Endometrial Cancer

  • Mariana HortaEmail author
  • Teresa Margarida Cunha
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in well-developed countries. Biologically and clinicopathologically, endometrial carcinomas are divided into two types: type 1 or estrogen-dependent carcinomas and type 2 or estrogen-independent carcinomas. Type 1 cancers correspond mainly to endometrioid carcinomas and account for approximately 90 % of endometrial cancers, whereas type 2 cancers correspond to the majority of the other histopathological subtypes.

The vast majority of endometrial cancers present as abnormal vaginal bleedings in postmenopausal women. Therefore, 75 % of cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, which makes the overall prognosis favorable.

The first diagnostic step to evaluate women with an abnormal vaginal bleeding is the measurement of the endometrial thickness with transvaginal ultrasound. If endometrial thickening or heterogeneity is confirmed, a biopsy should be performed to establish a definite histopathological diagnosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging is not considered in the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics staging system. Nonetheless it plays a relevant role in the preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma, helping to define the best therapeutic management. Moreover, it is important in the diagnosis of treatment complications, in the surveillance of therapy response, and in the assessment of recurrent disease.


Endometrial cancer Magnetic resonance imaging Gynecology Radiology 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Serviço de Radiologia, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco GentilLisboaPortugal

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