Prostate Cancer

  • Max Peters
  • Metha Maenhout
  • Steven Frank
  • Marco van Vulpen
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Salvage radiotherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiation is generally performed using brachytherapy. Only a limited amount of small studies has been performed so far. In these studies the rate of severe toxicity, requiring operative reintervention, was high and cancer control outcome was disappointing. Furthermore, it is unclear whether salvage treatment will improve disease-specific or overall survival. For these reasons, salvage brachytherapy is not popular and usually only performed in large tertiary centers. Salvage can currently be considered in patients with a pathology-proven local recurrence with an interval of at least 2–3 years after primary treatment, together with a limited and nonaggressive tumor presentation at time of salvage. Currently, experienced groups recommend at least equal doses used in primary treatment, together with targeting the entire prostate. Diagnostic developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) and biopsy techniques such as transperineal and MRI-targeted biopsies provide the possibility to localize the macroscopic recurrent tumor in the prostate. This enables a shift to focal salvage techniques which can be expected to reduce severe toxicity rates while maintaining cancer control.


Radical Prostatectomy Androgen Deprivation Therapy Salvage Treatment Recurrent Prostate Cancer Local Salvage 


  1. Abuzallouf S, Dayes I, Lukka H (2004) Baseline staging of newly diagnosed prostate cancer: a summary of the literature. J Urol 171:2122–2127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal PK, Sadetsky N, Konety BR, Resnick MI, Carroll PR (2008) Treatment failure after primary and salvage therapy for prostate cancer: likelihood, patterns of care, and outcomes. Cancer 112:307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed HU, Cathcart P, McCartan N et al (2012) Focal salvage therapy for localized prostate cancer recurrence after external beam radiotherapy: a pilot study. Cancer 118:4148–4155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akyol F, Ozyigit G, Selek U et al (2005) PSA bouncing after short term androgen deprivation and 3D-conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate adenocarcinoma and the relationship with the kinetics of testosterone. Eur Urol 48:40–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alongi F, De Bari B, Campostrini F et al (2013) Salvage therapy of intraprostatic failure after radical external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 88:550–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel (1997) Consensus statement: Guidelines for PSA following radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 37:1035–1041Google Scholar
  7. Arrayeh E, Westphalen AC, Kurhanewicz J et al (2012) Does local recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy occur at the site of primary tumor? Results of a longitudinal MRI and MRSI study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82:787–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baco E, Gelet A, Crouzet S et al (2014) Hemi salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in unilateral radiorecurrent prostate cancer: a prospective two-centre study. BJU Int 114:532–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahn DK, Lee F, Silverman P et al (2003) Salvage cryosurgery for recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: a seven-year follow-up. Clin Prostate Cancer 2:111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barentsz JO, Fütterer JJ, Takahashi S (2007) Use of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide in lymph node MR imaging in prostate cancer patients. Eur J Radiol 63:369–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barentsz JO, Richenberg J, Clements R et al (2012) ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012. Eur Radiol 22:746–757PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barzell WE, Whitmore WF (2003) Transperineal template guided saturation biopsy of the prostate: rationale, indications, and technique. Urol Times 31:41–42Google Scholar
  13. Battermann JJ (2000) Feasibility of permanent implants for prostate cancer after previous radiotherapy in the true pelvis. Radiother Oncol 73:297–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beyer DC (1999) Permanent brachytherapy as salvage treatment for recurrent prostate cancer. Urology 54:880–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bianco FJ Jr, Scardino PT, Stephenson AJ et al (2005) Long-term oncologic results of salvage radical prostatectomy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62:448–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bomers JG, Yakar D, Overduin CG et al (2013) MR imaging-guided focal cryoablation in patients with recurrent prostate cancer. Radiology 268:451–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bostwick DG, Egbert BM, Fajardo LF (1982) Radiation injury of the normal and neoplastic prostate. Am J Surg Pathol 6:541–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brachman DG, Thomas T, Hilbe J, Beyer DC (2000) Failure-free survival following brachytherapy alone or external beam irradiation alone for T1–2 prostate tumors in 2222 patients: results from a single practice. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:111–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breeuwsma AJ, Pruim J, van den Bergh AC, Leliveld AM, Nijman RJ, Dierckx RA, de Jong IJ (2010) Detection of local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with psa relapse after external-beam radiotherapy using (11)C-choline positron emission tomography. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 77:160–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burri RJ, Stone NN, Unger P, Stock RG (2010) Long-term outcome and toxicity of salvage brachytherapy for local failure after initial radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 77:1338–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buyyounouski MK, Hanlon AL, Eisenberg DF, Horwitz EM, Feigenberg SJ, Uzzo RG et al (2005) Defining biochemical failure after radiotherapy with and without androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63:1455–1462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cellini N, Morganti AG, Mattiucci GC et al (2002) Analysis of intraprostatic failures in patients treated with hormonal therapy and radiotherapy: implications for conformal therapy planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:595–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chade DC, Shariat SF, Cronin AM et al (2011) Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer: a multi-institutional collaboration. Eur Urol 60:205–210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chade DC, Eastham J, Graefen M et al (2012) Cancer control and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol 61:961–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen CP, Weinberg V, Shinohara K et al (2013) Salvage HDR brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive radiation therapy: 5-year outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 86:324–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chin JL, Pautler SE, Mouraviev V et al (2001) Results of salvage cryoablation of the prostate after radiation: identifying predictors of treatment failure and complications. J Urol 165:1937–1941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cox JD, Grignon DJ, Kaplan RS, Parsons JT, Schellhammer PF (1997) Consensus statement: guidelines for PSA following radiation therapy. American society for therapeutic radiology and oncology consensus panel. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:1035–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crook J, Robertson S, Collin G et al (1993) Clinical relevance of trans-rectal ultrasound, biopsy, and serum prostate-specific antigen following external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27:31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crook JM, Perry GA, Robertson S et al (1995) Routine prostate biopsies following radiotherapy for prostate cancer: results for 226 patients. Urology 45:624–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crook J, Bahadur Y, Robertson S et al (1997) Evaluation of radiation effect, tumor differentiation, and prostate specific antigen staining in sequential prostate biopsies after external beam radiotherapy for patients with prostate carcinoma. Cancer 27:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crook J, Malone S, Perry G et al (2000) Postradiotherapy prostate biopsies: what do they really mean? Results for 498 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:355–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crouzet S, Murat FJ, Pommier P et al (2012) Locally recurrent prostate cancer after initial radiation therapy: early salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound improves oncologic outcomes. Radiother Oncol 105:198–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Das P, Chen MH, Valentine K et al (2002) Using the magnitude of PSA bounce after MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy to distinguish recurrence, benign precipitating factors, and idiopathic bounce. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54:698–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. de Castro Abreu AL, Bahn D, Leslie S et al (2013) Salvage focal and salvage total cryoablation for locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiation therapy. BJU Int 112:298–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De la Taille A, Hayek O, Benson MC et al (2000) Salvage cryotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: the Columbia experience. Urology 55:79–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. de Rooij M, Hamoen EH, Witjes JA, Barentsz JO, Rovers MM (2015) Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for local staging of prostate cancer: a diagnostic meta-analysis. Eur Urol [epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  37. Dutch Cancer Society (2010) SCK rapport kanker in Nederland, pp 141–145.
  38. Eggener SE, Scardino PT et al (2007) Focal therapy for localized prostate cancer: a critical appraisal of rationale and modalities. J Urol 178:2260–2267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eisenberg ML, Shinohara K (2008) Partial salvage cryoablation of the prostate for recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy failure. Urology 72:1315–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Evangelista L, Zattoni F, Guttilla A et al (2013) Choline PET or PET/CT and biochemical relapse of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nucl Med 38:305–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Freedland SJ, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA et al (2005) Risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality following biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. JAMA 294:433–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fütterer JJ, Briganti A, De Visschere P et al (2015) Can clinically significant prostate cancer be detected with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging? A systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol 68:1045–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gelet A, Chapelon JY, Poissonnier L et al (2004) Local recurrence of prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy: early experience of salvage therapy using high-intensity focused ultrasonography. Urology 63:625–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grado GL, Collins JM, Kriegshauser JS et al (1999) Salvage brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer after radiotherapy failure. Urology 53:2–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grignon DJ, Hammond EH (1995) College of American Pathologists Conference XXVI on clinical relevance of prognostic markers in solid tumors. Report of the prostate cancer working group. Arch Pathol Lab Med 119:1122–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Haider MA, Chung P, Sweet J et al (2008) Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for localization of recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70:425–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hamoen EH, de Rooij M, Witjes JA, Barentsz JO, Rovers MM (2015) Use of the prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) for prostate cancer detection with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging: a diagnostic meta-analysis. Eur Urol 67:1112–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heesakkers RA, Hövels AM, Jager GJ, van den Bosch HC, Witjes JA, Raat HP, Severens JL, Adang EM, van der Kaa CH, Fütterer JJ, Barentsz J (2008) MRI with a lymph-node-specific contrast agent as an alternative to CT scan and lymph-node dissection in patients with prostate cancer: a prospective multicohort study. Lancet Oncol 9:850–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Heidenreich A, Aus G, Bolla M et al (2008) EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Eur Urol 53:68–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J et al (2014) EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part II: treatment of advanced, relapsing, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol 65:467–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hinnen KA, Monninkhof EM, Battermann JJ et al (2012) Prostate specific antigen bounce is related to overall survival in prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82:883–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Henríquez I, Sancho G, Hervás A et al (2014) Salvage brachytherapy in prostate local recurrence after radiation therapy: predicting factors for control and toxicity. Radiat Oncol 9:102–109PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hovels AM, Heesakkers RA, Adang EM et al (2008) The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol 63:387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hsu CC, Hsu H, Pickett B et al (2013) Feasibility of MR imaging/MR spectroscopy-planned focal partial salvage permanent prostate implant (PPI) for localized recurrence after initial PPI for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 85:370–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Huang WC, Kuroiwa K, Serio AM et al (2007) The anatomical and pathological characteristics of irradiated prostate cancers may influence the oncological efficacy of salvage ablative therapies. J Urol 177:1324–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huang SP, Bao BY, Wu MT et al (2011) Impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir and time to PSA nadir on disease progression in prostate cancer treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Prostate 71:1189–1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Izawa JI, Madsen LT, Scott SM et al (2002) Salvage cryotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy: variables affecting patient outcome. J Clin Oncol 20:2664–2671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jadvar H (2015) PSMA PET in prostate cancer. J Nucl Med 56:1131–1132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kalapurakal JA, Mittal BB, Sathiaseelan V (2001) Re-irradiation and external hyperthermia in locally advanced, radiation recurrent, hormone refractory prostate cancer: a preliminary report. Br J Radiol 74:745–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kanthabalan A, Shah T, Arya M et al (2015) The FORECAST study – focal recurrent assessment and salvage treatment for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. Contemp Clin Trials [epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  61. Kimura M, Mouraviev V, Tsivian M, Mayes JM, Satoh T, Polascik TJ (2010) Current salvage methods for recurrent prostate cancer after failure of primary radiotherapy. BJU Int 150:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Klotz L, Zhang L, Lam A, Nam R, Mamedov A, Loblaw A (2010) Clinical results of long-term follow-up of a large, active surveillance cohort with localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 28:126–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Klotz L, Vesprini D, Sethukavalan P et al (2015) Long-term follow-up of a large active surveillance cohort of patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 33:272–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Koutrouvelis P, Hendricks F, Lailas N et al (2003) Salvage reimplantation in patient with local recurrent prostate carcinoma after brachytherapy with three dimensional computed tomography-guided permanent pararectal implant. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2:339–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kovacs G, Potter R, Loch T et al (2005) GEC/ESTRO-EAU recommendations on temporary brachytherapy using stepping sources for localised prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 74:137–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee B, Shinohara K, Weinberg V et al (2007) Feasibility of high-dose-rate brachytherapy salvage for local prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy: the University of California-San Francisco experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:1106–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee KL, Adams MT, Motta J (2008) Salvage prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer failure after external beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy 7:17–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leibovici D, Chiong E, Pisters LL et al (2012) Pathological characteristics of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy: implications for focal salvage therapy. J Urol 188:98–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li YH, Elshafei A, Agarwal G, Ruckle H, Powsang J, Jones JS (2015) Salvage focal prostate cryoablation for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy: initial results from the cryo on-line data registry. Prostate 75:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lo K, Stock RG, Stone NN (2005) Salvage prostate brachytherapy following radiotherapy failure. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63:S290–S291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Loening SA, Turner JW (1993) Use of percutaneous transperineal 198Au seeds to treat recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma after failure of definitive radiotherapy. Prostate 23:283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Master VA, Shinohara K, Carroll PR (2004) Ferromagnetic thermal ablation of locally recurrent prostate cancer: prostate specific antigen results and immediate/intermediate morbidities. J Urol 172:2197–2202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Menard C, Iupati D, Publicover J et al (2015) MR-guided prostate biopsy for planning of focal salvage after radiation therapy. Radiology 274:181–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moman MR, Van der Poel HG, Battermann JJ, Moerland MA, van Vulpen M (2009) Treatment outcome and toxicity after salvage 125-I implantation for prostate cancer recurrences after primary 125-I implantation and external beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy 9:119–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moman MR, van den Berg CA et al (2010) Focal salvage guided by T2 weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer recurrences. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76:741–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Moore CM, Robertson NL, Arsanious N et al (2013) Image-guided prostate biopsy using magnetic resonance imaging-derived targets: a systematic review. Eur Urol 63:125–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morton GC, Hoskin PJ (2013) Brachytherapy: current status and future strategies – can high dose rate replace low dose rate and external beam radiotherapy? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 25:474–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mostofi F, Davis C, Sesterhenn I (1992) Pathology of carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer 70:235–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Murat FJ, Poissonnier L, Rabilloud M et al (2009) Mid-term results demonstrate salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as an effective and acceptably morbid salvage treatment option for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer. Eur Urol 55(3):640–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nguyen PL, Chen MH, D’Amico AV et al (2007a) Magnetic resonance image-guided salvage brachytherapy after radiation in select men who initially presented with favorable-risk prostate cancer: a prospective phase 2 study. Cancer 110:4185–4192Google Scholar
  81. Nguyen PL, D’Amico AV, Lee AK, Suh WW (2007b) Patient selection, cancer control, and complications after salvage local therapy for postradiation prostate-specific antigen failure: a systematic review of the literature. Cancer 110:1417–1428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nguyen PL, Chen MH, Clark JA, Cormack RA, Loffredo M, McMahon E, Nguyen AU, Suh W, Tempany CM, D’Amico AV (2009) Patient-reported quality of life after salvage brachytherapy for radio-recurrent prostate cancer: a prospective phase II study. Brachytherapy 8:345–352PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nguyen PL, Alibhai SM, Basaria S et al (2015) Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy and strategies to mitigate them. Eur Urol 67:825–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Onik G, Miessau M, Bostwick DG (2009) Three-dimensional prostate mapping biopsy has a potentially significant impact on prostate cancer management. J Clin Oncol 27:4321–4326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Onur R, Littrup PJ, Pontes JE, Bianco FJ Jr (2004) Contemporary impact of transrectal ultrasound lesions for prostate cancer detection. J Urol 172:512–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Paparel P, Cronin AM, Savage C, Scardino PT, Eastham JA (2009) Oncologic outcome and patterns of recurrence after salvage radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol 55:404–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peters M, Moman MR, van der Poel HG et al (2013) Patterns of outcome and toxicity after salvage prostatectomy, salvage cryosurgery and salvage brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrences after radiation therapy: a multi-center experience and literature review. World J Urol 31:403–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Peters M, Maenhout M, van der Voort van Zyp JR et al. (2014) Focal salvage iodine-125 brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrences after primary radiotherapy: a retrospective study regarding toxicity, biochemical outcome and quality of life. Radiother Oncol 112:77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Peters M, Van der Voort van Zyp J, Hoekstra C et al (2015) Urethral and bladder dosimetry of total and focal salvage Iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy: Late toxicity and dose constraints. Radiother Oncol 117(2):262–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Peters M, Hoekstra C, van der Voort van Zyp J et al (2016) Rectal dose constraints for salvage iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 15:85–93Google Scholar
  91. Pisters LL, English SF, Scott SM et al (2000) Salvage prostatectomy with continent catheterizable urinary reconstruction: a novel approach to recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy. J Urol 163:1771–1774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pound CR, Brawer MK, Partin AW (2001) Evaluation and treatment of men with biochemical prostate-specific antigen recurrence following definitive therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Rev Urol 3:72–84PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Prestigiacomo AF, Stamey TA (1996) Physiological variation of serum prostate specific antigen in the 4.0 to 10.0 Ng/ml range in male volunteers. J Urol 155:1977–1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pucar D, Sella T, Schoder H (2008) The role of imaging in the detection of prostate cancer local recurrence after radiation therapy and surgery. Curr Opin Urol 18:87–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roach M III, Hanks G, Thames H Jr, Schellhammer P, Shipley WU, Sokol GH et al (2006) Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix consensus conference. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65:965–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rouviere O, Valette O, Grivolat S et al (2004) Recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy: value of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI in localizing intraprostatic tumor–correlation with biopsy findings. Urology 63:922–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rybalov M, Ananias HJK, Hoving HD (2014) PSMA, EpCAM, VEGF and GRPR as imaging targets in locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Int J Mol Sci 15:6046–6061PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sanderson KM, Penson DF, Cai J et al (2006) Salvage radical prostatectomy: quality of life outcomes and long-term oncological control of radiorecurrent prostate cancer. J Urol 176:2025–2031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sasaki H, Kido M, Miki K et al (2013) Salvage partial brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrence after primary brachytherapy. Int J Urol 21:572–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Scardino PT (1983) The prognostic significance of biopsies after radiotherapy for prostatic cancer. Semin Urol 1:243–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sheets NC, Goldin GH, Meyer AM et al (2012) Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy, or conformal radiation therapy and morbidity and disease control in localized prostate cancer. JAMA 307:1611–1620PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Siddiqui MM, Rais-Bahrami S, Turkbey B et al (2015) Comparison of MR/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. JAMA 313:390–397PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sivaraman A, Sanchez-Salas R, Barret E (2015) Transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate. Int J Urol 22:146–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spiess PE, Katz AE, Chin JL et al (2010) A pretreatment nomogram predicting biochemical failure after salvage cryotherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer. BJU Int 106:194–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stephenson AJ, Scardino PT, Bianco FJ et al (2004) Morbidity and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy. J Urol 172:2239–2243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tran H, Kwok J, Pickles T, Tyldesley S, Black PC (2014) Underutilization of local salvage therapy after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Urol Oncol 32:701–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Umbehr MH, Muntener M, Hany T, Sulser T, Bachmann LM (2013) The role of 11C-choline and 18Ffluorocholine positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol 64:106–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vaidya A, Soloway MS (2000) Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiorecurrent prostate cancer: morbidity revisited. J Urol 164:1998–2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Valerio M, Anele C, Charman SC et al (2015) Transperineal template prostate mapping biopsies: an evaluation of different protocols in detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. BJU Int [epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  110. Van den Bos W, Muller BG, de Bruin DM (2015) Salvage ablative therapy in prostate cancer: international multidisciplinary consensus on trial design. Urol Oncol 33:495.e1–495.e7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Van der Heide UA, Dehnad H, Hofman P, Kotte ANTJ, Lagendijk JJW, Van Vulpen M (2007) Analysis of fiducial marker based position verification in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy of patients with prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 82:38–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Van der Poel HG, Beetsma DB, van Boven H et al (2007) Perineal salvage prostatectomy for radiation resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol 51:1565–1571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wallner KE, Nori D, Morse MJ et al (1990) 125iodine reimplantation for locally progressive prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 144:704–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang H, Vees H, Miralbell R, Wissmeyer M, Steiner C, Ratib O, Senthamizhchelvan S, Zaidi H (2009) 18F-fluorocholine PET-guided target volume delineation techniques for partial prostate re-irradiation in local recurrent prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 93:220–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ward JF, Sebo TJ, Blute ML et al (2005) Salvage surgery for radiorecurrent prostate cancer: contemporary outcomes. J Urol 173:1156–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ward JF, Pagliaro LC, Pisters LL et al (2008) Salvage therapy for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. Curr Probl Cancer 32(6):242–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wenske S, Quarrier S, Katz AE (2013) Salvage cryosurgery of the prostate for failure after primary radiotherapy or cryosurgery: long-term clinical, functional, and oncologic outcomes in a large cohort at a tertiary referral centre. Eur Urol 64:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Williams AK, Martinez CH, Lu C, Ng CK, Pautler SE, Chin JL (2011) Disease-free survival following salvage cryotherapy for biopsy-proven radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Eur Urol 60:405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wong WW, Buskirk SJ, Schild SE et al (2006) Combined prostate brachytherapy and short-term androgen deprivation therapy as salvage therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam irradiation. J Urol 176:2020–2024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yamada Y, Kollmeier MA, Pei X et al (2014) A phase II study of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive external beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy 13:111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zagars GK, Pollack A (1997) Kinetics of serum prostate-specific antigen after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 44:213–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zelefsky MJ, Ben-Porat L, Scher HI et al (2005) Outcome predictors for the increasing PSA state after definitive external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 23:826–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zelefsky MJ, Kuban DA, Levy LB, Potters L, Beyer DC, Blasko JC et al (2007) Multi-institutional analysis of long-term outcome for stages T1–T2 prostate cancer treated with permanent seed implantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zietman AL, Tibbs MK, Dallow KC et al (1996) Use of PSA nadir to predict subsequent biochemical outcome following external beam radiation therapy for T1-2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Radiother Oncol 40:159–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zumsteg ZS, Spratt DE, Romesser PB et al (2015) The natural history and predictors of outcome following biochemical relapse in the dose escalation era for prostate cancer patients undergoing definitive external beam radiotherapy. Eur Urol 67:1009–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Max Peters
    • 1
  • Metha Maenhout
    • 1
  • Steven Frank
    • 1
  • Marco van Vulpen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiotherapyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations