Pulmonary and Extrathymic Mediastinal Tumors

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The most frequently encountered pediatric thoracic tumors are pulmonary metastases from extracranial solid tumors. Primary pulmonary neoplasms are rare in childhood, but can cause considerable morbidity and mortality from mass effect, tissue invasion, and metastatic disease in affected children. Mesenchymal neoplasms are more common than epithelial neoplasms in the pediatric lung, unlike in adults, and some of these neoplasms are associated with predisposing genetic syndromes and certain infections. While lymphoma is the most common mediastinal malignancy, germ cell, neuroblastic, and other mediastinal tumors also manifest with distinctive features that are important to recognize for appropriate management. Many of these tumors are detectable on chest radiography, but chest CT remains the primary imaging modality used to formulate a differential diagnosis for these tumors, define anatomy for preoperative planning, assess tumor response to therapy, and survey for recurrent disease, with MRI and nuclear medicine studies playing a complementary role. This chapter will review the characteristic clinical presentations and imaging findings of selected pulmonary and extrathymic mediastinal tumors of childhood.


Pulmonary Metastasis Pulmonary Nodule Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Lyons
    • 1
  • R. Paul Guillerman
    • 1
  • Kieran McHugh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children’s HospitalBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyGreat Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS TrustLondonUK

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