kravette M, et al. (1999) The posterior tibial tendon and the tarsal sinus in rheumatoid flat foot: magnetic resonance imaging of 40 feet. J Rheumatol 26(2): 289–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jörgensen G (1953) Uber die laterale abduction der zehen. Zbl Chir 78: 849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Keenan MAE, Peabody TD, Gronley JK, et al. (1991) Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. 73A,2: 237–47Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kerschbaumer F, Von-Salomon D, Lehr F (1996) Der rheumatische Vorfuss. Der Orthopädie. 25(4): 354–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kindsfater K, Wilson MG, Thomas WH (1997) Management of the rheumatoid hindfoot with special reference to talonavicular arthrodesis. Clin Orthop 340: 69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kirkham BW, Gibson T (1988) Letter: comment on the article by Downey et al. Arthritis Rheum 31: 3Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kirkup Jr (1974) Ankle and tarsal joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 3: 50–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kirkup JR, Vidigal E, Jacob RK (1977) The hallux and rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Orthop Scand 48: 527–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kitaoka HB (1989) Rheumatoid hindfoot. Orthop Clin North Am 20: 593–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Klenerman L (1995) The Foot and Ankle in Rheumatoid Arthritis. British Journal of Rheumatology 34: 443–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lapeyre-Gros F (1996) Le chaussage du pied rhumatoïde. Méd chir pied 12: 196–201Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mac Carthy DJ (1983) Surgical anatomy of the first ray. J Am Podiatr Assoc 73: 244–55Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mac Guigan L, Burke D, Fleming A (1983) Tarsal tunnel syndrome and peripheral neuropathy in rheumatoid disease. Ann Rheum Dis 42: 128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mac Master PE (1933) Tendon and muscle ruptures: clinical and experimental studies of the causes and location of subcutaneous ruptures. J Bone Joint Surg 15: 705–22Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mann R, Inman VT (1964) Phasic activity of intrinsic muscles of the foot. J Bone Joint Surg 46A: 469Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mann RA, Schakel ME (1995) Surgical correction of rheumatoid forefoot deformities. Foot Ankle Int 16: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Manzi JA, Goldman F (1983) Rheumatoid nodule, an unusual variant. J Am. Podiatr Assoc 73: 205–8Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marmor L (1975) Resection of the forefoot in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop; 108: 223–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marshall RN, Myers DB, Palmer D (1980) Disturbance of gait due to rheumatoid disease. J Rheumatol 7: 617–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Martel W (1970) Acute and Chronic Arthritis of the foot. Semin Roentgenol 5: 391–406Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Matsuda Y, Yamanaka H, Higami K, et al. (1998) Time lag between active joint inflammation and radiological progression in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology 25(3): 427–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Matsumoto K, Hukuda S, Nishioka J, Asajima S (1992) Rupture of the Achilles Tendon in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Histological Evidence of Enthesitis. A case report. Clin Orthop and Rel Res 235–40Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Meachim G, Abberton MJ (1971) Histological findings in Morton’s metatarsalgia. J Pathol 103: 209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mereday C, Dolan C, Lusskin MD (1972) Evaluation of the University of California biomechanics laboratory shoe insert in “flexible” pes planus. Clin Orthop 82: 45–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Michelson J, Easley M, Wigley FM, et al. (1994) Foot and Ankle problems in rheumatoid arthritis. Foot Ankle Int 15: 608–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Michelson J, Easley M, Wigley FM, et al. (1995) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis. Foot Ankle Int 16: 156–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Miehlke W, Gschwend N, Rippstein P, et al. (1997) Compression arthrodesis of the rheumatoid ankle and hindfoot. Clin Orthop 340: 75–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Miller HG, Abadesco L, Heaney J (1983) Morton’s neuroma symptoms from a rheumatoid nodule. J Am Podiatr Assoc 73: 311–2Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Minaker K, Little H (1973) Painful feet in rheumatoid arthritis. CMA Journal 109: 724–30Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nakano KK (1975) The entrapment neuropathies of rheumatoid arthritis. Orthop Clin North Am 6: 837–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    O’Brien TS, Hart TS, Gould JS (1997) Extraosseous manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis in the foot and ankle. Clin Orthop 340: 26–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ouzounian T (2000) Rheumatoid arthritis of the foot and ankle. In: Myerson MS (ed) Foot and Ankle Disorders. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company vol 2 1189–204Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Potter TA, Khus JG (1972) Painful feet. In: Hollander JL (ed) Arthritis and Allied conditions. Philadelphia Lea and FebigerGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Resnick D (1976) Roentgen features of the rheumatoid mid and hindfoot. J Can Assoc Radiol 27: 99–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Resnick D, Niwayama G, Feingold ML (1977) The sesamoid bones of the hands and feet: participators in arthritis. Radiology 123: 57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Resnick RN, Jahss MH, Choueka J, et al. (1995) Deltoid ligament forces after tibialis posterior tendon ruptures: effect of triple arthrodesis and calcaneal displacement osteotomies. Foot Ankle Int 16: 14–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Resnick D, Niwayama G (1988) Rheumatoid arthritis. In: Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders, 2nd ed., vol 2. Resnick D (ed). Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 259–87Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rosenberg ZS, Cheung Y, Jahss MH, et al. (1999) Rupture of posterior tibial tendon: CT and MRI imaging with surgical correlation. Radiology, Vol 169, number 1, 229–35Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Seror P, Claustre J, Kha TD (1983) Les tarsites rhumatoïdes. In: Claustre J, Simon L (eds) Le pied en pratique rhumatologique. Paris, Masson, p 40Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Serre H, Simon L, Claustre L (1972) Le syndrome douloureux aigu du deuxième espace intermétatarsien. Rev Rhum 39: 495–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sharp JT, Wilder RR, Hunder RI (1988) The American rheumatism association 1989. Criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 315–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Simkin PA, Downey DJ, Richardson ML (1989) Letter: More on the posterior tibial tendon in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 32: 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Simon L, Claustre J, Allieu Y (1980) Le pied rhumatoïde. Genèse des déformations. Rev Rhum 47: 117–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Smith CA, Arnett FC (1991) Epidemiologic aspects of rheumatoid arthritis, current immunogenetic approach. Clin Orthop: 265: 23–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Spector TD, Scott DL (1988) What happens to patients with rheumatoid arthritis? The long-term outcome of treatment. Clin Rheumatol 3: 315–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Spiegel TM, Spiegel JS (1982) Rheumatoid arthritis in the foot and ankle. Diagnosis, pathology and treatment. Foot Ankle 2: 318–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stiles RG, Resnick D, Sartoris DJ (1988) Radiologic manifestations of arthritides involving the foot. Clin Podiatr Med Surg 5: 1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stiskal M, Szolar DH, Stenzel I, et al. (1997) Magnetic resonance imaging of achilles tendon in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Invest Radiol 32(10) pp 602–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Stockley I, Betts RP, Rowley Di, et al. (1990) The importance of the valgus hindfoot in forefoot surgery in rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg 72B: 705–8Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tenoudji-Cohen M, Perez R, Dessauw Ph, Sany J (1983) Apport de l’exploration radiographique du pied dans les rhumatismes inflammatoires. In: Claustre, Simon (eds) Le pied en pratique rhumatologique. Paris, Masson, p 102Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Thould AK, Simon G (1966) Assessment of radiological changes in hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 25: 220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tillmann K (1979) The rheumatoid foot. G Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 44–56Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tillmann K (1985) Reconstructive foot surgery. Ann Chir Gynaecol 74: 90–5Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tillmann K (1987) The mutual interplay between forefoot and hindfoot affections and deformities in RA. Rheumatoid arthritis surgery of the complex foot. Rheumatology 11: 97–9Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Vahvanen VAJ (1967) Rheumatoid arthritis in the pantalar joint. Acta Orthop Scan Suppl 107: 1–152Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vainio K (1956) The rheumatoid foot. A clinical study with pathological and roentgenological comments. In: Kallio, Vara (eds) Ann Chir Gynaecol 45(suppl 1) 1–107Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vannimenus PY, Vannimenus-Hayem C, Thevenon A (1987) Etude radiographique du pied rhumatoïde et comparaison avec l’atteinte de la main. Médecine et Chirurgie du Pied 3: 197–202Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Viladot A, Viladot R (1983) Biomécanique de Tavant-pied rhumatoïde. In: Claustre J, Simon L (eds) Le pied en pratique rhumatologique, Masson, Paris, p 28Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Visser H, Le Cessie S, Vos K, et al. (2000) How to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA) early: the development of diagnostic criteria. Ann Rheum, 59(suppl 1), p 35Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Voutey H, Strauss J, Magnet JL (1980) Résultats dans la chirurgie de l’avant-pied rhumatoïde. Rev Rhum 47:123–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wakefields RJ, Gibbon WW, Cnaghan PG et al. (2000) The value of sonography in the detection of bone erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 43:2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Whitney, Kalan K (1990) Padding and taping therapy. In: Levy LA (ed) Principles and practice of podiatric medicine. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 709–46Google Scholar

Additional references

  1. .
    Bouysset M, Tebib J, Tavernier T and al. (2003) Posterior tibial tendon and subtalar joint complex in rheumatoid arthritis: magnetic resonance imaging study. The journal of rheumatology 30:9.Google Scholar
  2. .
    Chalmers AC, Busby C, Goyert J, Porter B, Schulzer M (2000) Metatarsalgia and rheumatoid arthritis — a randomised, single blind, sequential trial comparing 2 types of foot orthoses and supportive shoes. J Rheumatol. 27(7): 1643–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. .
    Cracchiolo A 1997 Erd. Rheumatoid arthritis. hindfoot disease. Clin Orthop. jul; (340): 58–68.Google Scholar
  4. .
    Hamilton J, Brydson G, Fraser S, Grant M (2001) Walking ability as a measure of treatment effect in early rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rehabil. 15(2): 142–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. .
    Hodge MC, Bach TM, Carter GM (1999) Orthotic management of plantar pressure and pain in rheumatoid arthritis, clinic biomechanics 14(8): 567–75.Google Scholar
  6. .
    Jannick MJ, Van Dijk H, De Vries J, Groothoff JW, Lankhordst GJ (2004) A systematic review of the methodological quality and extent to which evaluation studies measure the usability of orthopaedic shoes. Clin Rehabil. 18(1): 15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. .
    Wickman AM, Pinzur MS, Kadanoff R, Juknelis D (2004) Health-related quality of life for patients with rheumatoid arthritis foot involvement. Foot Ankle int. 25(1): 19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. .
    Locke M, Perry J, Campbell J, Thomas L (1984) — Ankle and subtalar motion during gait in arthritis patients. Phys. Ther. 64(4): 504–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. .
    O’Brien T, Hart TS, Gould J (1997) Extra-osseous manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis in the foot and ankle. Clin. Orthop. 340, 26–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. .
    Thomas JL, Moeini R, Soileau R (2000) The effects on subtalar contact and pressure following talonavicular and midtarsal joint arthrodesis. J. Foot Ankle Surg. 39(2): 78–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag France 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bouysset
    • 1
  • P. Hugueny
    • 1
  1. 1.Villefranche-sur-SaôneFrance

Personalised recommendations