Advertisement

Médiateurs de l’inflammation

  • J.-M. Cavaillon
Part of the Le point sur⋯ book series (POINT)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Références

  1. 1.
    Garred, PJ, Strom, J, Quist et al. (2003) Association of mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms with sepsis and fatal outcome, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. J Infect Dis 188: 1394–403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nakamura T, Ueno Y, Goda Y et al. (1997) Efficacy of a selective histamine H-2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, in experimental models of endotoxin shock and hepatitis in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 322: 83–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cavaillon JM, Fitting C, Haeffner-Cavaillon N (1990) Recombinant C5a enhances interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor release by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes and macrophages. Eur J Immunol 20: 253–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barton PA, Warren JS (1993) Complement component C5 modulates the systemic tumor necrosis factor response in murine endotoxic shock. Infect Immun 61: 1474–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Riedemann NC, Guo RF, Neff TA et al. (2002) Increased C5a receptor expression in sepsis. J Clin Invest 110: 101–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ward PA (2004) The dark side of C5a in sepsis. Nature Rev Immunol 4: 123–42Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nansen A, Pravsgaard Christensen J, Marker O, Randrup Thomsen A (1997) Sensitization to lipopolysaccharide in mice with asymptomatic viral infection: role of T-cell-dependent production of interferon-γ. J Infect Dis 176: 151–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rothstein JL, Schreiber H (1988) Synergy between tumor necrosis factor and bacterial products causes hemorrhagic necrosis and lethal shock in normal mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 607–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Doherty GM, Lange JR, Langstein HN et al. (1992) Evidence for IFN-gamma as a mediator of the lethality of endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol 149: 1666–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ghezzi P, Dinarello CA, Bianchi M et al. (1991) Hypoxia increases production of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by human mononuclear cells. Cytokine 3: 189–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gerlach H, Gerlach M, Clauss M (1993) Relevance of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1-alpha in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-related organ failure. Eur J Anaesthesiol 10: 273–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adrie C, Adib-Conquy M, Laurent I et al. (2002) Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiac arrest as a «sepsis like» syndrome. Circulation 106: 562–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geissmann F, Jung S, Littman DR (2003) Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties. Immunity 19: 71–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ness TL, Hogaboam CM, Strieter RM, Kunkel SL (2003) Immunomodulatory role of CXCR2 during experimental septic peritonitis. J Immunol 171: 3775–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bernhagen J, Calandra T, Mitchell RA et al. (1993) MIF is a pituitary-derived cytokine that potentiates lethal endotoxaemia. Nature 365: 756–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Calandra T, Echtenacher B, Le Roy D et al. (2000)Protection from septic shock by neutralization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor. Nature Med. 6: 164–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roger T, David J, Glauser MP, Calandra T (2001) MIF regulates innate immune responses through modulation of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature 414: 920–4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang H, Bloom O, Zhang M et al. (1999) HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice. Science 285: 248–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang H, Ochani M, Li J et al. (2004) Reversing established sepsis with antagonists of endogenous high-mobility group box 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 296–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sappington P, Yang R, Yang H et al. (2002) HMGB1 B box increases the permeability of Caco-2 enterocytic monolayers and impairs intestinal barrier function in mice. Gastroenterology 123: 790–802CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hacham M, Cristal N, White RM et al. (1996) Complementary organ expression of IL-1 vs IL-6 and CSF-1 activities in normal and LPS injected mice. Cytokine 8: 21–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jansen PM, de Jong IW, Hart M et al. (1996) Release of leukemia inhibitory factor in primate sepsis. Analysis of the role of TNFα. J Immunol 156: 4401–07PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Muñoz C, Misset B, Fitting C et al. (1991) Dissociation between plasma and monocyteassociated cytokines during sepsis. Eur J Immunol 21: 2177–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marty C, Misset B, Tamion F et al. (1994) Circulating interleukin-8 concentrations in patients with multiple organ failure of septic and nonseptic origin. Crit Care Med 22: 673–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pinsky MR, Vincent JL, Deviere J et al. (1993) Serum cytokine levels in human septic shock. Relation to multiple-system organ failure and mortality. Chest 103: 565–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cavaillon JM, Adib-Conquy M, Fitting C et al. (2003) Cytokine cascade in sepsis. Scand J Infect Dis 35: 535–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cavaillon JM, Muñoz C, Fitting C et al. (1992) Circulating cytokines: the tip of the iceberg? Circ Shock 38: 145–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Erickson SL, de Sauvage F, Kikly K et al. (1994) Decreased sensitivity to tumour-necrosis factor but normal T-cell development in TNF receptor-2-deficient mice. Nature 372: 560–3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marie C, Fitting C, Cheval C et al. (1997) Presence of high levels of leukocyte-associated interleukin-8 upon cell activation and in patients with sepsis syndrome. Infect Immun 65: 865–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ejima K, Layne MD, Carvajal IM et al. (2003) Cyclooxygenase-2-deficient mice are resistant to endotoxin-induced inflammation and death. FASEB J 17: 1325–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hanasaki K, Yokota Y, Ishizaki J et al. (1997) Resistance to endotoxic shock in phospholipase A2 receptor-deficient mice. J Biol Chem 272: 32792–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen XS, Sheller JR, Johnson EN, Funk CD (1994) Role of leukotrienes revealed by targeted disruption of the 5-lipoxygenase gene. Nature 372: 179–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bernard GR, Wheeler AP, Russell JA et al. (1997) The effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of patients with sepsis. N Engl J Med 336: 912–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bochkov VN, Kadl A, Huber J et al. (2002) Protective role of phospholipid oxidation products in endotoxin-induced tissue damage. Nature 419: 77–81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Laubach V, Shesely E, Smithies O, Sherman P (1995) Mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase are not resistant to lipopolysaccharide-induced death. Proc Natl Acad Sci 92: 10688–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Han X, Fink MP, Uchiyama T et al. (2004) Increased iNOS activity is essential for pulmonary epithelial tight junction dysfunction in endotoxemic mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 286: L259–L67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Annane D, Sanquer S, Sébille V et al. (2000) Compartmentalised inducible nitric-oxide synthase activity in septic shock. Lancet 355: 1143–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sharshar T, Gray F, Lorin de la Grandmaison G et al. (2003) Apoptosis of neurons in cardiovascular autonomic centres triggered by inducible nitric oxide synthase after death from septic shock. Lancet 362: 1799–1805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Belaaouaj A, McCarthy R, Baumann M et al. (1998) Mice lacking neutrophil elastase reveal impaired host defense against gram negative bacterial sepsis. Nat Med 4: 615–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Murata A, Toda H, Uda K et al. (1994) Protective effect of recombinant neutrophil elastase inhibitor (R-020) on sepsis-induced organ injury in rat. Inflammation 18: 337–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mallen-St Clair J, Pham CT, Villalta SA et al. (2004) Mast cell dipeptidyl peptidase I mediates survival from sepsis. J Clin Invest 113: 628–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nakamura A, Mori Y, Hagiwara K et al. (2003) Increased susceptibility to LPS-induced endotoxin shock in secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI)-deficient mice. J Exp Med 197: 669–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tanaka H, Sugimoto H, Yoshioka T, Sugimoto T (1991) Role of granulocyte elastase in tissue injury in patients with septic shock complicated by multiple-organ failure. Ann Surg 213: 81–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Braun JS, Novak R, Herzog KH et al. (1999) Neuroprotection by a caspase inhibitor in acute bacterial meningitis. Nat Med 5: 298–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hotchkiss RS, Tinsley KW, Swanson PE et al. (1999) Prevention of lymphocyte cell death in sepsis improves survival in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 14541–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hotchkiss RS, Swanson PE, Knudson CM et al. (1999) Overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases apoptosis and improves survival in sepsis. J Immunol 162: 4148–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Coopersmith CM, Stromberg PE, Dunne WM et al. (2002) Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis and survival in a murine model of pneumonia-induced sepsis. JAMA 287: 1716–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ayala A, Herdon CD, Lehman DL et al. (1995) The induction of accelerated thymic programmed cell death during polymicrobial sepsis: control by corticosteroids but not tumor necrosis factor. Shock 3: 259–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bogdan I, Leib SL, Bergeron M et al. (1997) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha contributes to apoptosis in hippocampal neurons during experimental group B streptococcal meningitis. J Infect Dis 176: 693–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ayala A, Xin Xu Y, Ayala CA et al. (1998) Increased mucosal B-lymphocyte apoptosis during polymicrobial sepsis is a Fas ligand but not an endotoxin-mediated process. Blood 91: 1362–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Li P, Allen H, Banerjee S et al. (1995) Mice defeficient in IL-1ß converting enzyme are defective in production of mature IL-1β and resistant to endotoxic shock. Cell 80: 401–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Saleh M, Vaillancourt JP, Grahm RK et al. (2004) Differential modulation of endotoxin responsiveness by human caspase-12 polymorphisms. Nature 429: 75–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Franco R, de Jonge E, Dekkers PE et al. (2000) The in vivo kinetics of tissue factor messenger RNA expression during human endotoxemia: relationship with activation of coagulation. Blood 96: 554–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Levi M, Dorffler-Melly J, Reitsma P et al. (2003) Aggravation of endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation and cytokine activation in heterozygous protein-Cdeficient mice. Blood 101: 4823–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Laudes IJ, Chu JC, Sikranth S et al. (2002) Anti-C5a ameliorates coagulation/fibrinolytic protein changes in a rat model of sepsis. Am J Pathol 160: 1867–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Echtenacher B, Weigl K, Lehn N, Männel DN (2001) Tumor necrosis factor-dependent adhesions as a major protective mechanism early in septic peritonitis in mice. Infect Immun 69: 3550–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gérard C, Bruyns C, Marchant A et al. (1993) Interleukin-10 reduces the release of tumor necrosis factor and prevents lethality in experimental endotoxemia. J Exp Med 177: 547–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Oberholzer C, Oberholzer A, Bahjat FR et al. (2001) Targeted adenovirus-induced expression of IL-10 decreases thymic apoptosis and improves survival in murine sepsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 11503–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Marchant A, Devière J, Byl B et al. (1994) Interleukin-10 production during septicaemia. Lancet 343: 707–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shull MM, Ormsby I, Kier AB et al. (1992) Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease. Nature 359: 693–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Perrella MA, Hsieh CM, Lee WS et al. (1996) Arrest of endotoxin induced hypotension by transforming growth factor-β1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 2054–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Byrne A, Reen DJ (2002) Lipopolysaccharide induces rapid production of IL-10 by monocytes in the presence of apoptotic neutrophils. J Immunol 168: 1968–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen W, Frank M, Jin W, Wahl S (2001) TGF-beta released by apoptotic T cells contributes to an immunosuppressive milieu. Immunity 14: 715–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sawyer RG, Rosenlof LK, Pruett TL (1996) Interleukin-4 prevents mortality from acute but not chronic murine peritonitis and induces an accelerated TNF response. Eur Surg Res 28: 119–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Muchamuel T, Menon S, Pisacane P et al. (1997) IL-13 protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced lethal endotoxemia-Correlation with down-modulation of TNFα, IFN-γ, and IL-12 production. J Immunol 158: 2898–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tzung SP, Mahl TC, Lance P et al. (1992) Interferon-alpha prevents endotoxin-induced mortality in mice. Eur J Immunol 22: 3097–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Girardin E, Roux-Lombard P, Grau GE et al. (1992) Imbalance between tumour necrosis factor-alpha and soluble TNF receptor concentrations in severe meningococcaemia. Immunology 76: 20–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goldie AS, Fearon KC, Ross JA et al. (1995) Natural cytokine antagonists and endogenous antiendotoxin core antibodies in sepsis syndrome. The Sepsis Intervention Group. JAMA 274: 172–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Suter PM, Suter S, Girardin E et al. (1992) High bronchoalveolar levels of tumor necrosis factor and its inhibitors, interleukin-1, interferon, and elastase, in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome after trauma, shock, or sepsis. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: 1016–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Van Deuren M, Van Der Ven-Jongekrijg H, Vannier E et al. (1997) The pattern of IL-1β and its modulating agents IL-1ra and sIL-1R type II in acute meningococcal infection. Blood 90: 1101–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fischer E, Van Zee KJ, Marano MA et al. (1992) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist circulates in experimental inflammation and in human disease. Blood 79: 2196–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gardlund B, Sjölin J, Nilsson A et al. (1995) Plasma levels of cytokines in primary septic shock in humans: correlation with disease severity. J Infect Dis 172: 296–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ohlsson K, Bjökk P, Bergenfield M et al. (1990) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduces mortality from endotoxin shock. Nature 348: 550–2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gabay C, Smith MF, Eidlen D, Arend WP (1997) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is an acute phase protein. J Clin Invest 99: 2930–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pathan N, Hemingway CA, Alizadeh AA et al. (2004) Role of interleukin 6 in myocardial dysfunction of meningococcal septic shock. Lancet 363: 203–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Xing Z, Gauldie J, Cox G et al. (1998) IL-6 is an antiinflammatory cytokine required for controlling local or systemic acute inflammatory responses. J Clin Invest 101: 311–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tilg H, Trehu E, Atkins MB et al. (1994) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an anti-inflammatory cytokine: induction of circulating IL-1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55. Blood 83: 113–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Steensberg A, Fischer CP, Keller C et al. (2003) IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285: E433–E7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yoshizawa K, Naruto M, Ida N (1996) Injection time of interleukin-6 determines fatal outcome in experimental endotoxin shock. J Interferon Cytokine Res 16: 995–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hurst SM, Wilkinson TS, McLoughlin RM et al. (2001) IL-6 and its soluble receptor orchestrate a temporal switch in the pattern of leukocyte recruitment seen during acute inflammation. Immunity 14: 705–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Libert C, Vanmolle W, Brouckaert P, Fiers W (1996) alpha1-antitrypsin inhibits the lethal response to TNF in mice. J Immunol 157: 5126–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Xia D, Samols D (1997) Transgenic mice expressing rabbit C-reactive protein are resistant to endotoxemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 2575–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mold C, Rodriguez W, Rodic-Polic B, Du Clos TW (2002) C-reactive protein mediates protection from lipopolysaccharide through interactions with Fc gamma Receptor. J Immunol 169: 7019–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zweigner J, Gramm HJ, Singer OC et al. (2001) High concentration of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in serum of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock inhibit the lipopolysaccharide response in human monocytes. Blood 98: 3800–08CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kitchens RL, Thompson PA, Viriyakosol S et al. (2001) Plasma CD14 decreases monocyte responses to LPS by transferring cell-bound LPS to plasma lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 108: 485–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bas S, Gauthier BR, Spenato U et al. (2004) CD14 is an acute-phase protein. J Immunol 172: 4470–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee T, Chau L (2002) Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of interleukin-10 in mice. Nat Med 8: 240–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tamion F, Richard V, Lacoume Y, Thuillez C (2002) Intestinal preconditioning prevents systemic inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock. Role of HO-1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 283: G408–G14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fujii H, Takahashi T, Nakahira K et al. (2003) Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 in the intestinal tissue injury in an experimental model of sepsis. Crit Care Med 31: 893–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ding X, Fernandez-Prada C, Bhattacharjee A, Hoover D (2001) Over-expression of hsp-70 inhibits bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced production of cytokines in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Cytokine 16: 210–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gao B, Tsan MF (2003) Endotoxin contamination in recombinant human heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) preparation is responsible for the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha release by murine macrophages. J Biol Chem 278: 174–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Christeff N, Benassayag C, Carli-Vielle C et al. (1988) Elevated oestrogen and reduced testoterone levels in the serum of male septic shock patients. J Steroid Biochem 29: 435–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Angele MK, Schwacha MG, Ayala A, Chaudry IH (2000) Effect of gender and sex hormones on immune responses following shock. Shock 14: 81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zellweger R, Zhu XH, Wichmann MW et al. (1996) Prolactin administration following hemorrhagic shock improves macrophage cytokine release capacity and decreases mortality from subsequent sepsis. J Immunol 157: 5748–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Erwin AL, Munford RS (1990) Deacylation of structurally diverse lipopolysaccharides by human acyloxyacyl hydrolase. J Biol Chem 265: 16444–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Opal SM, Palardy JE, Marra MN et al. (1994) Relative concentrations of endotoxinbinding proteins in body fluids during infection. Lancet 344: 429–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Evans TJ, Carpenter A, Moyes D et al. (1995) Protective effects of a recombinant aminoterminal fragment of human bactericidal/permeability-incraesing protein in an animal model of Gram-negative sepsis. J Infect Dis 171: 153–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Larrick JW, Hirata M, Zheng H et al. (1994) A novel granulocyte-derived peptide with lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing activity. J Immunol 1994: 231–40Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cavaillon JM, Fitting C, Haeffner-Cavaillon N et al. (1990) Cytokine response by monocytes and macrophages to free and lipoprotein-bound lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun 58: 2375–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Harris H, Grunfeld C, Feingold K, Rapp J (1990) Human very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons can protect against endotoxin-induced death in mice. 86: 696–702Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kitchens RL, Thompson PA, Munford RS, O’Keefe GE (2003) Acute inflammation and infection maintain circulating phospholipid levels and enhance lipopolysaccharide binding to plasma lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 44: 2339–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Spengler RN, Allen RM, Remick DG et al. (1990) Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor augments the production of macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor. J Immun 145: 1430–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Severn A, Rapson NT, Hunter CA, Liew FY (1992) Regulation of tumor necrosis factor production by adrenaline and by ß-adrenergic agonists. J Immunol 148: 3441–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Van der Poll T, Coyle SM, Barbosa K et al. (1996) Epinephrine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha and potentiates interleukin-10 production during human endotoxemia. J Clin Invest 97: 713–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Farmer P, Pugin J (2000) ß-adrenergic agonists exert their «anti-inflammatory» effects in monocytic cells through the IкB/NF-кB patway. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 279: L675–L82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Delgado M, Pozo D, Martinez C et al. (1999) Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit endotoxin-induced TNFα production by macrophages: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Immunol 162: 2358–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Martinez C, Abad C, Delgado M et al. (2002) Anti-inflammatory role in septic shock of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 1053–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Borovikova LV, Ivanova S, Zhang M et al. (2000) Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin. Nature 405: 458–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wang H, Yu M, Ochani M, Amella CA et al. (2003) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation. Nature 421: 384–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Delgado Hernandez R, Demitri MT, Carlin A et al. (1999) Inhibition of systemic inflammation by central action of the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Neuroimmunomodulation 6: 187–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Annane D, Cavaillon JM (2003) Corticosteroids in sepsis: from bench to bedside? Shock 20: 197–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C et al. (2002) Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA 288: 862–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.-M. Cavaillon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations