• P. Agarwal
  • L. Romano
  • H. Prosch
  • G. Schueller
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the first leading cause of death due to infection worldwide.Many gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, funguses and viruses can cause the infectious pulmonary disease, and the severity of pneumonia depends on the balance between the microorganism charge, the body immunity defenses and the quality of the underlying pulmonary tissue. The microorganisms may reach the lower respiratory tract from inhaled air or from infected oropharyngeal secretions. The same organism may produce several different patterns that depend on the balance between the microorganism charge and the body immunity defenses.CAP is classified into three main groups: lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia.Lobar pneumonia is characterized by the filling of alveolar spaces by edema full of white and inflammatory cells. Necrotizing pneumonia consists of a fulminant process associated with focal areas of necrosis that results in abscesses. Bronchopneumonia or lobular pneumonia, is characterized by a peribronchiolar inflammation with thickening of peripheral bronchial wall, the diffusion of inflammation to the centrilobular alveolar spaces and development of nodules.The interstitial pneumonia represents with the destruction and esfoliation of the respiratory ciliated and mucous cells. The interstitial septa, the bronchial and bronchiolar walls become thickened for the inflammation process and lymphocytes interstitial infiltrates.Chest radiography represents an important initial examination in all patients suspected of having pulmonary infection and for monitoring response to therapy.Its role is to identify the pulmonary opacities, their internal characteristics and distribution, pleural effusion and presence of other complications as abscesses and pneumothorax.High spatial CT resolution allows accurate assessment of air space inflammation.The CT findings include nodules, interlobular septal thickening, intralobular reticular opacities, ground-glass opacities, tree-in-bud pattern, lobar-segmental consolidation, lobular consolidation, abscesses, pneumatocele, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, mediastinal and hilar lymphoadenopaties, airway dilatation and emphysema.


Infective Endocarditis Bronchial Artery Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome Bronchial Wall Diffuse Alveolar Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Agarwal
    • 1
  • L. Romano
    • 2
  • H. Prosch
    • 1
  • G. Schueller
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided TherapyVienna General Hospital, Medical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Emergency RadiologyCardarelli HospitalNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Academic HealthOpfikonSwitzerland

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