Uterine Sarcomas

  • Rita LucasEmail author
  • Teresa Margarida Cunha
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The term sarcoma comes from a Greek word meaning “fleshy growth”.


  1. Abeler VM, Royne O, Thoresen S et al (2009) Uterine sarcomas in Norway. A histopathological and prognostic survey of a total population from 1970 to 2000 including 419 patients. Histopathology 54:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali RH, Rouzbahman M (2015) Endometrial stromal tumours revisited: an update based on the 2014 WHO classification. J Clin Pathol 68(5):325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amant F, Coosemans A, Debiec-Rychter M, Timmerman D, Vergote I (2009) Clinical management of uterine sarcomas. Lancet Oncol 10:1188–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blom R, Guerrieri C (1999) Adenosarcoma of the uterus: a clinicopathologic, DNA flow cytometric, p53 and mdm-2 analysis of 11 cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer 9(1):37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodner K, Bodner-Adler B, Kimberger O et al (2003) Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma and correlation with different clinicopathological parameters. Anticancer Res 23:729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan JK, Kawar NM, Shin JY et al (2008) Endometrial stromal sarcoma: a population-based analysis. Br J Cancer 99(8):1210–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chourmouzi D, Boulogianni G, Zarampoukas T, Drevelengas A (2003) Sonography and MRI of tamoxifen-associated Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus. AJR Am J Roentgenol 181:1673–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conklin CM, Longacre TA (2014) Endometrial stromal tumours: the new WHO classification. Adv Anat Pathol 21(6):383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cornfield D, Israel G, Martel M et al (2010) MRI appearance of mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. Eur J Radiol 74:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. D’Angelo E, Prat J (2010) Uterine sarcomas: a review. Gynecol Oncol 116:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fekete PS, Vellios F (1984) The clinical and histologic spectrum of endometrial stromal neoplasms: a report of 41 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3:198–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Felix AS, Cook LS, Gaudet MM et al (2013) The etiology of uterine sarcomas: a pooled analysis of the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium. Br J Cancer 108:727–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gandolfo N, Gandolfo NG, Serafini G, Martinoli C (2000) Endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus: MR and US findings. Eur Radiol 10:776–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hodge JC, Morton CC (2007) Genetic heterogeneity among uterine leiomyomata: insights into malignant progression. Hum Mol Genet 16(1):R7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang PS, Chang WC, Huang SC (2014) Müllerian adenosarcoma: a review of cases and literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 35(6):617–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kao YH, Saad U, Tan AE, Magsombol BM, Padhy AK (2011) Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT for the evaluation of suspected recurrent uterine leiomyosarcomas. Acta Radiol 52:463–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kapp DS, Shin JY, Chan JK (2008) Prognostic factors and survival in 1396 patients with uterine leiomyosarcomas: emphasis on impact of lymphadenectomy and oophorectomy. Cancer 112:820–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim SA, Jung JS, Ju SJ, Kim YT, Kim KR (2011) Mullerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth in the pelvic cavity extending into the inferior vena cava and the right atrium. Pathol Int 61:445–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koivisto-Korander R, Butzow R, Koivisto AM, Leminen A (2008) Clinical outcome and prognostic factors in 100 cases of uterine sarcoma: experience in Helsinki University Central Hospital 1990–2001. Gynecol Oncol 111:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koyama T, Togashi K, Konishi I et al (1999) MR imaging of endometrial stromal sarcoma: correlation with pathologic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173:767–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kurman RJ, Carcangiu ML, Herrington S, Young RH (eds) (2014) WHO classification of tumours of the female reproductive organs, 4 edn. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
  22. Leath CA III, Huh WK, Hyde J Jr et al (2007) A multi-institutional review of outcomes of endometrial stromal sarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 105:630–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee C-H, Mariño-Enriquez A, Ou W et al (2012) The clinicopathologic features of YWHAE-FAM22 endometrial stromal sarcomas: a histologically high-grade and clinically aggressive tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 36:641–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leitao MM, Sonoda Y, Brennan MF, Barakat RR, Chi DS (2003) Incidence of lymph node and ovarian metastases in leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. Gynecol Oncol 91(1):209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Major FJ, Blessing JA, Silverberg SG et al (1993) Prognostic factors in early stage uterine sarcoma. A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 71(Suppl 4):1702–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McCluggage WG (2002a) Malignant biphasic uterine tumours: carcinosarcomas or metaplastic carcinomas? J Clin Pathol 55:321–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCluggage WG (2002b) Uterine carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) are metaplastic carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Cancer 12:687–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCluggage WG, Fisher C, Hirschowitz L; On behalf of the Working Group for Cancer Services of The Royal College of Pathologists (2014) Standards and datasets for reporting cancers. Dataset for histological reporting of uterine sarcomas. London: The Royal College of PathologistsGoogle Scholar
  29. Murase E, Siegelman ES, Outwater EK, Perez-Jaffe LA, Tureck RW (1999) Uterine leiomyomas: histopathologic features, MR imaging findings, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Radiographics 19(5):1179–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Namimoto T, Yamashita Y, Awai K et al (2009) Combined use of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted 3-T MR imaging for differentiating uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas. Eur Radiol 19:2756–2764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prat J (2009a) Corrigendum to ‘FIGO staging for uterine sarcomas’ [Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009; 104:179]. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 106:277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Prat J (2009b) FIGO staging for uterine sarcomas. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 104:177–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Prat J, Mbatani N (2015) Uterine sarcomas. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 131(Suppl 2):S105–S110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Riopel J, Plante M, Renaud M-C et al (2005) Lymph node metastases in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 96:402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sagae S, Yamashita K, Ishioka S et al (2004) Preoperative diagnosis and treatment results in 106 patients with uterine sarcoma in Hokkaido, Japan. Oncology 67(1):33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sala E, Rockall AG, Freeman SJ, Mitchell DG, Reinhold C (2013) The added role of MR imaging in treatment stratification of patients with gynecologic malignancies: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiology 266:717–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Santos P, Cunha TM (2015) Uterine sarcomas: clinical presentation and MRI features. Diagn Interv Radiol 21(1):4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schwartz LB, Zawin M, Carcangui MA, Lange R, McCarthy S (1998) Does pelvic magnetic resonance imaging differentiate among the histologic subtypes of uterine leiomyomata? Fertil Steril 70:580–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seddon BM, Davda R (2011) Uterine sarcomas – recent progress and future challenges. Eur J Radiol 78(1):30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sherman ME, Devesa SS (2003) Analysis of racial differences in incidence, survival, and mortality for malignant tumors of the uterine corpus. Cancer 98:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sutton G (2013) Uterine sarcomas 2013. Gynecol Oncol 130(1):3–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Szklaruk J, Tamm EP, Choi H, Varavithya V (2003) MR imaging of common and uncommon large pelvic masses. Radiographics 23:403–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tamai K, Koyama T, Saga T et al (2008) The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for differentiating uterine sarcomas from benign leiomyomas. Eur Radiol 18:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tanaka YO, Nishida M, Tsunoda H, Okamoto Y, Yoshikawa H (2004) Smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential and leiomyosarcomas of the uterus: MR findings. J Magn Reson Imaging 20:998–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tanner EJ, Garg K, Leitao MM Jr, Soslow RA, Hensley ML (2012) High grade undifferentiated uterine sarcoma: surgery, treatment, and survival outcomes. Gynecol Oncol 127(1):27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thomassin-Naggara I, Dechoux S, Bonneau C et al (2013) How to differentiate benign from malignant myometrial tumours using MR imaging. Eur Radiol 23:2306–2314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tirumani SH, Ojili V, Shanbhogue AK, Fasih N, Ryan JG, Reinhold C (2013) Current concepts in the imaging of uterine sarcoma. Abdom Imaging 38(2):397–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Toro JR, Nickerson ML, Wei MH et al (2003) Mutations in the fumarate hydratase gene cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer in families in North America. Am J Hum Genet 73:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tse KY, Crawford R, Ngan HY (2011) Staging of uterine sarcomas. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 25(6):733–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wu TI, Yen TC, Lai CH (2011) Clinical presentation and diagnosis of uterine sarcoma, including imaging. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 25:681–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xue WC, Cheung AN (2011) Endometrial stromal sarcoma of uterus. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 25(6):719–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yu CL, Tucker MA, Abramson DH et al (2009) Cause-specific mortality in long-term survivors of retinoblastoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:581–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital dos Lusíadas de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco GentilLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations