Acute Aortic Syndromes: Aortic Dissection, Intramural Haematoma and Penetrating Aortic Ulcers
Acute Aortic Syndrome includes three non-traumatic potentially fatal pathologies of the thoracic aorta which commonly present with chest pain.
The three inter-related entities, Aortic Dissection, Intramural Haematoma (IMH) and Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcers (PAUs) share a common pathogenesis: disruption of the media layer. They can be difficult to distinguish from other causes of chest pain.
Differentiation between all three diseases cannot be achieved by history or clinical findings alone but requires imaging with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), the modality of choice.
In all three diseases, early diagnosis and treatment will improve outcome but treatment options vary between conservative managements, endovascular treatment and open surgery, based on the clinical and radiological features.
This chapter covers clinical presentation, imaging features, optimal imaging protocols and management of all three acute aortic syndromes.
KeywordsAortic Dissection Aortic Wall False Lumen Acute Aortic Dissection True Lumen
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