Adnexal Masses: Benign Ovarian Lesions and Characterization
Incidental adnexal masses are commonly identified in radiologists’ daily practice. Most of them are benign ovarian lesions of no concern. However, sometimes defining the origin of a pelvic mass may be challenging, especially on ultrasound alone. Moreover, ultrasound not always allows the distinction between a benign and a malignant adnexal tumor.
Most of sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses turn out to be common benign entities that can be readily diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical impact of predicting the likelihood of malignancy is crucial for proper patient management.
The first part of this chapter will cover the technical magnetic resonance imaging aspects of ovarian lesions characterization as well as the imaging features that allow the radiologist to correctly define the anatomic origin of a pelvic mass. Next, the authors will go through different benign ovarian entities and through the different histologic types of benign ovarian tumors. Finally the functional ovarian tumors and the ovarian tumors in children, adolescents, young females, and pregnant women will be covered.
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