Permanent Seed Implantation

  • Reinhard Thamm
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Within recent years permanent interstitial brachytherapy of the prostate has become an widely accepted, attractive treatment approach typically for the low-risk prostate cancer. In the hands of an experienced brachytherapist, it is a safe and feasible therapy with acceptable toxicity. Its application might further be extended to intermediate to high risk cancers, possibly in combination with androgen deprivation therapy or external beam radiotherapy. In this chapter, state of the art approaches as well as controversies are discussed, and recent literature is reviewed. While the technical details of this demanding procedure itself are presented elsewhere, the following focuses on selected topics like patient selection, indications and contraindications, dosimetry and definitions of recurrence.


Planning Target Volume Gleason Score National Comprehensive Cancer Network Androgen Deprivation Therapy National Comprehensive Cancer Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations and Acronyms


American Brachytherapy Society


Androgen deprivation therapy


Biologically effective dose


Biochemical freedom of failure


Biochemical no evidence of disease


Biochemical progression-free survival


Cause-specific survival


Clinical target volume


Dose in Gray, which is delivered to 90 % of the contoured volume


Digital rectal examination


Disease-specific survival


External beam radiotherapy


Freedom from biochemical failure


Freedom from progression






International index or erectile function


International prostate symptom score


Low dose rate


Lower urinary tract symptoms


Overall survival


Prefixes for dosimetric values D90, V100 (“p”—prostate, “u”—urethra, and “r”—rectal contour)


Positive biopsy cores


Prostate cancer specific mortality


Prescribed dose


Phosphodiesterase type 5


Percentage of positive biopsy cores


Prostate specific antigen


Permanent seed implantation


Planning target volume


Seminal vesicle biopsy


Transrectal ultrasound


Transurethral resection of prostate


Volume in cm3, which gets 100 % of PD


  1. Aaltomaa SH, Kataja VV, Raty A, Palmgren JE, Lahtinen T (2011) Does the outcome of prostate cancer patients with large prostates differ from small prostate size in permanent seed, low dose-rate brachytherapy? Scand J Urol Nephrol 45(5):339–345. doi: 10.3109/00365599.2011.590994 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaronson DS, Yamasaki I, Gottschalk A, Speight J, Hsu IC, Pickett B, Roach M, 3rd, Shinohara K (2009) Salvage permanent perineal radioactive-seed implantation for treating recurrence of localized prostate adenocarcinoma after external beam radiotherapy. BJU Int 104(5):600–604. doi:BJU8445 [pii]  10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08445.x
  3. Albert JM, Swanson DA, Pugh TJ, Zhang M, Bruno TL, Kudchadker RJ, Frank SJ (2013) Magnetic resonance imaging-based treatment planning for prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 12(1):30–37. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.03.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alenda O, Ploussard G, Mouracade P, Xylinas E, de la Taille A, Allory Y, Vordos D, Hoznek A, Abbou CC, Salomon L (2011) Impact of the primary Gleason pattern on biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy: a single-center cohort of 1,248 patients with Gleason 7 tumors. World J Urol 29(5):671–676. doi: 10.1007/s00345-010-0620-9 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen ZA, Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE, Kurko B, Anderson RL, Murray BC, Galbreath RW (2005) Detailed urethral dosimetry in the evaluation of prostate brachytherapy-related urinary morbidity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62(4):981–987. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.12.068 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anandadas CN, Clarke NW, Davidson SE, O’Reilly PH, Logue JP, Gilmore L, Swindell R, Brough RJ, Wemyss-Holden GD, Lau MW, Javle PM, Ramani VA, Wylie JP, Collins GN, Brown S, Cowan RA, North West Uro-oncology G (2011) Early prostate cancer–which treatment do men prefer and why? BJU Int 107(11):1762–1768. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09833.x
  7. Anderson C, Lowe G, Ostler P, Inchley D, Hardiman C, Wills R, Bryant L, Chapman C, Marchant N, Hoskin PJ (2010) I-125 seed planning: an alternative method of urethra definition. Radiother Oncol 94(1):24–29. doi:S0167-8140(09)00615-X [pii]  10.1016/j.radonc.2009.11.003
  8. Ash D, Al-Qaisieh B, Bottomley D, Carey B, Joseph J (2006) The correlation between D90 and outcome for I-125 seed implant monotherapy for localised prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 79(2):185–189. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2006.04.004 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ash D, Flynn A, Battermann J, de Reijke T, Lavagnini P, Blank L (2000) ESTRO/EAU/EORTC recommendations on permanent seed implantation for localized prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 57(3):315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Badwan HO, Shanahan AE, Adams MA, Shanahan TG, Mueller PW, Markwell SJ, Tarter TH (2010) AnchorSeed for the reduction of source movement in prostate brachytherapy with the Mick applicator implant technique. Brachytherapy 9(1):23–26. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2009.07.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beasley M, Williams SG, Pickles T, Unit BPO (2008) Expanded risk groups help determine which prostate radiotherapy sub-group may benefit from adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Radiat Oncol 3:8. doi: 10.1186/1748-717X-3-8 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Beriwal S, Smith RP, Houser C, Benoit RM (2012) Prostate-specific antigen spikes with (131)Cs brachytherapy. Is there a difference with other radioisotopes? Brachytherapy 11(6):457–459. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.04.004 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernstein M, Ohri N, Bodner W, Garg M, Dicker A, Guha C (2012) PSA bounce predicts for a favorable prognosis following Brachytherapy, but an unfavorable prognosis after external beam radiation therapy: a meta-analysis. Int J Radiation Oncol Biol Phys 84(3, Supplement):S371. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.979
  14. Beyer DC, McKeough T, Thomas T (2005) Impact of short course hormonal therapy on overall and cancer specific survival after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(5):1299–1305. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.08.024 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bittner N, Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW, Adamovich E, Wallner KE (2013) Gleason score 7 prostate cancer treated with interstitial brachytherapy with or without supplemental external beam radiation and androgen deprivation therapy: is the primary pattern on needle biopsy prognostic? Brachytherapy 12(1):14–18. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.05.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bittner N, Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW, Lief J, Adamovich E, Wallner KE (2012) Long-term outcome for very high-risk prostate cancer treated primarily with a triple modality approach to include permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 11(4):250–255. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.02.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blasko JC (2004) Patient selection for prostate brachytherapy: more myth than fact: Review 1. Oncology (Williston Park) 18(4):452Google Scholar
  18. Boo D, Shasha D, Mourad WF, Salant R, Gorfinkel N, Harrison LB (2012) In Support of Brachytherapy for Young Men With Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84 (3, Supplement):S409. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.1082
  19. Bowes D, Crook J, Batchelar D, Araujo C, Parker B, Kim D, Gaztanaga M, Milette M, Rajapakshe R, Petrik D (2012a) A Randomized Trial Comparing Seed Loss and Displacement of Specially Engineered Coated Seeds to Standard Uncoated Loose Seeds. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84(3):S402. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.1061
  20. Bowes D, Crook JM, Araujo C, Batchelar D (2013a) Ultrasound-CT fusion compared with MR-CT fusion for postimplant dosimetry in permanent prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 12(1):38–43. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.03.007 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bowes D, Crook JM, Rajapakshe R, Araujo C, Parker B (2013b) Defining a magnetic resonance scan sequence for permanent seed prostate brachytherapy postimplant assessment. Brachytherapy 12(1):25–29. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.03.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bowes D, Crook JM, Wallace K, Evans A, Toi A, Finelli A, Jewett MA, Fleshner N, Catton C (2012b) Results of a surgically derived nomogram to predict Gleason score upgrading applied to a cohort of patients with “favorable-risk” prostate cancer treated with permanent seed brachytherapy. Urology 80(3):649–655. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2012.03.051 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burri RJ, Ho AY, Forsythe K, Cesaretti JA, Stone NN, Stock RG (2010) Young men have equivalent biochemical outcomes compared with older men after treatment with brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 77(5):1315–1321. doi:S0360-3016(09)01000-1 [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.052
  24. Caloglu M, Ciezki J (2009) Prostate-specific antigen bounce after prostate brachytherapy: review of a confusing phenomenon. Urology 74(6):1183–1190. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2009.01.043 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen WC, Katcher J, Nunez C, Tirgan AM, Ellis RJ (2012) Radioactive seed migration after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy and associated development of small-cell lung cancer. Brachytherapy 11(5):354–358. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.12.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chiumento C, Fiorentino A, Caivano R, Clemente S, Fusco V (2013) Low-dose rate brachytherapy of the prostate in elderly patients. La Radiologia medica 118(8):1412–1421. doi: 10.1007/s11547-012-0872-0 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choe KS, Correa D, Jani AB, Liauw SL (2010) The use of anticoagulants improves biochemical control of localized prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. Cancer 116(7):1820–1826. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24890 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen GN, Amols HI, Zelefsky MJ, Zaider M (2002) The Anderson nomograms for permanent interstitial prostate implants: a briefing for practitioners. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53(2):504–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cooperberg MR, Lubeck DP, Mehta SS, Carroll PR, CaPsure (2003) Time trends in clinical risk stratification for prostate cancer: implications for outcomes (data from CaPSURE). J Urol 170(6 Pt 2):S21–25; discussion S26–27. doi: 10.1097/01.ju.0000095025.03331.c6
  30. Crook J (2007) RTOG 0526: A prospective phase II trial of transperineal ultrasound-guided Brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following external beam radiotherapyGoogle Scholar
  31. Crook J, Gillan C, Yeung I, Austen L, McLean M, Lockwood G (2007) PSA kinetics and PSA bounce following permanent seed prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 69(2):426–433. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.03.031 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Crook J, McLean M, Catton C, Yeung I, Tsihlias J, Pintilie M (2002a) Factors influencing risk of acute urinary retention after TRUS-guided permanent prostate seed implantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52(2):453–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Crook J, Milosevic M, Catton P, Yeung I, Haycocks T, Tran T, Catton C, McLean M, Panzarella T, Haider MA (2002b) Interobserver variation in postimplant computed tomography contouring affects quality assessment of prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 1(2):66–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Crook JM, Gomez-Iturriaga A, Wallace K, Ma C, Fung S, Alibhai S, Jewett M, Fleshner N (2011) Comparison of health-related quality of life 5 years after SPIRIT: surgical prostatectomy versus interstitial radiation intervention trial. J Clin Oncol 29(4):362–368. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2010.31.7305 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Crook JM, Potters L, Stock RG, Zelefsky MJ (2005) Critical organ dosimetry in permanent seed prostate brachytherapy: defining the organs at risk. Brachytherapy 4(3):186–194. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2005.01.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. D’Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB, Schultz D, Blank K, Broderick GA, Tomaszewski JE, Renshaw AA, Kaplan I, Beard CJ, Wein A (1998) Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or interstitial radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA 280(11):969–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dallas NL, Malone PR, Jones A, Doggart AJ, McConway KJ, Rogers PB (2012) The results of real-time brachytherapy for the management of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer in patients with prostate volumes up to 100 mL. BJU Int 110(3):383–390. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.10931.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis BJ, Bresnahan JF, Stafford SL, Karon BL, King BF, Wilson TM (2002) Prostate brachytherapy seed migration to a coronary artery found during angiography. J Urol 168(3):1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Davis BJ, Horwitz EM, Lee WR, Crook JM, Stock RG, Merrick GS, Butler WM, Grimm PD, Stone NN, Potters L, Zietman AL, Zelefsky MJ (2012) American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 11(1):6–19. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.07.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. De Brabandere M, Hoskin P, Haustermans K, Van den Heuvel F, Siebert FA (2012) Prostate post-implant dosimetry: interobserver variability in seed localisation, contouring and fusion. Radiother Oncol 104(2):192–198. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2012.06.014 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Delouya G, Taussky D, Ji CR, Sylvestre MP, Donath D (2012) Relationship between prostate-specific antigen bounce body fat distribution and body mass index in permanent seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy 11(3):214–218. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.05.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (2011) Interdisziplinäre Leitlinie der Qualität S3 zur Früherkennung, Diagnose und Therapie der verschiedenen Stadien des Prostatakarzinoms (Version 2.0 - 1.Aktualisierung 2011). 2.0 edn. Leitlinienprogramm Onkologie der AWMW, Deutschen Krebsgesellschaft e.V. und Deutschen Krebshilfe e.V., BerlinGoogle Scholar
  43. Ding W, Lee J, Chamberlain D, Cunningham J, Yang L, Tay J (2012) Twelve-month prostate-specific antigen values and perineural invasion as strong independent prognostic variables of long-term biochemical outcome after prostate seed brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84(4):962–967. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.01.043 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Earley JJ, Abdelbaky AM, Cunningham MJ, Chadwick E, Langley SE, Laing RW (2012) Correlation between prostate brachytherapy-related urethral stricture and peri-apical urethral dosimetry: a matched case-control study. Radiother Oncol 104(2):187–191. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2012.06.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Eastham JA (2004) Comparing radical prostatectomy and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer, Discussion1. Oncology (Williston Park) 18(10):1302–1304Google Scholar
  46. Fang LC, Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW, Murray BC, Reed JL, Adamovich E, Wallner KE (2011) High-risk prostate cancer with Gleason score 8-10 and PSA level </=15 ng/mL treated with permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81(4):992–996. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.07.006 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fisher CM, Troncoso P, Swanson DA, Munsell MF, Kuban DA, Lee AK, Yeh SF, Frank SJ (2012) Knife or needles? A cohort analysis of outcomes after radical prostatectomy or brachytherapy for men with low- or intermediate-risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Brachytherapy 11(6):429–434. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.04.009 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Frank SJ, Arterbery VE, Hsu IC, Abdel-Wahab M, Ciezki JP, Hahn NM, Mohler JL, Moran BJ, Rosenthal SA, Rossi CJ, Yamada Y, Merrick G (2011) American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria permanent source brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy 10(5):357–362. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.01.014 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gaztañaga M, Crook JM (2012) Permanent seed brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: a case report and review of the literature. Brachytherapy. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.04.006 Google Scholar
  50. Gomez-Veiga F, Marino A, Alvarez L, Rodriguez I, Fernandez C, Pertega S, Candal A (2012) Brachytherapy for the treatment of recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy. BJU Int 109(Suppl 1):17–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10826.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Graham J, Baker M, Macbeth F, Titshall V, Guideline Development G (2008) Diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer: summary of NICE guidance. Bmj 336(7644):610–612. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39498.525706.AD
  52. Grimm P, Billiet I, Bostwick D, Dicker AP, Frank S, Immerzeel J, Keyes M, Kupelian P, Lee WR, Machtens S, Mayadev J, Moran BJ, Merrick G, Millar J, Roach M, Stock R, Shinohara K, Scholz M, Weber E, Zietman A, Zelefsky M, Wong J, Wentworth S, Vera R, Langley S (2012) Comparative analysis of prostate-specific antigen free survival outcomes for patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer treatment by radical therapy. Results from the Prostate Cancer Results Study Group. BJU Int 109Suppl 1:22–29. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10827.x
  53. Hansen EK, Roach M III (2010) Handbook of Evidence-Based Radiation Oncology, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Harada K, Ishikawa H, Saito Y, Nakamoto S, Kawamura H, Wakatsuki M, Etsunaga T, Takezawa Y, Kobayashi M, Nakano T (2012) Risk factors for rectal bleeding associated with I-125 brachytherapy for prostate cancer. J Radiat Res 53(6):923–929. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrs059 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hau EK, Oborn BM, Bucci J (2011) An unusual case of radioactive seed migration to the vertebral venous plexus and renal artery with nerve root compromise. Brachytherapy 10(4):295–298. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2010.08.006 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Heidenreich A, Bolla M, Joniau S, Mason MD, Matveev V, Mottet N, Schmid H-P, van der Kwast TH, Wiegel T, Zattoni F (2011) Guidelines on prostate cancer. Eur Assoc Urol
  57. Henry AM, Al-Qaisieh B, Gould K, Bownes P, Smith J, Carey B, Bottomley D, Ash D (2010) Outcomes following iodine-125 monotherapy for localized prostate cancer: the results of leeds 10-year single-center brachytherapy experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(1):50–56. doi:S0360-3016(09)00191-6 [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.01.050
  58. Herbert C, Morris WJ, Keyes M, Hamm J, Lapointe V, McKenzie M, Pickles T, Spadinger I (2012) Outcomes following iodine-125 brachytherapy in patients with Gleason 7, intermediate risk prostate cancer: a population-based cohort study. Radiother Oncol 103(2):228–232. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2012.01.006 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hinnen KA, Battermann JJ, van Roermund JG, Moerland MA, Jurgenliemk-Schulz IM, Frank SJ, van Vulpen M (2010) Long-term biochemical and survival outcome of 921 patients treated with I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(5):1433–1438. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.03.049 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hinnen KA, Monninkhof EM, Battermann JJ, van Roermund JG, Frank SJ, van Vulpen M (2012) Prostate specific antigen bounce is related to overall survival in prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(2):883–888. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.11.049 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hinnen KA, Roeloffzen EM, Battermann JJ, Van Moorselaar RJ, van Roermund JG, van Vulpen M (2011) Survival after prostate brachytherapy in patients aged 60 years and younger. BJU Int 107(12):1906–1911. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09769.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ho AY, Burri RJ, Cesaretti JA, Stone NN, Stock RG (2009) Radiation dose predicts for biochemical control in intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 75(1):16–22. doi:S0360-3016(08)03870-4 [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.10.071
  63. Hoeks CM, Barentsz JO, Hambrock T, Yakar D, Somford DM, Heijmink SW, Scheenen TW, Vos PC, Huisman H, van Oort IM, Witjes JA, Heerschap A, Futterer JJ (2011) Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging. Radiology 261(1):46–66. doi: 10.1148/radiol.11091822 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Holmes JA, Wang AZ, Hoffman KE, Hendrix LH, Rosenman JG, Carpenter WR, Godley PA, Chen RC (2012) Is primary prostate cancer treatment influenced by likelihood of extraprostatic disease? A surveillance, epidemiology and end results patterns of care study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84(1):88–94. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.10.076 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Horwich A, Parker C, Bangma C, Kataja V, Group EGW (2010) Prostate cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 21(Suppl 5):v129–133. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdq174 Google Scholar
  66. Huang J, Vicini FA, Williams SG, Ye H, McGrath S, Ghilezan M, Krauss D, Martinez AA, Kestin LL (2012) Percentage of positive biopsy cores: a better risk stratification model for prostate cancer? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(4):1141–1148. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.09.043 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hughes L, Waterman FM, Dicker AP (2005) Salvage of suboptimal prostate seed implantation: Reimplantation of underdosed region of prostate base. Brachytherapy 4(2):163–170. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2005.03.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ishiyama H, Hirayama T, Jhaveri P, Satoh T, Paulino AC, Xu B, Butler EB, Teh BS (2012) Is There an Increase in Genitourinary Toxicity in Patients Treated With Transurethral Resection of the Prostate and Radiotherapy?: A Systematic Review. Am J Clin Oncol (in press). doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e3182546821
  69. Ivanowicz AN, Wakeman CM, Hubbard RT, Devoe WB, Haake MR, Teigland CM (2012) Two-step transurethral surgery of the prostate and permanent implant brachytherapy for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Brachytherapy 11(6):483–488. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.08.006 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaplan A, German L, Chen J, Matzkin H, Mabjeesh NJ (2012) Validation and comparison of the two Kattan nomograms in patients with prostate cancer treated with (125) iodine brachytherapy. BJU Int 109(11):1661–1665. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10748.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Katz MH, Shikanov S, Sun M, Abdollah F, Budaeus L, Gong EM, Eggener SE, Steinberg GD, Zagaja GP, Shalhav AL, Karakiewicz PI, Zorn KC (2011) Gleason 6 prostate cancer in one or two biopsy cores can harbor more aggressive disease. J Endourol/Endourological Soc 25(4):699–703. doi: 10.1089/end.2010.0425 Google Scholar
  72. Keyes M, Pickles T, Agranovich A, Kwan W, Morris WJ (2004) 125I reimplantation in patients with poor initial dosimetry after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60(1):40–50. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.02.011 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Keyes M, Schellenberg D, Moravan V, McKenzie M, Agranovich A, Pickles T, Wu J, Liu M, Bucci J, Morris WJ (2006) Decline in urinary retention incidence in 805 patients after prostate brachytherapy: the effect of learning curve? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64(3):825–834. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.04.056 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Keyes M, Spadinger I, Liu M, Pickles T, Pai H, Hayden A, Moravan V, Halperin R, McKenzie M, Kwan W, Agranovic A, Lapointe V, Morris WJ (2012) Rectal toxicity and rectal dosimetry in low-dose-rate (125)I permanent prostate implants: a long-term study in 1006 patients. Brachytherapy 11(3):199–208. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.05.007 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Khan MA, Han M, Partin AW, Epstein JI, Walsh PC (2003) Long-term cancer control of radical prostatectomy in men younger than 50 years of age: update 2003. Urology 62(1):86–91 (discussion 91–82)Google Scholar
  76. Ko EC, Stone NN, Stock RG (2012) PSA nadir of <0.5 ng/mL following brachytherapy for early-stage prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with freedom from prostate-specific antigen failure. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(2):600–607. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.07.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kono Y, Kubota K, Aruga T, Ishibashi A, Morooka M, Ito K, Itami J, Kanemura M, Minowada S, Tanaka T (2010) Swelling of the prostate gland by permanent brachytherapy may affect seed migration. Japan J Clin Oncol 40(12):1159–1165. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyq118 Google Scholar
  78. Kudchadker RJ, Swanson DA, Kuban DA, Lee AK, Bruno TL, Frank SJ (2008) Is a loose-seed nomogram still valid for prostate brachytherapy in a stranded-seed era? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 72(2):623–627. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.03.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Langley SE, Laing RW (2012) 4D Brachytherapy, a novel real-time prostate brachytherapy technique using stranded and loose seeds. BJU Int 109(Suppl 1):1–6. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10824.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lavery HJ, Droller MJ (2012) Do Gleason patterns 3 and 4 prostate cancer represent separate disease States? J Urol 188(5):1667–1675. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.07.055 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lawton CA, Yan Y, Lee WR, Gillin M, Firat S, Baikadi M, Crook J, Kuettel M, Morton G, Sandler H (2012) Long-term results of an RTOG Phase II trial (00-19) of external-beam radiation therapy combined with permanent source brachytherapy for intermediate-risk clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(5):e795–801. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.11.040 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Le Fur E, Malhaire JP, Baverez D, Delage F, Perrouin-Verbe MA, Schlurmann F, Guerif S, Fournier G, Pradier O, Valeri A (2012) Impact of learning curve and technical changes on dosimetry in low-dose brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Strahlenther Onkol. doi: 10.1007/s00066-012-0242-9 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee HK, Adams MT, Shi Q, Basillote J, Lamonica J, Miranda L, Motta J (2010) Seed implant retention score predicts the risk of prolonged urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(5):1445–1449. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lee LN, Stock RG, Stone NN (2002) Role of hormonal therapy in the management of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer treated with permanent radioactive seed implantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52(2):444–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Leventis AK, Shariat SF, Slawin KM (2001) Local recurrence after radical prostatectomy: correlation of US features with prostatic fossa biopsy findings. Radiology 219(2):432–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Liauw SL, Pitroda SP, Eggener SE, Stadler WM, Pelizzari CA, Vannier MW, Oto A (2012) Evaluation of the Prostate Bed for Local Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy Using Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.05.015 Google Scholar
  87. Liu HW, Malkoske K, Sasaki D, Bews J, Demers A, Nugent Z, Ong A, Bashir B, Dufan T, Cho P, Drachenberg D, Chowdhury A (2010) The dosimetric quality of brachytherapy implants in patients with small prostate volume depends on the experience of the brachytherapy team. Brachytherapy 9(3):202–207. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2009.07.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Loiselle CR, Waheed M, Sylvester J, Allen ZA, Grimm PD, Eulau S, Butler WM, Merrick GS (2009) Analysis of the Pro-Qura Database: rectal dose, implant quality, and brachytherapist’s experience. Brachytherapy 8(1):34–39. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2008.09.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Mahmood U, Pugh T, Frank S, Levy L, Walker G, Haque W, Koshy M, Graber W, Swanson D, Hoffman K, Kuban D, Lee A (2014) Declining use of brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Brachytherapy 13(2):157–162. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2013.08.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Maletz KL, Ennis RD, Ostenson J, Pevsner A, Kagen A, Wernick I (2012) Comparison of CT and MR-CT fusion for prostate post-implant dosimetry. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(5):1912–1917. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.01.064 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mallick S, Azzouzi R, Cormier L, Peiffert D, Mangin PH (2003) Urinary morbidity after 125I brachytherapy of the prostate. BJU Int 92(6):555–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Marcu LG, Lawson JM (2013) Technical and dosimetric aspects of iodine-125 seed reimplantation in suboptimal prostate implants. Br J Radiol 86(1026):20130058. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20130058 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Martin JM, Handorf EA, Kutikov A, Uzzo RG, Bekelman JE, Horwitz EM, Smaldone MC (2014) The rise and fall of prostate brachytherapy: Use of brachytherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in the National Cancer Data Base. Cancer. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28697 Google Scholar
  94. Mayadev J, Merrick GS, Reed JR, Butler WM, Galbreath RW, Allen ZA, Wallner KE (2010) Permanent prostate brachytherapy in prostate glands <20 cm(3). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(5):1450–1455. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.014 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mazeron R, Bajard A, Montbarbon X, Gassa F, Malet C, Rocher F, Clippe S, Bringeon G, Desmettre O, Pommier P (2012a) Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence. Radiat Oncol 7:46. doi: 10.1186/1748-717X-7-46 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Mazeron R, Bajard A, Pommier P (2012b) Prostate-specific antigen bounce after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy: A literature review. Cancer Radiother 16(8):702–710. doi: 10.1016/j.canrad.2012.09.004 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. McElveen TL, Waterman FM, Kim H, Dicker AP (2004) Factors predicting for urinary incontinence after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59(5):1395–1404. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.01.050 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. McGrath SD, Antonucci JV, Fitch DL, Ghilezan M, Gustafson GS, Vicini FA, Martinez AA, Kestin LL (2010) PSA bounce after prostate brachytherapy with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation. Brachytherapy 9(2):137–144. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2009.07.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. McNeely LK, Stone NN, Presser J, Chircus JH, Stock RG (2004) Influence of prostate volume on dosimetry results in real-time 125I seed implantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58(1):292–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT, Lief JH, Walbert HL, Blatt HJ (1999) Rectal dosimetric analysis following prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43(5):1021–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW, Lief J, Bittner N, Wallner KE, Adamovich E (2011) Prostate cancer death is unlikely in high-risk patients following quality permanent interstitial brachytherapy. BJU Int 107(2):226–232. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09486.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Lief JH, Dorsey AT (2001) Is brachytherapy comparable with radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer? Tech Urol 7(1):12–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Tollenaar BG, Galbreath RW, Lief JH (2002a) The dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy-induced urethral strictures. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52(2):461–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE, Galbreath RW, Anderson RL (2002b) Prostate-specific antigen spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54(2):450–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE, Galbreath RW, Lief JH, Allen Z, Adamovich E (2005) Impact of supplemental external beam radiotherapy and/or androgen deprivation therapy on biochemical outcome after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(1):32–43. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.05.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Merrick GS, Grimm PD, Sylvester J, Blasko JC, Butler WM, Allen ZA, Chaudhry UU, Mazza A, Sitter M (2007) Initial analysis of Pro-Qura: a multi-institutional database of prostate brachytherapy dosimetry. Brachytherapy 6(1):9–15. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2006.10.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Merrick GS, Wallner KE, Butler WM, Galbreath RW, Allen ZA, Adamovich E, True L (2006) Brachytherapy in men aged < or = 54 years with clinically localized prostate cancer. BJU Int 98(2):324–328. doi:BJU6248 [pii]  10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06248.x
  108. Merrick GS, Wallner KE, Galbreath RW, Butler WM, Brammer SG, Allen ZA, Lief JH, Adamovich E (2008) Biochemical and functional outcomes following brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies in men < or = 50 years of age with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 31(6):539–544. doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e318172dcb7 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Miles EF, Nelson JW, Alkaissi AK, Das S, Clough RW, Broadwater G, Anscher MS, Chino JP, Oleson JR (2010) Biologically effective dose (BED) correlation with biochemical control after low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy for clinically low-risk prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 77(1):139–146. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.052 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Miyazawa K, Matoba M, Minato H, Morita N, Chikazawa I, Ota K, Tokunaga K, Tonami H, Nojima T, Suzuki K (2012) Seed migration after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with I-125 free seeds: analysis of its incidence and risk factors. Japan J Radiol 30(8):635–641. doi: 10.1007/s11604-012-0102-7 Google Scholar
  111. Mohler JL, Armstrong AJ, Bahnson RR, Boston B, Busby JE, D’Amico AV, Eastham JA, Enke CA, Farrington T, Higano CS, Horwitz EM, Kantoff PW, Kawachi MH, Kuettel M, Lee RJ, MacVicar GR, Malcolm AW, Miller D, Plimack ER, Pow-Sang JM, Roach M, 3rd, Rohren E, Rosenfeld S, Srinivas S, Strope SA, Tward J, Twardowski P, Walsh PC, Ho M, Shead DA (2012) Prostate cancer, Version 3.2012: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines. J Nat Compr Cancer Netw : JNCCN 10(9):1081–1087Google Scholar
  112. Narayana V, Troyer S, Evans V, Winfield RJ, Roberson PL, McLaughlin PW (2005) Randomized trial of high- and low-source strength (125)I prostate seed implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61(1):44–51. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.05.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Naya Y, Okihara K, Evans RB, Babaian RJ (2005) Efficacy of prostatic fossa biopsy in detecting local recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Urology 66(2):350–355. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2005.03.014 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. NCCN (2012) NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (National comprehensive cancer network guideline) prostate cancer. National comprehensive cancer network.
  115. Nguyen BD, Schild SE, Wong WW, Vora SA (2009) Prostate brachytherapy seed embolization to the right renal artery. Brachytherapy 8(3):309–312. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2008.11.011 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Nguyen DP, Giannarini G, Seiler R, Schiller R, Thoeny HC, Thalmann GN, Studer UE (2012) Local recurrence after retropubic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer does not exclusively occur at the anastomotic site. BJU Int. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11506.x Google Scholar
  117. Ohashi T, Momma T, Yamashita S, Nagatsuma K, Kanai K, Kitagawa K, Takahashi S, Hanada T, Yorozu A, Shigematsu N (2012) Impact of MRI-based postimplant dosimetric assessment in prostate brachytherapy using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Brachytherapy 11(6):468–475. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.12.010 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Orio P, Wallner K, Merrick G, Herstein A, Mitsuyama P, Thornton K, Butler W, Sutlief S (2007) Dosimetric parameters as predictive factors for biochemical control in patients with higher risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(2):342–346. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.09.010 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Paoluzzi M, Mignogna M, Lorenzini E, Valent F, Fontana N, Pinzi N, Repetti F, Ponchietti R (2012) Is prostate-specific antigen percentage decrease predictive of clinical outcome after permanent iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer? Brachytherapy 11(4):277–283. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.08.008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Patel C, Elshaikh MA, Angermeier K, Ulchaker J, Klein EA, Chehade N, Wilkinson DA, Reddy CA, Ciezki JP (2004) PSA bounce predicts early success in patients with permanent iodine-125 prostate implant. Urology 63(1):110–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Peters M, Moman MR, van der Poel HG, Vergunst H, de Jong IJ, Vijverberg PL, Battermann JJ, Horenblas S, van Vulpen M (2012) Patterns of outcome and toxicity after salvage prostatectomy, salvage cryosurgery and salvage brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrences after radiation therapy: a multi-center experience and literature review. World J Urol. doi: 10.1007/s00345-012-0928-8 Google Scholar
  122. Petit JH, Gluck C, Kiger WS, 3rd, Laury Henry D, Karasiewicz C, Talcott JA, Berg S, Holupka EJ, Kaplan ID (2007) Androgen deprivation-mediated cytoreduction before interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer does not abrogate the elevated risk of urinary morbidity associated with larger initial prostate volume. Brachytherapy 6(4):267–271. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2007.08.007
  123. Petrik D, Araujo C, Kim D, Halperin R, Crook JM (2012) Implications of CT imaging for postplan quality assessment in prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 11(6):435–440. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.05.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Petros JA (2004) Comparing radical prostatectomy and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer, Discussion2. Oncology (Williston Park) 18(10):1309Google Scholar
  125. Pickett B, Kurhanewicz J, Pouliot J, Weinberg V, Shinohara K, Coakley F, Roach M 3rd (2006) Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy compared with permanent prostate implantation in low-risk prostate cancer based on endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and prostate-specific antigen level. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65(1):65–72. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.11.037 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Pickett B, Ten Haken RK, Kurhanewicz J, Qayyum A, Shinohara K, Fein B, Roach M 3rd (2004) Time to metabolic atrophy after permanent prostate seed implantation based on magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59(3):665–673. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.11.024 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Pickles T, Keyes M, Morris WJ (2010) Brachytherapy or conformal external radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a single-institution matched-pair analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(1):43–49. doi:S0360-3016(09)00421-0 [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.01.081
  128. Pinkawa M, Holy R, Piroth MD, Klotz J, Pfister D, Heidenreich A, Eble MJ (2012) Urinary morbidity after permanent prostate brachytherapy—impact of dose to the urethra vs. sources placed in close vicinity to the urethra. Radiother Oncol 103(2):247–251. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2011.12.011 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Potters L, Roach M, 3rd, Davis BJ, Stock RG, Ciezki JP, Zelefsky MJ, Stone NN, Fearn PA, Yu C, Shinohara K, Kattan MW (2010) Postoperative nomogram predicting the 9-year probability of prostate cancer recurrence after permanent prostate brachytherapy using radiation dose as a prognostic variable. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(4):1061–1065. doi:S0360-3016(09)00469-6 [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.03.031
  130. Quon H, Loblaw A, Nam R (2011) Dramatic increase in prostate cancer cases by 2021. BJU Int 108(11):1734–1738. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10197.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Reed DR, Wallner KE, Merrick GS, Arthurs S, Mueller A, Cavanagh W, Butler WB, Ford E, Sutlief SG (2007) A prospective randomized comparison of stranded vs. loose 125I seeds for prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 6(2):129–134. doi:S1538-4721(07)00006-2 [pii]  10.1016/j.brachy.2007.01.003
  132. Reese AC, Sadetsky N, Carroll PR, Cooperberg MR (2011) Inaccuracies in assignment of clinical stage for localized prostate cancer. Cancer 117(2):283–289. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25596 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Roach M (2012) Editorial Comment: Long-Term Potency Preservation Following Brachytherapy For Prostate Cancer. BJU Int (in press)Google Scholar
  134. Roach M 3rd, Hanks G, Thames H Jr, Schellhammer P, Shipley WU, Sokol GH, Sandler H (2006) Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65(4):965–974. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.04.029 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Roberts G, Al-Qaisieh B, Bownes P (2012) Evaluation of the visibility of a new thinner (125)I radioactive source for permanent prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 11(6):460–467. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.01.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Rodrigues G, Warde P, Pickles T, Crook J, Brundage M, Souhami L, Lukka H (2012) Pre-treatment risk stratification of prostate cancer patients: A critical review. Can Urol Assoc J, Journal de l’Association des urologues du Canada 6(2):121–127. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.11085 Google Scholar
  137. Roeloffzen EM, Crook J, Monninkhof EM, McLean M, van Vulpen M, Saibishkumar EP (2012) External validation of the pretreatment nomogram to predict acute urinary retention after (125)I prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 11(4):256–264. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.12.011 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Roeloffzen EM, van Vulpen M, Battermann JJ, van Roermund JG, Saibishkumar EP, Monninkhof EM (2011) Pretreatment nomogram to predict the risk of acute urinary retention after I-125 prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81(3):737–744. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.06.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rosenthal SA, Bittner NH, Beyer DC, Demanes DJ, Goldsmith BJ, Horwitz EM, Ibbott GS, Lee WR, Nag S, Suh WW, Potters L (2011) American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) practice guideline for the transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79(2):335–341. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.08.045 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. RTOG (2011) RTOG 0232: A phase III study comparing combined external beam radiation and transperineal interstitial permanent Brachytherapy with Brachytherapy alone for selected patients with intermediate risk prostatic CarcinomaGoogle Scholar
  141. Ryu B, Bax J, Edirisinge C, Lewis C, Chen J, D’Souza D, Fenster A, Wong E (2012) Prostate brachytherapy with oblique needles to treat large glands and overcome pubic arch interference. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(5):1463–1472. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.10.012 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Saibishkumar EP, Borg J, Yeung I, Cummins-Holder C, Landon A, Crook J (2009) Sequential comparison of seed loss and prostate dosimetry of stranded seeds with loose seeds in 125I permanent implant for low-risk prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73(1):61–68. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.04.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Salembier C, Lavagnini P, Nickers P, Mangili P, Rijnders A, Polo A, Venselaar J, Hoskin P (2007) Tumour and target volumes in permanent prostate brachytherapy: a supplement to the ESTRO/EAU/EORTC recommendations on prostate brachytherapy. Radiother Oncol 83(1):3–10. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2007.01.014 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Schmedders M, Janatzek S, Zimmer B (2011) Benefit assessment by the Federal Joint Committee: assessment of treatment strategies for low risk prostate cancer. Der Urologe Ausg A 50(8):938–943. doi: 10.1007/s00120-011-2545-3 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Shapiro EY, Rais-Bahrami S, Morgenstern C, Napolitano B, Richstone L, Potters L (2009) Long-term outcomes in younger men following permanent prostate brachytherapy. J Urol 181(4):1665–1671 (discussion 1671). doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.11.122
  146. Shen X, Keith SW, Mishra MV, Dicker AP, Showalter TN (2012) The impact of brachytherapy on prostate cancer-specific mortality for definitive radiation therapy of high-grade prostate cancer: a population-based analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(4):1154–1159. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.09.055 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Shilkrut M, Merrick GS, McLaughlin PW, Stenmark MH, Abu-Isa E, Vance SM, Sandler HM, Feng FY, Hamstra DA (2012) The addition of low-dose-rate brachytherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy decreases biochemical failure and prostate cancer death compared with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for high-risk prostate cancer. Cancer. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27784 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Shirvani SM, Kudchadker RJ, Bruno TL, Likhacheva A, Swanson DA, Frank SJ (2011) Impact of urinary catheterization on dosimetry after prostate implant brachytherapy with palladium-103 or iodine-125. Brachytherapy 10(4):269–274. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2010.12.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sidana A, Hernandez DJ, Feng Z, Partin AW, Trock BJ, Saha S, Epstein JI (2012) Treatment decision-making for localized prostate cancer: what younger men choose and why. The Prostate 72(1):58–64. doi: 10.1002/pros.21406 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sidhu S, Morris WJ, Spadinger I, Keyes M, Hilts M, Harrison R, Otto K, McKenzie M, Agranovich A (2002) Prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetry: a comparison of prostate quadrants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52(2):544–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Smith RP, Flickinger JC, Kehwar TS, Benoit RM, Beriwal S (2012) Prediction of true dosimetric parameters over the life of the implant in prostate Brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84(3, Supplement):S394–S395. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.1041
  152. Snyder KM, Stock RG, Buckstein M, Stone NN (2012) Long-term potency preservation following brachytherapy for prostate cancer. BJU Int 110(2):221–225. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10800.x
  153. Stember DS, Mulhall JP (2012) The concept of erectile function preservation (penile rehabilitation) in the patient after brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy 11(2):87–96. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.01.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Stephenson AJ, Kattan MW (2006) Nomograms for prostate cancer. BJU Int 98(1):39–46. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06173.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Stock R, Stone N, Tabert A, Iannuzzi C, DeWyngaert JK (1998) A dose-response study for I-125 prostate implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41(1):101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Stock RG (2004) Salvage brachytherapy after external-beam irradiation for prostate cancer: Review 2. Oncology (Williston Park) 18(2):151–158 (discussion 158–160, 163–154)Google Scholar
  157. Stock RG, Berkowitz J, Blacksburg SR, Stone NN (2012a) Gleason 7 prostate cancer treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy: lack of impact of primary Gleason pattern on biochemical failure. BJU Int. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11057.x Google Scholar
  158. Stock RG, Liu JT, Blacksburg SR, Stone NN (2012b) The Relative Effects of Biologically Effective Dose (BED) Versus Adjuvant Androgen Suppression (AS) on Biochemical Control and Post-treatment Biopsy Results Following the Brachytherapy Management of Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84(3, Supplement):S384–S385. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.1013
  159. Stock RG, Stone NN, Cesaretti JA (2003) Prostate-specific antigen bounce after prostate seed implantation for localized prostate cancer: descriptions and implications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56(2):448–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Stock RG, Stone NN, Cesaretti JA, Rosenstein BS (2006) Biologically effective dose values for prostate brachytherapy: effects on PSA failure and posttreatment biopsy results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64 (2):527-533. doi:S0360-3016(05)02372-2 [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.07.981
  161. Stone NN, Marshall DT, Stone JJ, Cesaretti JA, Stock RG (2010a) Does neoadjuvant hormonal therapy improve urinary function when given to men with large prostates undergoing prostate brachytherapy? J Urol 183 (2):634-639. doi:S0022-5347(09)02625-1 [pii]  10.1016/j.juro.2009.09.084
  162. Stone NN, Skouteris VM, Stock RG (2012) Biopsy and implantation of the seminal vesicles. Brachytherapy 11(5):334–340. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.12.008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Stone NN, Stock RG (2005) Reduction of pulmonary migration of permanent interstitial sources in patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy. Urology 66 (1):119-123. doi:S0090-4295(05)00146-9 [pii]  10.1016/j.urology.2005.01.047
  164. Stone NN, Stock RG (2014a) 15-Year Cause Specific and All-Cause Survival Following Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer: Negative Impact of Long-term Hormonal Therapy. J Urol. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.03.094 Google Scholar
  165. Stone NN, Stock RG (2014b) Does dose matter? Editorial comments to Morris et al. Whole prostate D90 and V100: a dose-response analysis of 2000 consecutive (125)I monotherapy cases. Brachytherapy 13 (1):42-43. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2013.11.009
  166. Stone NN, Stock RG, Cesaretti JA, Unger P (2010b) Local control following permanent prostate brachytherapy: effect of high biologically effective dose on biopsy results and oncologic outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76 (2):355-360. doi:S0360-3016(09)00339-3 [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.01.078
  167. Stone NN, Stone MM, Rosenstein BS, Unger P, Stock RG (2011) Influence of pretreatment and treatment factors on intermediate to long-term outcome after prostate brachytherapy. J Urol 185(2):495–500. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.09.099 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sugawara A, Nakashima J, Kunieda E, Nagata H, Mizuno R, Seki S, Shiraishi Y, Kouta R, Oya M, Shigematsu N (2011) Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose (125)I seeds. Radiat Oncol 6:130. doi: 10.1186/1748-717X-6-130 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Sugawara A, Nakashima J, Shigematsu N, Kunieda E, Kubo A (2009) Prediction of seed migration after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with I-125 free seeds. Brachytherapy 8(1):52–56. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2008.10.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sylvester JE, Blasko JC, Grimm PD, Meier R, Malmgren JA (2003) Ten-year biochemical relapse-free survival after external beam radiation and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer: the Seattle experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57(4):944–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sylvester JE, Grimm PD, Blasko JC, Millar J, Orio PF, 3rd, Skoglund S, Galbreath RW, Merrick G (2007) 15-Year biochemical relapse free survival in clinical Stage T1-T3 prostate cancer following combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy; Seattle experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67 (1):57-64. doi:S0360-3016(06)02774-X [pii]  10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.07.1382
  172. Sylvester JE, Grimm PD, Wong J, Galbreath RW, Merrick G, Blasko JC (2011) Fifteen-year biochemical relapse-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival following i(125) prostate brachytherapy in clinically localized prostate cancer: Seattle experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81(2):376–381. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.05.042 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Taira AV, Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW, Lief J, Adamovich E, Wallner KE (2011) Long-term outcome for clinically localized prostate cancer treated with permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79(5):1336–1342. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.01.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Taira AV, Merrick GS, Galbreath RW, Butler WM, Adamovich E, Wallner KE (2012) Prognostic importance of small prostate size in men receiving definitive prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84(2):396–401. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.11.068 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Anai S, Hirayama A, Hasegawa M, Konishi N, Fujimoto K (2013) Periodical assessment of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy. Radiat Oncol 8(1):25. doi: 10.1186/1748-717X-8-25 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Fujimoto K, Anai S, Hirayama A, Hasegawa M, Konishi N, Hirao Y (2012) Minimal percentage of dose received by 90% of the urethra (%UD90) is the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer. BMC urology 12:28. doi: 10.1186/1471-2490-12-28 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Tanaka N, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y, Asakawa I, Hasegawa M, Konishi N (2009) Variations in international prostate symptom scores, uroflowmetric parameters, and prostate volume after (125)I permanent brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Urology 74(2):407–411. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2008.12.062 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Taussky D, Moumdjian C, Larouche R, Beliveau-Nadeau D, Boudreau C, Hervieux Y, Donath D (2012) Seed migration in prostate brachytherapy depends on experience and technique. Brachytherapy 11(6):452–456. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.03.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Terk MD, Stock RG, Stone NN (1998) Identification of patients at increased risk for prolonged urinary retention following radioactive seed implantation of the prostate. J Urol 160 (4):1379-1382. doi:S0022-5347(01)62542-4 [pii]Google Scholar
  180. Thomas CW, Kruk A, McGahan CE, Spadinger I, Morris WJ (2007) Prostate brachytherapy post-implant dosimetry: a comparison between higher and lower source density. Radiother Oncol 83(1):18–24. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2007.02.004 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Thompson A, Keyes M, Pickles T, Palma D, Moravan V, Spadinger I, Lapointe V, Morris WJ (2010) Evaluating the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure after (125)I prostate brachytherapy: Can PSA kinetics distinguish PSA failures from PSA bounces? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 78(2):415–421. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.07.1724 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Thompson I, Thrasher JB, Aus G, Burnett AL, Canby-Hagino ED, Cookson MS, D’Amico AV, Dmochowski RR, Eton DT, Forman JD, Goldenberg SL, Hernandez J, Higano CS, Kraus SR, Moul JW, Tangen CM (2007) Guideline for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer: 2007 update. J Urol 177(6):2106–2131. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.03.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Toledano A, Chauveinc L, Flam T, Thiounn N, Solignac S, Timbert M, Rosenwald JC, Cosset JM (2006) PSA bounce after permanent implant prostate brachytherapy may mimic a biochemical failure: a study of 295 patients with a minimum 3-year followup. Brachytherapy 5(2):122–126. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2006.02.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Turley RS, Hamilton RJ, Terris MK, Kane CJ, Aronson WJ, Presti JC, Jr., Amling CL, Freedland SJ, Group SDS (2008a) Small transrectal ultrasound volume predicts clinically significant Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database. J Urol 179 (2):523-527; discussion 527-528. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.09.078
  185. Turley RS, Terris MK, Kane CJ, Aronson WJ, Presti JC, Jr., Amling CL, Freedland SJ, Group SDS (2008b) The association between prostate size and Gleason score upgrading depends on the number of biopsy cores obtained: results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital Database. BJU Int 102(9):1074–1079. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08015.x Google Scholar
  186. Uesugi T, Saika T, Edamura K, Nose H, Kobuke M, Ebara S, Abarzua F, Katayama N, Yanai H, Nasu Y, Kumon H (2012) Primary Gleason grade 4 impact on biochemical recurrence after permanent interstitial brachytherapy in Japanese patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(2):e219–223. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.04.018 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Wagner W, Bolling T, Hambruegge C, Hartlapp J, Krukemeyer MG (2011) Patients’ satisfaction with different modalities of prostate cancer therapy–a retrospective survey among 634 patients. Anticancer Res 31(11):3903–3908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Wagner W, Willich N, Radmard A, Christ A, Fleig PW, Krukemeyer MG (2010) Seed migration to the vertebral venous plexus after prostate brachytherapy. Der Urologe Ausg A 49(11):1390–1392. doi: 10.1007/s00120-010-2382-9 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Waterman FM, Dicker AP (2003) Probability of late rectal morbidity in 125I prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55(2):342–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Whaley JT, Levy LB, Swanson DA, Pugh TJ, Kudchadker RJ, Bruno TL, Frank SJ (2012) Sexual function and the use of medical devices or drugs to optimize potency after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(5):e765–771. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.11.004 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Williams SG, Duchesne GM, Gogna NK, Millar JL, Pickles T, Pratt GR, Turner S (2006) An international multicenter study evaluating the impact of an alternative biochemical failure definition on the judgment of prostate cancer risk. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65(2):351–357. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.12.007 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Wong JC, Sylvester J (2012) First Report on Seed Migration to the Lung With the Use of a Thinner I125 Radioactive Seed Within 20 Gauge Needles for Permanent Seed Prostate Brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84 (3, Supplement):S380. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.07.1002
  193. Zelefsky MJ, Chou JF, Pei X, Yamada Y, Kollmeier M, Cox B, Zhang Z, Schechter M, Cohen GN, Zaider M (2012) Predicting biochemical tumor control after brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. Brachytherapy 11(4):245–249. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2011.08.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Zelefsky MJ, Cohen GN, Bosch WR, Morikawa L, Khalid N, Crozier CL, Lee WR, Zietman A, Owen J, Wilson JF, Devlin PM (2013) Results from the Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO) survey: Evaluation of dosimetric outcomes for low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 12(1):19–24. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2012.04.001 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Zelefsky MJ, Leibel SA, Gaudin PB, Kutcher GJ, Fleshner NE, Venkatramen ES, Reuter VE, Fair WR, Ling CC, Fuks Z (1998) Dose escalation with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy affects the outcome in prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41(3):491–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Zelefsky MJ, Nedelka MA, Arican ZL, Yamada Y, Cohen GN, Shippy AM, Park JJ, Zaider M (2008) Combined brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: reduced morbidity with an intraoperative brachytherapy planning technique and supplemental intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Brachytherapy 7(1):1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2007.12.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Zhu AX, Wallner KE, Frivold GP, Ferry D, Jutzy KR, Foster GP (2006) Prostate brachytherapy seed migration to the right coronary artery associated with an acute myocardial infarction. Brachytherapy 5(4):262–265. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2006.08.004 PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of UlmUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations