Advertisement

Anal Canal Cancer

  • Jose G. Bazan
  • Albert C. Koong
  • Daniel T. Cang
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

The anal canal is about 4 cm in length and extends from the anorectal ring (palpable border of anal sphincter and puborectalis muscle) superiorly to the anal verge distally. The anal verge is the junction of the nonkeratinized squamous epithelium of the distal anal canal and the keratinized hair-bearing skin.

Keywords

Anal Canal Anal Verge Gross Tumor Volume Anal Cancer Target Volume Delineation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL et al (2008) Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 299(16):1914–1921CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartelink H, Roelofsen F, Eschwege F et al (1997) Concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is superior to radiotherapy alone in the treatment of locally advanced anal cancer: results of a phase III randomized trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Radiotherapy and Gastrointestinal Cooperative Groups. J Clin Oncol 15(5):2040–2049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bazan JG, Luxton G, Mok EC, Koong AC, Chang DT (2012) Normal tissue complication probability modeling of acute hematologic toxicity in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84(3):700–706CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazan JG, Luxton G, Kozak MM et al (2013) Impact of chemotherapy on normal tissue complication probability models of acute hematologic toxicity in patients receiving pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 87(5):983–991CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Daly ME, Murphy JD, Mok E, Christman-Skieller C, Koong AC, Chang DT (2011) Rectal and bladder deformation and displacement during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: are current margin guidelines adequate for conformal therapy? Pract Radiat Oncol 1(2):85–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Epidermoid anal cancer: results from the UKCCCR randomised trial of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin. UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial Working Party. UK Co-ordinating Committee on Cancer Research (1996) Lancet 348(9034):1049–1054Google Scholar
  7. Flam M, John M, Pajak TF et al (1996) Role of mitomycin in combination with fluorouracil and radiotherapy, and of salvage chemoradiation in the definitive nonsurgical treatment of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal: results of a phase III randomized intergroup study. J Clin Oncol 14(9):2527–2539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gay HA, Barthold HJ, O’Meara E et al (2012) Pelvic normal tissue contouring guidelines for radiation therapy: a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus panel atlas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(3):e353–e362CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Gilroy JS, Amdur RJ, Louis DA, Li JG, Mendenhall WM (2004) Irradiating the groin nodes without breaking a leg: a comparison of techniques for groin node irradiation. Med Dosim 29(4):258–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gunderson LL, Winter KA, Ajani JA et al (2012) Long-term update of US GI intergroup RTOG 98-11 phase III trial for anal carcinoma: survival, relapse, and colostomy failure with concurrent chemoradiation involving fluorouracil/mitomycin versus fluorouracil/cisplatin. J Clin Oncol 30(35):4344–4351CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. James RD, Glynne-Jones R, Meadows HM et al (2013) Mitomycin or cisplatin chemoradiation with or without maintenance chemotherapy for treatment of squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II): a randomised, phase 3, open-label, 2 x 2 factorial trial. Lancet Oncol 14(6):516–524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kachnic LA, Winter K, Myerson RJ et al (2013) RTOG 0529: a phase 2 evaluation of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy in combination with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C for the reduction of acute morbidity in carcinoma of the anal canal. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 86(1):27–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Marks LB, Yorke ED, Jackson A et al (2010) Use of normal tissue complication probability models in the clinic. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(3 Suppl):S10–S19CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Mell LK, Kochanski JD, Roeske JC et al (2006) Dosimetric predictors of acute hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent cisplatin and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66(5):1356–1365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mell LK, Schomas DA, Salama JK et al (2008) Association between bone marrow dosimetric parameters and acute hematologic toxicity in anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70(5):1431–1437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Myerson RJ, Garofalo MC, El Naqa I et al (2009) Elective clinical target volumes for conformal therapy in anorectal cancer: a radiation therapy oncology group consensus panel contouring atlas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74(3):824–830CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ng M, Leong T, Chander S et al (2012) Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) contouring atlas and planning guidelines for intensity-modulated radiotherapy in anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(5):1455–1462CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Rose BS, Liang Y, Lau SK et al (2012) Correlation between radiation dose to (1)(8)F-FDG-PET defined active bone marrow subregions and acute hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(4):1185–1191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Taylor A, Rockall AG, Reznek RH, Powell ME (2005) Mapping pelvic lymph nodes: guidelines for delineation in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63(5):1604–1612CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose G. Bazan
    • 1
  • Albert C. Koong
    • 2
  • Daniel T. Cang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Oncology, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital&Solove Research InstituteThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations