Advertisement

Re-irradiation in Head and Neck Cancer

  • Johannes A. Langendijk
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Re-irradiation for loco-regional failure of head and neck cancer or second primary tumours in previously irradiated areas after a full course of (chemo-)radiation poses a challenging problem for radiation oncologists. Salvage surgery remains the standard of care, which however, is the case in only 20 % of the cases. Chemotherapy alone is not considered a curative treatment option.

Curatively intended (chemo-)radiation should be considered in well-selected cases and can be administered safely with a reasonable chance of long-term survival (approximately 15–20 %) but at the cost of severe increased acute and late toxicity. The results of taxane-based chemo-re-irradiation protocols are most promising.

In case of adverse prognostic factors, immediate postoperative (chemo-)re-irradiation after salvage surgery can be administered safely and significantly improves loco-regional control. Severe treatment-related morbidity remains of major concern. However, most series on re-irradiation published so far did not use fractionation schedules and techniques considered most optimal. Improvement of the therapeutic ratio can be expected from altered fractionation schedules, by limiting the target volume to the high-risk areas and by using more advanced radiation technologies.

Future studies should focus on new developments that proved to be effective in the primary treatment of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). In this respect, new induction chemotherapy regimens using TPF and the addition of cetuximab to radiation are of great interest as these approaches might improve loco-regional control and overall survival without increasing treatment-related morbidity.

Keywords

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Gross Tumour Volume Salvage Surgery Normal Tissue Complication Probability Extranodal Spread 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agra IM, Carvalho AL, Pontes E, Campos OD, Ulbrich FS, Magrin J, Kowalski LP (2003) Postoperative complications after en bloc salvage surgery for head and neck cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 129(12):1317–1321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agra IM, Carvalho AL, Ulbrich FS, de Campos OD, Martins EP, Magrin J, Kowalski LP (2006) Prognostic factors in salvage surgery for recurrent oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Head Neck 28(2):107–113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agra IM, Carvalho AL, Pinto CA, Martins EP, Filho JG, Soares FA, Kowalski LP (2008) Biological markers and prognosis in recurrent oral cancer after salvage surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134(7):743–749CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold DJ, Goodwin WJ, Weed DT, Civantos FJ (2004) Treatment of recurrent and advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Semin Radiat Oncol 14(2):190–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Balermpas P, Hambek M, Seitz O, Rodel C, Weiss C (2009) Combined cetuximab and reirradiation for locoregional recurrent and inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Strahlenther Onkol 185(12):775–781CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baselga J, Trigo JM, Bourhis J, Tortochaux J, Cortes-Funes H, Hitt R, Gascon P, Amellal N, Harstrick A, Eckardt A (2005) Phase II multicenter study of the antiepidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with platinum-refractory metastatic and/or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 23(24):5568–5577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baujat B, Bourhis J, Blanchard P, Overgaard J, Ang KK, Saunders M, Le Maître A, Bernier J, Horiot JC, Maillard E, Pajak TF, Poulsen MG, Bourredjem A, O’Sullivan B, Dobrowsky W, Andrzej H, Skladowski K, Hay JH, Pinto LH, Fu KK, Fallai C, Sylvester R, Pignon JP; MARCH Collaborative Group (2010) Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12):CD002026Google Scholar
  8. Berger B, Belka C, Weinmann M, Bamberg M, Budach W, Hehr T (2010) Reirradiation with alternating docetaxel-based chemotherapy for recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: update of a single-center prospective phase II protocol. Strahlenther Onkol 186(5):255–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernier J, Domenge C, Ozsahin M, Matuszewska K, Lefebvre JL, Greiner RH, Giralt J, Maingon P, Rolland F, Bolla M, Cognetti F, Bourhis J et al (2004) Postoperative irradiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 350(19):1945–1952CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernier J, Cooper JS, Pajak TF, van Glabbeke M, Bourhis J, Forastiere A, Ozsahin EM, Jacobs JR, Jassem J, Ang KK, Lefèbvre JL (2005) Defining risk levels in locally advanced head and neck cancers: a comparative analysis of concurrent postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy trials of the EORTC (#22931) and RTOG (# 9501). Head Neck 27(10):843–850CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blanchard P, Hill C, Guihenneuc-Jouyaux C, Baey C, Bourhis J, Pignon JP, MACH-NC and MARCH Collaborative Groups (2011) Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of altered fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 64(9):985–992CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanchard P, Bourhis J, Lacas B, Posner MR, Vermorken JB, Hernandez JJ, Bourredjem A, Calais G, Paccagnella A, Hitt R, Pignon JP, Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer, Induction Project, Collaborative Group (2013) Taxane-cisplatin-fluorouracil as induction chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancers: an individual patient data meta-analysis of the meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer group. J Clin Oncol 31(23):2854–2860CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blanchard P, Lee A, Marguet S, Leclercq J, Ng WT, Ma J, Chan AT, Huang PY, Benhamou E, Zhu G, Chua DT, Chen Y, Mai HQ, Kwong DL, Cheah SL, Moon J, Tung Y, Chi KH, Fountzilas G, Zhang L, Hui EP, Lu TX, Bourhis J, Pignon JP, MAC-NPC Collaborative Group (2015) Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an update of the MAC-NPC meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 16(6):645–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Azarnia N, Shin DM, Cohen RB, Jones CU, Sur R, Raben D, Jassem J, Ove R, Kies MS, Baselga J, Youssoufian H, Amellal N, Rowinsky EK, Ang KK (2006) Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 354(6):567–578CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Cohen RB, Jones CU, Sur RK, Raben D, Baselga J, Spencer SA, Zhu J, Youssoufian H, Rowinsky EK, Ang KK (2010) Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer: 5-year survival data from a phase 3 randomised trial, and relation between cetuximab-induced rash and survival. Lancet Oncol 11(1):21–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Britten RA, Perdue S, Opoku J, Craighead P (1998) Paclitaxel is preferentially cytotoxic to human cervical tumor cells with low Raf-1 kinase activity: implications for paclitaxel-based chemo radiation regimens. Radiother Oncol 48(3):329–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen AM, Farwell DG, Luu Q, Cheng S, Donald PJ, Purdy JA (2011) Prospective trial of high-dose reirradiation using daily image guidance with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent and second primary head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80(3):669–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Choe KS, Haraf DJ, Solanki A, Cohen EE, Seiwert TY, Stenson KM, Blair EA, Portugal L, Villaflor VM, Witt ME, Vokes EE, Salama JK (2011) Prior chemoradiotherapy adversely impacts outcomes of recurrent and second primary head and neck cancer treated with concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation. Cancer 117(20):4671–4678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Christianen ME, van der Schaaf A, van der Laan HP, Verdonck-de Leeuw IM, Doornaert P, Chouvalova O, Steenbakkers RJ, Leemans CR, Oosting SF, van der Laan BF, Roodenburg JL, Slotman BJ, Bijl HP, Langendijk JA (2016) Swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (SW-IMRT) in head and neck cancer: clinical validation according to the model-based approach. Radiother Oncol 118(2):298–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper JS, Pajak TF, Forastiere AA, Jacobs J, Campbell BH, Saxman SB, Kish JA, Kim HE, Cmelak AJ, Rotman M, Machtay M, Ensley JF et al (2004) Postoperative concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 350(19):1937–1944CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Datta NR, Nagar YS, Singh S, Naryan L (2003) Loco-regional failures in head and neck cancer: can they be effectively salvaged by nonsurgical therapeutic modalities? Int J Clin Oncol 8(1):31–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson LA, Myers LL, Bradford CR, Chepeha DB, Hogikyan ND, Teknos TN, Terrell JE, Wolf GT, Eisbruch A (2001) Conformal re-irradiation of recurrent and new primary head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50(2):377–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. de Crevoisier R, Bourhis J, Domenge C, Wibault P, Koscielny S, Lusinchi A, Mamelle G, Janot F, Julieron M, Leridant AM, Marandas P, Armand JP et al (1998) Full-dose reirradiation for unresectable head and neck carcinoma: experience at the Gustave-Roussy Institute in a series of 169 patients. J Clin Oncol 16(11):3556–3562CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. de Crevoisier R, Domenge C, Wibault P, Koscielny S, Lusinchi A, Janot F, Bobin S, Luboinski B, Eschwege F, Bourhis J (2001) Full dose reirradiation combined with chemotherapy after salvage surgery in head and neck carcinoma. Cancer 91(11):2071–2076CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dornoff N, Weiß C, Rödel F, Wagenblast J, Ghanaati S, Atefeh N, Rödel C, Balermpas P (2015) Reirradiation with cetuximab or cisplatin-based chemotherapy for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Strahlenther Onkol 191(8):656–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duprez F, Madani I, Bonte K, Boterberg T, Vakaet L, Derie C, De Gersem W, De De neve W (2009) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent and second primary head and neck cancer in previously irradiated territory. Radiother Oncol 93(3):563–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Forastiere AA, Metch B, Schuller DE, Ensley JF, Hutchins LF, Triozzi P, Kish JA, McClure S, VonFeldt E, Williamson SK (1992) Randomized comparison of cisplatin plus fluorouracil and carboplatin plus fluorouracil versus methotrexate in advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 10(8):1245–1251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fu KK, Pajak TF, Trotti A, Jones CU, Spencer SA, Phillips TL, Garden AS, Ridge JA, Cooper JS, Ang KK (2000) A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyperfractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: first report of RTOG 9003. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48(1):7–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ganly I, Patel S, Matsuo J, Singh B, Kraus D, Boyle J, Wong R, Lee N, Pfister DG, Shaha A, Shah J (2005) Postoperative complications of salvage total laryngectomy. Cancer 103(10):2073–2081CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gibson MK, Li Y, Murphy B, Hussain MH, DeConti RC, Ensley J, Forastiere AA (2005) Randomized phase III evaluation of cisplatin plus fluorouracil versus cisplatin plus paclitaxel in advanced head and neck cancer (E1395): an intergroup trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 23(15):3562–3567CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gilbert H, Kagan AR (1974) Recurrence patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. J Surg Oncol 6(5):357–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goodwin WJ Jr (2000) Salvage surgery for patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: when do the ends justify the means? Laryngoscope 110(3 Pt 2 Suppl 93):1–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gregoire V, Coche E, Cosnard G, Hamoir M, Reychler H (2000) Selection and delineation of lymph node target volumes in head and neck conformal radiotherapy. Proposal for standardizing terminology and procedure based on the surgical experience. Radiother Oncol 56(2):135–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Haughey BH, Gates GA, Arfken CL, Harvey J (1992) Meta-analysis of second malignant tumors in head and neck cancer: the case for an endoscopic screening protocol. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 101(2 Pt 1):105–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hehr T, Classen J, Belka C, Welz S, Schafer J, Koitschev A, Bamberg M, Budach W (2005) Reirradiation alternating with docetaxel and cisplatin in inoperable recurrence of head-and-neck cancer: a prospective phase I/II trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(5):1423–1431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Heron DE, Ferris RL, Karamouzis M, Andrade RS, Deeb EL, Burton S, Gooding WE, Branstetter BF, Mountz JM, Johnson JT, Argiris A, Grandis JR et al (2009) Stereotactic body radiotherapy for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results of a phase I dose-escalation trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 75(5):1493–1500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Heron DE, Rwigema JC, Gibson MK, Burton SA, Quinn AE, Ferris RL (2010) Concurrent cetuximab with stereotactic body radiotherapy for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a single institution matched case-control study. Am J Clin Oncol 34(2):165–172Google Scholar
  38. Hong WK, Schaefer S, Issell B, Cummings C, Luedke D, Bromer R, Fofonoff S, D’Aoust J, Shapshay S, Welch J, Levin E, Vincent M et al (1983) A prospective randomized trial of methotrexate versus cisplatin in the treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer 52(2):206–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Janot F, De Raucourt D, Benhamou E, Ferron C, Dolivet G, Bensadoun RJ, Hamoir M, Gery B, Julieron M, Castaing M, Bardet E, Gregoire V et al (2008) Randomized trial of postoperative reirradiation combined with chemotherapy after salvage surgery compared with salvage surgery alone in head and neck carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 26(34):5518–5523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Jensen AD, Bergmann ZP, Garcia-Huttenlocher H, Freier K, Debus J, Münter MW (2010) Cetuximab and radiation for primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in the elderly and multi-morbid patient. A single center experience. Head Neck Oncol 2:34CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Jonkman A, Kaanders JH, Terhaard CH, Hoebers FJ, van den Ende PL, Wijers OB, Verhoef LC, de Jong MA, Leemans CR, Langendijk JA (2007) Multicenter validation of recursive partitioning analysis classification for patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 68(1):119–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kasperts N, Slotman B, Leemans CR, Langendijk JA (2005) A review on re-irradiation for recurrent and second primary head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol 41(3):225–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kasperts N, Slotman BJ, Leemans CR, de Bree R, Doornaert P, Langendijk JA (2006) Results of postoperative reirradiation for recurrent or second primary head and neck carcinoma. Cancer 106(7):1536–1547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim AJ, Suh JD, Sercarz JA, Abemayor E, Head C, Funk G, Blackwell KE (2007) Salvage surgery with free flap reconstruction: factors affecting outcome after treatment of recurrent head and neck squamous carcinoma. Laryngoscope 117(6):1019–1023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kramer NM, Horwitz EM, Cheng J, Ridge JA, Feigenberg SJ, Cohen RB, Nicolaou N, Sherman EJ, Babb JS, Damsker JA, Langer CJ (2005) Toxicity and outcome analysis of patients with recurrent head and neck cancer treated with hyperfractionated split-course reirradiation and concurrent cisplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy from two prospective phase I and II studies. Head Neck 27(5):406–414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kress MAS, Sen N, Unger KR, Lominska CE, Deeken JF, Davidson BJ, Newkirk KA, Hwang J, Harter KW (2015) Safety and efficacy of hypofractionated stereotactic body reirradiation in head and neck cancer: long-term follow-up of a large series. Head Neck 37(10):1403–1409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lacy PD, Spitznagel EL Jr, Piccirillo JF (1999) Development of a new staging system for recurrent oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer 86(8):1387–1395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Langendijk JA, Leemans CR, Buter J, Berkhof J, Slotman BJ (2004) The additional value of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis of the published literature. J Clin Oncol 22(22):4604–4612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Langendijk JA, Slotman BJ, van der Waal I, Doornaert P, Berkof J, Leemans CR (2005) Risk-group definition by recursive partitioning analysis of patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Cancer 104(7):1408–1417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Langendijk JA, Kasperts N, Leemans CR, Doornaert P, Slotman BJ (2006) A phase II study of primary reirradiation in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Radiother Oncol 78(3):306–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Langer CJ, Harris J, Horwitz EM, Nicolaou N, Kies M, Curran W, Wong S, Ang K (2007) Phase II study of low-dose paclitaxel and cisplatin in combination with split-course concomitant twice-daily reirradiation in recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 9911. J Clin Oncol 25(30):4800–4805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Langlois D, Eschwege F, Kramar A, Richard JM (1985) Reirradiation of head and neck cancers. Presentation of 35 cases treated at the Gustave Roussy Institute. Radiother Oncol 3(1):27–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lartigau EF, Tresch E, Thariat J, Graff P, Coche-Dequeant B, Benezery K, Schiappacasse L, Degardin M, Bondiau PY, Peiffert D, Lefebvre JL, Lacornerie T, Kramar A (2013) Multi institutional phase II study of concomitant stereotactic reirradiation and cetuximab for recurrent head and neck cancer. Radiother Oncol 109(2):281–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee NY, de Arruda FF, Puri DR, Wolden SL, Narayana A, Mechalakos J, Venkatraman ES, Kraus D, Shaha A, Shah JP, Pfister DG, Zelefsky MJ (2006) A comparison of intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66(4):966–974CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Llewelyn J, Mitchell R (1997) Survival of patients who needed salvage surgery for recurrence after radiotherapy for oral carcinoma. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 35(6):424–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Mabanta SR, Mendenhall WM, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ (1999) Salvage treatment for neck recurrence after irradiation alone for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with clinically positive neck nodes. Head Neck 21(7):591–594CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. McLaughlin MP, Parsons JT, Fein DA, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ, Mendenhall WM, Million RR (1996) Salvage surgery after radiotherapy failure in T1-T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. Head Neck 18(3):229–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McMillan AS, Pow EH, Kwong DL, Wong MC, Sham JS, Leung LH, Leung WK (2006) Preservation of quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: results of a prospective longitudinal study. Head Neck 28(8):712–722CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Milano MT, Vokes EE, Salama JK, Stenson KM, Kao J, Witt ME, Mittal BB, Argiris A, Weichselbaum RR, Haraf DJ (2005) Twice-daily reirradiation for recurrent and second primary head-and-neck cancer with gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(4):1096–1106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Nagar YS, Singh S, Datta NR (2004) Chemo-reirradiation in persistent/recurrent head and neck cancers. Jpn J Clin Oncol 34(2):61–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Nutting CM, Morden JP, Harrington KJ, Urbano TG, Bhide SA, Clark C, Miles EA, Miah AB, Newbold K, Tanay M, Adab F, Jefferies SJ, Scrase C, Yap BK, A’Hern RP, Sydenham MA, Emson M, Hall E, PARSPORT trial management group (2011) Parotid-sparing intensity modulated versus conventional radiotherapy in head and neck cancer (PARSPORT): a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 12(2):127–136CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Pignon JP, le Maître A, Maillard E, Bourhis J, MACH-NC Collaborative Group (2009) Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC): an update on 93 randomised trials and 17,346 patients. Radiother Oncol 92(1):4–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Pomp J, Levendag PC, van Putten WL (1988) Reirradiation of recurrent tumors in the head and neck. Am J Clin Oncol 11(5):543–549CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Popovtzer A, Gluck I, Chepeha DB, Teknos TN, Moyer JS, Prince ME, Bradford CR, Eisbruch A (2009) The pattern of failure after reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell head and neck cancer: implications for defining the targets. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74(5):1342–1347CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Pow EH, Kwong DL, McMillan AS, Wong MC, Sham JS, Leung LH, Leung WK (2006) Xerostomia and quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: initial report on a randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66(4):981–991CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Pradhan SA, Rajpal RM, Kothary PM (1980) Surgical management of postradiation residual/recurrent cancer of the base of the tongue. J Surg Oncol 14(3):201–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Putten L, Bree R, Doornaert PA, Buter J, Eerenstein SE, Rietveld DH, Kuik DJ, Leemans CR (2015) Salvage surgery in post-chemo radiation laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma: outcome and review. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 35(3):162–172PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Riaz N, Hong JC, Sherman EJ, Morris L, Fury M, Ganly I, Wang TJ, Shi W, Wolden SL, Jackson A, Wong RJ, Zhang Z, Rao SD, Lee NY (2014) A nomogram to predict loco-regional control after re-irradiation for head and neck cancer. Radiother Oncol 111(3):382–387CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Ridge JA (1993) Squamous cancer of the head and neck: surgical treatment of local and regional recurrence. Semin Oncol 20(5):419–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Roh KW, Jang JS, Kim MS, Sun DI, Kim BS, Jung SL, Kang JH, Yoo EJ, Yoon SC, Jang HS, Chung SM, Kim YS (2009) Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy as reirradiation for locally recurrent head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74(5):1348–1355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sacco AG, Cohen EE (2015) Current treatment options for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 33(29):3305–3313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Salama JK, Vokes EE, Chmura SJ, Milano MT, Kao J, Stenson KM, Witt ME, Haraf DJ (2006) Long-term outcome of concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation for recurrent and second primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64(2):382–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Schaefer U, Micke O, Schueller P, Willich N (2000) Recurrent head and neck cancer: retreatment of previously irradiated areas with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy-results of a prospective study. Radiology 216(2):371–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sher DJ, Haddad RI, Norris CM Jr, Posner MR, Wirth LJ, Goguen LA, Annino D, Balboni T, Allen A, Tishler RB (2010) Efficacy and toxicity of reirradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent or second primary head and neck cancer. Cancer 116(20):4761–4768CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Skolyszewski J, Korzeniowski S, Reinfuss M (1980) The reirradiation of recurrences of head and neck cancer. Br J Radiol 53(629):462–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Spencer SA, Wheeler RH, Peters GE, Beenken SW, Meredith RF, Smith J, Conner W, Salter MM (1999) Concomitant chemotherapy and reirradiation as management for recurrent cancer of the head and neck. Am J Clin Oncol 22(1):1–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Spencer SA, Harris J, Wheeler RH, Machtay M, Schultz C, Spanos W, Rotman M, Meredith R (2001) RTOG 96-10: reirradiation with concurrent hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51(5):1299–1304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Spencer SA, Harris J, Wheeler RH, Machtay M, Schultz C, Spanos W, Rotman M, Meredith R, Ang KK (2008) Final report of RTOG 9610, a multi-institutional trial of reirradiation and chemotherapy for unresectable recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck 30(3):281–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Stell PM (1989) Survival times in end-stage head and neck cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 15(5):407–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Stell PM (1991) Time to recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck 13(4):277–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Stevens KR Jr, Britsch A, Moss WT (1994) High-dose reirradiation of head and neck cancer with curative intent. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 29(4):687–698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sulman EP, Schwartz DL, Le TT, Ang KK, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Ahamad A, Kies M, Glisson B, Weber R, Garden AS (2009) IMRT reirradiation of head and neck cancer-disease control and morbidity outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73(2):399–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Tanvetyanon T, Qin D, Padhya T, Kapoor R, McCaffrey J, Trotti A (2009) Survival outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma arising from sinonasal inverted papilloma: report of 6 cases with systematic review and pooled analysis. Am J Otolaryngol 30(1):38–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Vergeer MR, Doornaert PA, Rietveld DH, Leemans CR, Slotman BJ, Langendijk JA (2009) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces radiation-induced morbidity and improves health-related quality of life: results of a nonrandomized prospective study using a standardized follow-up program. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74(1):1–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Vermorken JB, Mesia R, Rivera F, Remenar E, Kawecki A, Rottey S, Erfan J, Zabolotnyy D, Kienzer HR, Cupissol D, Peyrade F, Benasso M et al (2008) Platinum-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 359(11):1116–1127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Vokes EE, Panje WR, Schilsky RL, Mick R, Awan AM, Moran WJ, Goldman MD, Tybor AG, Weichselbaum RR (1989) Hydroxyurea, fluorouracil, and concomitant radiotherapy in poor-prognosis head and neck cancer: a phase I-II study. J Clin Oncol 7(6):761–768CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang CC, McIntyre J (1993) Re-irradiation of laryngeal carcinoma – techniques and results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26(5):783–785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Weiss MH, Harrison LB, Isaacs RS (1994) Use of decision analysis in planning a management strategy for the stage N0 neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120(7):699–702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Weppelmann B, Wheeler RH, Peters GE, Kim RY, Spencer SA, Meredith RF, Salter MM (1992) Treatment of recurrent head and neck cancer with 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, and reirradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22(5):1051–1056CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Wong SJ, Machtay M, Li Y. Locally recurrent, previously irradiated head and neck cancer: concurrent re-irradiation and chemotherapy, or chemotherapy alone? J Clin Oncol 2006; 24(17): 2653–8.Google Scholar
  91. Zafereo ME, Hanasono MM, Rosenthal DI, Sturgis EM, Lewin JS, Roberts DB, Weber RS (2009) The role of salvage surgery in patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Cancer 115(24):5723–5733CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switerzland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity Medical Center Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations