Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The focus of this chapter lies on the description of the general basics of early and late radiation effects and the translation of these pathogenetic processes into imaging; furthermore, a few short clinical examples including imaging patterns of those underlying pathogenetic normal tissue reactions are given to provide a better understanding. In addition, the margin concepts used in radiotherapy as well as the important radiation techniques are summarized, as it is very important for diagnostic radiologists to correlate post-therapeutic tissue and organ changes in follow-up examinations with dose characteristics of a certain treatment to achieve a higher degree of reliability in image interpretation. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the cellular basis of the various radiogenic tissue effects, a short refresher about the underlying radiobiological principles is given. The detailed description of specific radiation effects and imaging patterns of clinically relevant organs and tissues, however, follows in the specific organ chapters in order to avoid redundancy.


Planning Target Volume Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Oncological Treatment Secondary Cancer Chronic Radiation 



Consequential late effects




Computed tomography


Clinical target volume


Three dimensional


Four dimensional


Deoxyribonucleic acid


External-beam radiation therapy


Exempli gratia


Gross tumor volume




Id est


Interleukin-1 alpha


Inducible nitric oxide synthase


Image-guided radiotherapy


Intensity-modulated radiation therapy


Magnetic resonance imaging


Messenger ribonucleic acid


Normal tissue complication probability


Organs at risk


Positron emission tomography


Planning target volume


Relative biological effectiveness


Relative risk


Stereotactic body radiation therapy


Tolerance dose


Transforming growth factor-ß


Tumor necrosis factor alpha


Veno-occlusive disease


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiooncology and Radiation TherapyHeidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany

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