Advertisement

Foreign Body Aspiration: Imaging Aspects

  • Benjamin Z. Koplewitz
  • Jacob Bar-Ziv
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Foreign body aspiration is the most frequent pediatric domestic accident, and has serious and sometimes fatal sequelae. Most cases occur under the age of 4 years. The history of choking followed by persistent cough is the most reliable clue for the diagnosis, but many patients present with various nonspecific clinical symptoms. When the history of a foreign body aspiration is definite, bronchoscopy is the modality of choice for both diagnosis and management. In the absence of such a history diagnosis can be overlooked, and many children present with unresolved pneumonia, atelectasis, or other complications. The role of the radiologist in such cases is not only to confirm a clinically suspected diagnosis, but also to suggest the diagnosis in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiologic features that could be related to long-standing foreign bodies. Many clinical and imaging findings are the result of a one-way obstruction mechanism. A normal inspiratory chest radiograph does not rule out a foreign body. Expiratory films are important to demonstrate air-trapping. The high kilo-voltage (kV) copper filter technique is valuable for demonstrating a nonopaque foreign body, and fluoroscopy can be very useful. Computed Tomography (CT) has become more valuable by virtue of its wide availability, high resolution, and the multiplanar, three-dimensional and additional image reconstruction capabilities. CT can indicate the exact location of a foreign body, suggest alternative diagnoses, and can demonstrate any associated complications. The role of other imaging modalities is not as well established. An understanding of the mechanisms of obstruction and their resultant clinical and imaging manifestations, can lead to earlier diagnosis and lower the complication rate. This chapter discusses imaging techniques and findings related to the various types and mechanisms of obstruction and to the complications of foreign body aspiration.

Keywords

Foreign Body Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Foreign Body Aspiration Esophageal Foreign Body Bronchial Foreign Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Prof. C. Springer and Prof. B.S. Slasky for reviewing the manuscript; Prof. P. Mogle for his comments and for the contribution of the case described in Fig. 19; Prof. J. Lucaya for the cases presented in Figs. 56, 10, 12, 1416; Prof. J. Strife for the case described in Fig. 18; and Mr. E. Koplewitz and Mrs. B. Koplewitz for their editorial comments and their continuous support.

References

  1. Abdel-Rahman HA (2000) Fatal suffocation by rubber balloons in children: mechanism and prevention. Forensic Sci Int 108(2):97–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abellan Martinez MC, Mendez Martinez P, Sanchez Gascon F, Hernandez Martinez J, Ruiz Lopez FJ (2000) Repeated hemoptysis for foreign body bronchial aspiration: presentation of a case and review of literature. Ann Med Intern 17(12):652–654Google Scholar
  3. Adaletli I, Kurugoglu S, Ulus S, Ozer H, Elicevik M, Kantarci F, Mihmanli I, Akman C (2007) Utilization of low-dose multidetector CT and virtual bronchoscopy in children with suspected foreign body aspiration. Pediatr Radiol 37(1):33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adegboye VO, Osinowo O, Adebo OA (2003) Bronchiectasis consequent upon prolonged foreign body retention. Cent Afr J Med 49(5–6):53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Sarraf N, Jamal-Eddine H, Khaja F, Ayed AK (2009) Headscarf pin tracheobronchial aspiration: a distinct clinical entity. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 9(2):187–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Albirmawy OA, Elsheikh MN (2011) Foreign body aspiration, a continuously growing challenge: Tanta University experience in Egypt. Auris Nasus Larynx 38(1):88–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ammari FF, Faris KT, Mahafza TM (2000) Inhalation of wild barley into the airways: two different outcomes. Saudi Med J 21(5):468–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anas NG, Perkin RM (1983) Aspiration of a balloon by a 3-month-old infant. JAMA 250(3):385–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Applegate KE, Dardinger JT, Lieber ML, Herts BR, Davros WJ, Obuchowski NA, Maneker A (2001) Spiral CT scanning technique in the detection of aspiration of LEGO foreign bodies. Pediatr Radiol 31(12):836–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Arun Babu T, Ananthakrishnan S (2013) Unusual presentation of sand aspiration in a 14-month-old child. Indian J Pediatr 80(9):786–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Auerback ML (1990) Pleural effusion due to unsuspected aspiration of vegetable matter in a three-year-old boy. N Engl J Med 322(17):1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Avital A, Springer C, Mogle P, Godfrey S (1989) Successful treatment after ‘drowning’ in sand. Arch Dis Child 64(4):615–616PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ayed AK, Jafar AM, Owayed A (2003) Foreign body aspiration in children: diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Surg Int 19(6):485–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Aytac A, Yurdakul Y, Ikizler C, Olga R, Saylam A (1977) Inhalation of foreign bodies in children. Report of 500 cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 74(1):145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baethge BA, Eggerstedt JM, Olash FA Jr (1990) Group F streptococcal empyema from aspiration of a grass inflorescence. Ann Thorac Surg 49(2):319–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Baharloo F, Veyckemans F, Francis C, Biettlot MP, Rodenstein DO (1999) Tracheobronchial foreign bodies: presentation and management in children and adults. Chest 115(5):1357–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bai W, Zhou X, Gao X, Shao C, Califano JA, Ha PK (2011) Value of chest CT in the diagnosis and management of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Pediatr Int 53(4):515–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Balink H, Collins J, Korsten-Meijer AG, Rottier BL (2012) Unilateral hyperlucent lung in a child caused by a foreign body identified with v/q scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med 37(9):916–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bamber AR, Pryce J, Ashworth M, Sebire NJ (2013) Fatal aspiration of foreign bodies in infants and children. Fetal Pediatr Pathol (Epub ahead of print Oct 21 2013)Google Scholar
  20. Bar-Ziv J, Solomon A (1990) Direct coronal CT scanning of tracheo-bronchial, pulmonary and thoraco-abdominal lesions in children. Pediatr Radiol 20(4):245–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Barrett TG, Debelle GD (1995) Near-fatal aspiration of a child’s dummy: design fault or deliberate injury? J Accid Emerg Med 12(2):154–155PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Barrios Fontoba JE, Gutierrez C, Lluna J, Vila JJ, Poquet J, Ruiz-Company S (1997) Bronchial foreign body: should bronchoscopy be performed in all patients with a choking crisis? Pediatr Surg Int 12(2–3):118–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Basok O, Yaldiz S, Kilincer L (1997) Bronchiectasis resulting from aspirated grass inflorescences. Scand Cardiovasc J 31(3):157–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Berdon WE, Dee GJ, Abramson SJ, Altman RP, Wung JT (1984) Localized pneumothorax adjacent to a collapsed lobe: a sign of bronchial obstruction. Radiology 150(3):691–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Berger PE, Kuhn JP, Kuhns LR (1980) Computed tomography and the occult tracheobronchial foreign body. Radiology 134(1):133–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bergeson PS, Hinchcliffe WA, Crawford RF, Sorenson MJ, Trump DS (1978) Asphyxia secondary to massive dirt aspiration. J Pediatr 92(3):506–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bertolani MF, Marotti F, Bergamini BM, Pellegrino M, Balli R, Calandra Buonaura PL (1999) Extraction of a rubber bullet from a bronchus after 1 year: complete resolution of chronic pulmonary damage. Chest 115(4):1210–1213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bhana BD, Gunaselvam JG, Dada MA (2000) Mechanical airway obstruction caused by accidental aspiration of part of a ballpoint pen. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 21(4):362–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bhat KV, Hegde JS, Nagalotimath US, Patil GC (2010) Evaluation of computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy in paediatric tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration. J Laryngol Otol 124(8):875–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Black RE, Choi KJ, Syme WC, Johnson DG, Matlak ME (1984) Bronchoscopic removal of aspirated foreign bodies in children. Am J Surg 148(6):778–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Black RE, Johnson DG, Matlak ME (1994) Bronchoscopic removal of aspirated foreign bodies in children. J Pediatr Surg 29(5):682–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Blazer S, Naveh Y, Friedman A (1980) Foreign body in the airway. A review of 200 cases. Am J Dis Child 134(1):68–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Boufersaoui A, Smati L, Benhalla KN, Boukari R, Smail S, Anik K, Aouameur R, Chaouche H, Baghriche M (2013) Foreign body aspiration in children: experience from 2624 patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 77(10):1683–1688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bratton SL, O’Rourke PP (1993) Spontaneous pneumomediastinum. J Emerg Med 11(5):525–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Braverman I, Gomori JM, Polv O, Saah D (1993) The role of CT imaging in the evaluation of cervical esophageal foreign bodies. J Otolaryngol 22(4):311–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brkic F, Delibegovic-Dedic S, Hajdarovic D (2001) Bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies from children in Bosnia and Herzegovina: experience with 230 patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 60(3):193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bro H, Thamsen H (1989) Pneumopericardium after aspiration of a pea into the respiratory tract. Ugeskr Laeger 151(42):2733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Buntain WL, Benton JW, Gutierrez JF (1979) Christmas bow tragedies. South Med J 72(11):1471–1472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Burrington JD (1976) Aluminum “pop tops”. A hazard to child health. JAMA 235(24):2614–2617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Burton EM, Brick WG, Hall JD, Riggs W Jr, Houston CS (1996) Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children. South Med J 89(2):195–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Burton EM, Riggs W Jr, Kaufman RA, Houston CS (1989) Pneumomediastinum caused by foreign body aspiration in children. Pediatr Radiol 20(1–2):45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Byard RW (1994) Unexpected death due to acute airway obstruction in daycare centers. Pediatrics 94(1):113–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Capitanio MA, Kirkpatrick JA (1972) The lateral decubitus film. An aid in determining air-trapping in children. Radiology 103(2):460–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Carron JD, Derkay CS (2000) Potpourri aspiration presenting as tension pneumothorax. Am J Otolaryngol 21(5):349–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Cataneo AJ, Cataneo DC, Ruiz RL Jr (2008) Management of tracheobronchial foreign body in children. Pediatr Surg Int 24(2):151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cataneo AJ, Reibscheid SM, Ruiz Junior RL, Ferrari GF (1997) Foreign body in the tracheobronchial tree. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 36(12):701–706Google Scholar
  47. Cavens TR, McGee MD, Miller RR, Bowen DA (1973) Pneumocutaneous fistula secondary to aspiration of grass. J Pediatr 82(4):737–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cevizci N, Dokucu AI, Baskin D, Karadag CA, Sever N, Yalcin M, Bahadir E, Basak M (2008) Virtual bronchoscopy as a dynamic modality in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected foreign body aspiration. Eur J Pediatr Surg 18(6):398–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Chang AE, Pereira KD (2013) Tracheal foreign bodies: are radiographs misleading? Pediatr Emerg Care 29(4):515–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chen YT, Singh R, Brett RH (1998) Diagnostic red herring in an infant with stridor. Singapore Med J 39(10):471–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cheng T, Herman G, Coulter K (1991) A tale of two diseases: pneumonia and chest wall abscess. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10(5):414–415, 417–418Google Scholar
  52. Chik KK, Miu TY, Chan CW (2009) Foreign body aspiration in Hong Kong Chinese children. Hong Kong Med J 15(1):6–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Choi SJ, Choi BK, Kim HJ, Lee SH, Choi SH, Park SJ, Goo HW, Lee JS, Yoon CH (2002) Lateral decubitus HRCT: a simple technique to replace expiratory CT in children with air trapping. Pediatr Radiol 32(3):179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Choy IO, Idowu O (1996) Sand aspiration: a case report. J Pediatr Surg 31(10):1448–1450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ciftci AO, Bingol-Kologlu M, Senocak ME, Tanyel FC, Buyukpamukcu N (2003) Bronchoscopy for evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children. J Pediatr Surg 38(8):1170–1176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cleveland RH (1979) Symmetry of bronchial angles in children. Radiology 133(1):89–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Cohen HA, Goldberg E, Horev Z (1993) Removal of nasal foreign bodies in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 32(3):192Google Scholar
  58. Cohen S, Avital A, Godfrey S, Gross M, Kerem E, Springer C (2009) Suspected foreign body inhalation in children: what are the indications for bronchoscopy? J Pediatr 155(2):276–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dabbah H, Elias N, Bentur L (2009) Foreign-body aspiration as an aetiology for brain abscess. Arch Dis Child 94(8):601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. de Sousa ST, Ribeiro VS, de Menezes Filho JM, dos Santos AM, Barbieri MA, de Figueiredo Neto JA (2009) Foreign body aspiration in children and adolescents: experience of a Brazilian referral center. J Bras Pneumol 35(7):653–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Diaz GA, Valledor L, Seda F (2000) Foreign bodies from the upper-aero digestive tract of children in Puerto Rico. Bol Asoc Med P R 92(9–12):124–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dindar H, Konkan R, Cakmak M, Barlas M, Gokcora H, Yucesan S (1994) A bronchopleurocutaneous fistula caused by an unusual foreign body aspiration simulating acute abdomen. Eur J Pediatr 153(2):136–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dogan K, Kaptanoglu M, Onen A, Saba T (1999) Unusual sites of uncommon endobronchial foreign bodies. Reports of four cases. Scand Cardiovasc J 33(5):309–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Elhassani NB (1988) Tracheobronchial foreign bodies in the Middle East. A Baghdad study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 96(4):621–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ernst KD, Mahmud F (1994) Reversible cystic dilatation of distal airways due to foreign body. South Med J 87(3):404–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Esclamado RM, Richardson MA (1987) Laryngotracheal foreign bodies in children. A comparison with bronchial foreign bodies. Am J Dis Child 141(3):259–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ezer SS, Oguzkurt P, Ince E, Temiz A, Caliskan E, Hicsonmez A (2011) Foreign body aspiration in children: analysis of diagnostic criteria and accurate time for bronchoscopy. Pediatr Emerg Care 27(8):723–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fabian MC, Smitheringale A (1996) Hemoptysis in children: the hospital for sick children experience. J Otolaryngol 25(1):44–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Falase B, Sanusi M, Majekodunmi A, Ajose I, Oke D (2013) Preliminary experience in the management of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in Lagos. Nigeria Pan Afr Med J 15:31Google Scholar
  70. Farkash J, Liberman A, Bar-Ziv J et al (1982) Respiratory tract foreign bodies in children. Harefuah 10:383–387Google Scholar
  71. Felman AH (1982) The pediatric chest. Thomas, Springfield, pp 411–423Google Scholar
  72. Fini-Storchi I, Ninu MB (1996) Atypical intranasal foreign body. Ear Nose Throat J 75(12):796–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fitzpatrick PC, Guarisco JL (1998) Pediatric airway foreign bodies. J La State Med Soc 150(4):138–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Foltran F, Ballali S, Rodriguez H, Sebastian van As AB, Passali D, Gulati A, Gregori D (2013) Inhaled foreign bodies in children: a global perspective on their epidemiological, clinical, and preventive aspects. Pediatr Pulmonol 48(4):344–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fraga Ade M, Reis MC, Zambon MP, Toro IC, Ribeiro JD, Baracat EC (2008) Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment. J Bras Pneumol 34(2):74–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Friedman EM (2000) Tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 33(1):179–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fuentes S, Bouillot P, Regis J, Lena G, Choux M (2001) Management of brain stem abscess. Br J Neurosurg 15(1):57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gang W, Zhengxia P, Hongbo L, Yonggang L, Jiangtao D, Shengde W, Chun W (2012) Diagnosis and treatment of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in 1024 children. J Pediatr Surg 47(11):2004–2010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gatch G, Myre L, Black RE (1987) Foreign body aspiration in children. Causes, diagnosis, and prevention. AORN J 46(5):850–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Garcia-Pena P, Lucaya J (1999) Chest CT in children: main applications and advantages. Pediatr Pulmonol S18:56–59Google Scholar
  81. Giudicelli J, Chapelon C, Louis D, Andre C, Bellon G (1996) Intrabronchial inhaled seed migration. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pleural-cutaneous fistula. Rev Mal Respir 13(4):428–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Glinjongol C, Kiatchaipipat S, Thepcharoenniran S (2004) Severe sand aspiration: a case report with complete recovery. J Med Assoc Thai 87(7):825–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Goktas O, Snidero S, Jahnke V, Passali D, Gregori D (2010) Foreign body aspiration in children: field report of a German hospital. Pediatr Int 52(1):100–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Grad R, Taussig LM (1990) Acute infections producing upper airway obstruction. In: Chenick V, Kendig EL (eds) Disorders of the respiratory tract in children. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 336–348Google Scholar
  85. Grunebaum M, Adler S, Varsano I (1979) The paradoxial movement of the mediastinum. A diagnostic sign of foreign-body aspiration during childhood. Pediatr Radiol 8(4):213–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gupta AK, Berry M (1991) Detection of a radiolucent bronchial foreign body by computed tomography. Pediatr Radiol 21(4):307–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Haliloglu M, Ciftci AO, Oto A, Gumus B, Tanyel FC, Senocak ME, Buyukpamukcu N, Besim A (2003) CT virtual bronchoscopy in the evaluation of children with suspected foreign body aspiration. Eur J Radiol 48(2):188–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Halvorson DJ, Merritt RM, Mann C, Porubsky ES (1996) Management of subglottic foreign bodies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 105(7):541–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hamad AM, Elmistekawy EM, Ragab SM (2010) Headscarf pin, a sharp foreign body aspiration with particular clinical characteristics. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 267(12):1957–1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hanukoglu A, Fried D, Hadas E (1980) Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema following foreign body aspiration. Harefuah 98:262–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hanukoglu A, Fried D, Segal S (1986) Loss of voice as sole symptom of subglottic foreign-body aspiration. Am J Dis Child 140(10):973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hilman BC, Kurzweg FT, McCook WW Jr, Liles AE (1980) Foreign body aspiration of grass inflorescences as a cause of hemoptysis. Chest 78(2):306–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hitter A, Hullo E, Durand C, Righini CA (2011) Diagnostic value of various investigations in children with suspected foreign body aspiration: review. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 128(5):248–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hoeve LJ, Rombout J (1992) Pediatric laryngobronchoscopy. 1332 procedures stored in a data base. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 24(1):73–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hoeve LJ, Rombout J, Pot DJ (1993) Foreign body aspiration in children. The diagnostic value of signs, symptoms and pre-operative examination. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 18(1):55–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Holan G, Ram D (2000) Aspiration of an avulsed primary incisor. A case report. Int J Paediatr Dent 10(2):150–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Holland NJ, Trumbull HR (1979) Chronic foreign body aspiration diagnosed by lung scan. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 18(8):497–500Google Scholar
  98. Hu M, Green R, Gungor A (2013) Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema from bronchial foreign body aspiration. Am J Otolaryngol 34(1):85–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Huankang Z, Kuanlin X, Xiaolin H, Witt D (2012) Comparison between tracheal foreign body and bronchial foreign body: a review of 1,007 cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 76(12):1719–1725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ibrahimov M, Yollu U, Akil F, Aydin F, Yener M (2013) Laryngeal foreign body mimicking croup. J Craniofac Surg 24(1):e7–e8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ikeda M, Himi K, Yamauchi Y, Ikui A, Shigihara S, Kida A (2001) Use of digital subtraction fluoroscopy to diagnose radiolucent aspirated foreign bodies in infants and children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 61(3):233–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Ilan O, Eliashar R, Hirshoren N, Hamdan K, Gross M (2012) Turban pin aspiration: new fashion, new syndrome. Laryngoscope 122(4):916–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Imaizumi H, Kaneko M, Nara S, Saito H, Asakura K, Akiba H (1994) Definitive diagnosis and location of peanuts in the airways using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Ann Emerg Med 23(6):1379–1382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Jabbardarjani H, Kiani A, Arab A, Masjedi M (2010) Foreign body removal using bronchoscopy and argon plasma coagulation. Arch Iran Med 13(2):150–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Jain L, Sivieri E, Bhutani VK (1986) Aspiration of pacifiers. Pediatrics 78(5):955–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Jain S, Kashikar S, Deshmukh P, Gosavi S, Kaushal A (2013) Impacted laryngeal foreign body in a child: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Ann Med Health Sci Res 3(3):464–466PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Joseph PM, Berdon WE, Baker DH, Slovis TL, Haller JO (1976) Upper airway obstruction in infants and small children. Improved radiographic diagnosis by combining filtration, high kilovoltage, and magnification. Radiology 121(1):143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kaptanoglu M, Dogan K, Onen A, Kunt N (1999) Turban pin aspiration; a potential risk for young Islamic girls. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 48(2):131–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kaptanoglu M, Nadir A, Dogan K, Sahin E (2007) The heterodox nature of “Turban Pins” in foreign body aspiration; the central anatolian experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 71(4):553–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Karakoc F, Karadag B, Akbenlioglu C, Ersu R, Yildizeli B, Yuksel M, Dagli E (2002) Foreign body aspiration: what is the outcome? Pediatr Pulmonol 34(1):30–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Keith FM, Charrette EJ, Lynn RB, Salerno TA (1980) Inhalation of foreign bodies by children: a continuing challege in management. Can Med Assoc J 122(1):52, 55–57Google Scholar
  112. Kitcher ED (2009) Foreign body inhalation: a review of patients at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. West Afr J Med 28(6):368–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kiyan G, Gocmen B, Tugtepe H, Karakoc F, Dagli E, Dagli TE (2009) Foreign body aspiration in children: the value of diagnostic criteria. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73(7):963–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kocaoglu M, Bulakbasi N, Soylu K, Demirbag S, Tayfun C, Somuncu I (2006) Thin-section axial multidetector computed tomography and multiplanar reformatted imaging of children with suspected foreign-body aspiration: is virtual bronchoscopy overemphasized? Acta Radiol 47(7):746–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Konen E, Katz M, Rozenman J et al (1998) Virtual bronchoscopy in children: early clinical experience. Am J Roentgenol 171:1699–1702Google Scholar
  116. Kosucu P, Ahmetoglu A, Koramaz I, Orhan F, Ozdemir O, Dinc H, Okten A, Gumele HR (2004) Low-dose MDCT and virtual bronchoscopy in pediatric patients with foreign body aspiration. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183(6):1771–1777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kuhn JP (1993) High-resolution computed tomography of pediatric pulmonary parenchymal disorders. Radiol Clin North Am 31(3):533–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kumar M, Biswal N, Bhuvaneswari V, Srinivasan S (2009) Persistent pneumonia: underlying cause and outcome. Indian J Pediatr 76(12):1223–1226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Laks Y, Barzilay Z (1988) Foreign body aspiration in childhood. Pediatr Emerg Care 4(2):102–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Levy M, Glick B, Springer C, Mogle P, Vatashsky E, Drexler H, Godfrey S (1983) Bronchoscopy and bronchography in children. Experience with 110 investigations. Am J Dis Child 137(1):14–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Li Y, Wu W, Yang X, Li J (2009) Treatment of 38 cases of foreign body aspiration in children causing life-threatening complications. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73(12):1624–1629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lim-Dunham JE, Yousefzadeh DK (1999) The interrupted bronchus: a fluoroscopic sign of bronchial foreign body in infants and children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173(4):969–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lima AG, Santos NA, Rocha ER, Toro IF (2008) Bronchoscopy for foreign body removal: where is the delay? J Bras Pneumol 34(11):956–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lima JA, Fischer GB (2002) Foreign body aspiration in children. Paediatr Respir Rev 3(4):303–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Linegar AG, von Oppell UO, Hegemann S, de Groot M, Odell JA (1992) Tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Experience at red cross children’s hospital, 1985–1990. S Afr Med J 82(3):164–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Losek JD (1990) Diagnostic difficulties of foreign body aspiration in children. Am J Emerg Med 8(4):348–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Lucaya J, Garcia-Pena P, Herrera L, Enriquez G, Piqueras J (2000) Expiratory chest CT in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174(1):235–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Ludemann JP, Riding KH (2007) Choking on pins, needles and a blowdart: aspiration of sharp, metallic foreign bodies secondary to careless behavior in seven adolescents. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 71(2):307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lull RJ, Anderson JH, Telepak RJ, Brown JM, Utz JA (1980) Radionuclide imaging in the assessment of lung injury. Semin Nucl Med 10(3):302–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Maayan C, Avital A, Elpeleg ON, Springer C, Katz S, Godfrey S (1993) Complications following oat head aspiration. Pediatr Pulmonol 15(1):52–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Malis DJ, Hayes DK (1995) Retained bronchial foreign bodies: is there a role for high-resolution computed tomography scan? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112(2):341–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Manach Y, Pierrot S, Couloigner V, Ayari-Khalfallah S, Nicollas R, Venail F, Pondaven S, Baculard F, Tantcheu V (2013) Diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography for foreign body aspiration in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 77(5):808–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Mangge H, Plecko B, Grubbauer HM, Popper H, Smolle-Juttner F, Zach M (1993) Late-onset miliary pneumonitis after near drowning. Pediatr Pulmonol 15(2):122–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Mantel K, Butenandt I (1986) Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in childhood. A report on 224 cases. Eur J Pediatr 145(3):211–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. McHugh K (2005) CT dose reduction in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 184(5):1706; author reply 1706–1707Google Scholar
  136. Mearns AJ, England RM, Mearns AJ, England RM (1975) Dissolving foreign bodies in the trachea and bronchus. Thorax 30(4):461–463PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Menendez AA, Gotay Cruz F, Seda FJ, Velez W, Trinidad Pinedo J (1991) Foreign body aspiration: experience at the university pediatric hospital. P R Health Sci J 10(3):127–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Metrangelo S, Monetti C, Meneghini L, Zadra N, Giusti F (1999) Eight years’ experience with foreign-body aspiration in children: what is really important for a timely diagnosis? J Pediatr Surg 34(8):1229–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Mignon F, Mesurolle B, Chambellan A, Duboucher C, Dangeard-Chikhani S, Leclerc P, Lemesle J (1997) Foreign body granuloma mimicking bronchial tumor. Aspects in x-ray computed tomography with views by virtual endoscopy. J Radiol 78(11):1181–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mohammad Y, Rostum M, Dubaybo BA (2002) Laryngeal hirudiniasis: an unusual cause of airway obstruction and hemoptysis. Pediatr Pulmonol 33(3):224–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Morijiri M, Seto H, Kageyama M, Shimizu M, Nagayoshi T, Watanabe N, Kakishita M (1994) Assessment of peanut aspiration by MRI and lung perfusion scintigram. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18(5):836–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Mortellaro VE, Iqbal C, Fu R, Curtis H, Fike FB, St Peter SD (2013) Predictors of radiolucent foreign body aspiration. J Pediatr Surg 48(9):1867–1870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Mu L, He P, Sun D (1991) The causes and complications of late diagnosis of foreign body aspiration in children. Report of 210 cases. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117(8):876–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mu LC, Sun DQ, He P (1990) Radiological diagnosis of aspirated foreign bodies in children: review of 343 cases. J Laryngol Otol 104(10):778–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Murthy PS, Ingle VS, George E, Ramakrishna S, Shah FA (2001) Sharp foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree. Am J Otolaryngol 22(2):154–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Musemeche CA, Kosloske AM (1986) Normal radiographic findings after foreign body aspiration. When the history counts. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 25(12):624–625Google Scholar
  147. Newson TP, Parshuram CS, Berkowitz RG, Auldist AW, Robinson PJ (1998) Tension pneumothorax secondary to grass head aspiration. Pediatr Emerg Care 14(4):287–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Nikolaizik WH, Warner JO (1994) Aetiology of chronic suppurative lung disease. Arch Dis Child 70(2):141–142PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Nimkin K, Kleinman PK, Zwerdling RG, Spevak MR, O’Sullivan BP (1995) Localized pneumothorax with lobar collapse and diffuse obstructive airway disease. Pediatr Radiol 25(6):449–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Nimrey-Atrash N, Bentur L, Elias N (2012) Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum due to foreign body aspiration in children with asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol 47(1):88–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Nolte KB (1993) Esophageal foreign bodies as child abuse. Potential fatal mechanisms. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 14(4):323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Northcote RJ (1983) Pulmonary aspiration presenting with generalised convulsions. Scott Med J 28(4):368–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. O’Uchi T, Tokumaru A, Mikami I, Yamasoba T, Kikuchi S (1992) Value of MR imaging in detecting a peanut causing bronchial obstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159(3):481–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Oguz F, Citak A, Unuvar E, Sidal M (2000) Airway foreign bodies in childhood. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 52(1):11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Oliveira CF, Almeida JF, Troster EJ, Vaz FA (2002) Complications of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children: report of 5 cases and review of the literature. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 57(3):108–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Oncel M, Sunam GS, Ceran S (2012) Tracheobronchial aspiration of foreign bodies and rigid bronchoscopy in children. Pediatr Int 54(4):532–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Orji FT, Akpeh JO (2010) Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children: how reliable are clinical and radiological signs in the diagnosis? Clin Otolaryngol 35(6):479–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Otgun I, Fakioglu E, Arda IS, Hicsonmez A (2008) Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum due to foreign body aspiration. Eur J Pediatr Surg 18(2):129–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Paksu S, Paksu MS, Kilic M, Guner SN, Baysal K, Sancak R, Ozturk F (2012) Foreign body aspiration in childhood: evaluation of diagnostic parameters. Pediatr Emerg Care 28(3):259–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Pan H, Lu Y, Shi L, Pan X, Li L, Wu Z (2012) Similarities and differences in aspirated tracheobronchial foreign bodies in patients under the age of 3 years. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 76(6):911–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Pasaoglu I, Dogan R, Demircin M, Hatipoglu A, Bozer AY (1991) Bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in children: retrospective analysis of 822 cases. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 39(2):95–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Piepsz A (1988) Late sequelae of foreign body inhalation. A multicentric scintigraphic study. Eur J Nucl Med 13(11):578–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Pinto A, Scaglione M, Pinto F, Guidi G, Pepe M, Del Prato B, Grassi R, Romano L (2006) Tracheobronchial aspiration of foreign bodies: current indications for emergency plain chest radiography. Radiol Med 111(4):497–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Qureshi AA, Lowe DA, McKiernan DC (2009) The origin of bronchial foreign bodies: a retrospective study and literature review. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 266(10):1645–1648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Qureshi S, Mink R (2003) Aspiration of fruit gel snacks. Pediatrics 111(3):687–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Ramadan HH, Bu-Saba N, Baraka A, Mroueh S (1992) Management of an unusual presentation of foreign body aspiration. J Laryngol Otol 106(8):751–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Reilly JS, Walter MA (1992) Consumer product aspiration and ingestion in children: analysis of emergency room reports to the national electronic injury surveillance system. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 101(9):739–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Roda J, Nobre S, Pires J, Estevao MH, Felix M (2008) Foreign bodies in the airway: a quarter of a century’s experience. Rev Port Pneumol 14(6):787–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Rodrigues AJ, Oliveira EQ, Scordamaglio PR, Gregorio MG, Jacomelli M, Figueiredo VR (2012a) Flexible bronchoscopy as the first-choice method of removing foreign bodies from the airways of adults. J Bras Pneumol 38(3):315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Rodrigues AJ, Scussiatto EA, Jacomelli M, Scordamaglio PR, Gregorio MG, Palomino AL, Oliveira EQ, Figueiredo VR (2012b) Bronchoscopic techniques for removal of foreign bodies in children’s airways. Pediatr Pulmonol 47(1):59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Rodriguez H, Cuestas G, Botto H, Nieto M, Cocciaglia A, Passali D, Gregori D (2013) Delayed diagnosis of foreign body in the airway in children: case series. Arch Argent Pediatr 111(3):e69–e73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Rogers LF, Igini JP (1975) Beverage can pull-tabs. Inadvertent ingestion or aspiration. JAMA 233(4):345–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Saki N, Nikakhlagh S, Rahim F, Abshirini H (2009) Foreign body aspirations in infancy: a 20-year experience. Int J Med Sci 6(6):322–328PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Samkani A, Larsen KV, Faber CE, Godballe C (2013) Bronchoschopy should always be performed in children on suspicion of foreign body aspiration. Dan Med J 60(10):A4715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Sane SM, Faerber EN, Belani KK (1999) Respiratory foreign bodies and Eikenella corrodens brain abscess in two children. Pediatr Radiol 29(5):327–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sattar A, Ahmad I, Javed AM, Anjum S (2011) Diagnostic accuracy of chest x-ray in tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in paediatric patients. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 23(4):103–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Schmidt H, Manegold BC (2000) Foreign body aspiration in children. Surg Endosc 14(7):644–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely BU (1983) Case recorrds of the Massachusets general hospital: case 48–1983. N Engl J Med 309:1374–1381Google Scholar
  179. Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely BU (1998) Case recorrds of the Massachusets general hospital: case 31–1998. N Engl J Med 339:1144–1151Google Scholar
  180. Sehgal A, Singh V, Chandra J, Mathur NN (2002) Foreign body aspiration. Indian Pediatr 39(11):1006–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Seibert RW, Seibert JJ, Williamson SL (1986) The opaque chest: when to suspect a bronchial foreign body. Pediatr Radiol 16(3):193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Senkaya I, Sagdic K, Gebitekin C, Yilmaz M, Ozkan H, Cengiz M (1997) Management of foreign body aspiration in infancy and childhood. A life-threatening problem. Turk J Pediatr 39(3):353–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Shachor-Meyouhas Y, Guilburd JN, Kassis I (2009) Brain abscess complicating foreign body aspiration. Isr Med Assoc J 11(9):564–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Shivakumar AM, Naik AS, Prashanth KB, Shetty KD, Praveen DS (2003) Tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Indian J Pediatr 70(10):793–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Shlizerman L, Mazzawi S, Rakover Y, Ashkenazi D (2010) Foreign body aspiration in children: the effects of delayed diagnosis. Am J Otolaryngol 31(5):320–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Siddiqui MA, Banjar AH, Al-Najjar SM, Al-Fattani MM, Aly MF (2000) Frequency of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children and adolescents. Saudi Med J 21(4):368–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Sidell DR, Kim IA, Coker TR, Moreno C, Shapiro NL (2013) Food choking hazards in children. Int J Pediatr OtorhinolaryngolGoogle Scholar
  188. Silva AB, Muntz HR, Clary R (1998) Utility of conventional radiography in the diagnosis and management of pediatric airway foreign bodies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 107(10 Pt 1):834–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Smith PC, Swischuk LE, Fagan CJ (1974) An elusive and often unsuspected cause of stridor or pneumonia (the esophageal foreign body). Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 122(1):80–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Sofer S, Baer R, Gussarsky Y, Lieberman A, Bar-Ziv J (1984a) Pulmonary edema secondary to chronic upper airway obstruction. Hemodynamic study in a child. Intensive Care Med 10(6):317–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Sofer S, Bar-Ziv J, Mogle P (1985) Pulmonary oedema following choking: report of two cases. Eur J Pediatr 143(4):295–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Sofer S, Bar-Ziv J, Scharf SM (1984b) Pulmonary edema following relief of upper airway obstruction. Chest 86(3):401–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Spencer MJ, Millet VE, Dudley JP, Sherrod JL, Bryson YJ (1981) Grassheads in the tracheobronchial tree: two different outcomes. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 90(4 Pt 1):406–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Steelman R, Millman E, Steiner M, Gustafson R (1997) Aspiration of a primary tooth in a patient with a tracheostomy. Spec Care Dentist 17(3):97–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Steen KH, Zimmermann T (1990) Tracheobronchial aspiration of foreign bodies in children: a study of 94 cases. Laryngoscope 100(5):525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Strickland AL, Elhassani SB, Stowe DG (1987) Aspiration of metallic foil by children: report of two cases. J S C Med Assoc 83(2):49–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Svedstrom E, Puhakka H, Kero P (1989) How accurate is chest radiography in the diagnosis of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children? Pediatr Radiol 19(8):520–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Svensson G (1985) Foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree. Special references to experience in 97 children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 8(3):243–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Swanson KL, Edell ES (2001) Tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Chest Surg Clin N Am 11(4):861–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Szold A, Udassin R, Seror D, Mogle P, Godfrey S (1991) Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula in infancy and childhood. J Pediatr Surg 26(6):672–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Tahir N, Ramsden WH, Stringer MD (2009) Tracheobronchial anatomy and the distribution of inhaled foreign bodies in children. Eur J Pediatr 168(3):289–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Tang FL, Chen MZ, Du ZL, Zou CC, Zhao YZ (2006) Fibrobronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children: an experience of 5 years in Hangzhou city China. J Pediatr Surg 41(1):e1–e5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Tang LF, Chen ZM (2009) Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units: a 5-year experience. Med Princ Pract 18(4):305–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Tang LF, Xu YC, Wang YS, Wang CF, Zhu GH, Bao XE, Lu MP, Chen LX, Chen ZM (2009) Airway foreign body removal by flexible bronchoscopy: experience with 1027 children during 2000–2008. World J Pediatr 5(3):191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Tashita H, Inoue R, Goto E, Kondo N (1998) Magnetic resonance imaging for early detection of bronchial foreign bodies. Eur J Pediatr 157(5):442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Teixidor de Otto J, Negro F, Gutierrez C (1980) Removal of foreign bodies from the upper airways and the bronchial tree of small children. Z Kinderchir Grenzgeb 30(2):137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Tenjovic D, Petrovic S, Dautovic GV, Lovrenski J, Rodic BB (2013) Clinical and radiological characteristics of unrecognised foreign body aspiration into respiratory tract in children. Med Pregl 66(5–6):214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Theander G (1970) Motility of diaphragm in children with bronchial foreign bodies. Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh) 10(2):113–129Google Scholar
  209. Tjhen KY, Schmaltz AA, Ibrahim Z, Nolte K (1978) Pneumopericardium as a complication of foreign body aspiration. Pediatr Radiol 7(2):121–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Ucan ES, Tahaoglu K, Mogolkoc N, Dereli S, Basozdemir N, Basok O, Turktas H, Akkoclu A, Ates M (1996) Turban pin aspiration syndrome: a new form of foreign body aspiration. Respir Med 90(7):427–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Ugrinovic AB, Djukic VB, Erdevicki LV, Arsenijevic SD, Milovanovic JP, Andric SD, Radoic NN (2009) Foreign bodies of the lower respiratory tract. Acta Chir Iugosl 56(3):127–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Van Looij MA, Rood PP, Hoeve LJ, Borgstein JA (2003) Aspirated foreign bodies in children: why are they more commonly found on the left? Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 28(4):364–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Wales J, Jackimczyk K, Rosen P (1983) Aspiration following a cave-in. Ann Emerg Med 12(2):99–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Walz PC, Scholes MA, Merz MN, Elmaraghy CA, Jatana KR (2013) The internet, adolescent males, and homemade blowgun darts: a recipe for foreign body aspiration. Pediatrics 132(2):e519–e521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Wesenberg RL, Blumhagen JD (1979) Assisted expiratory chest radiography: an effective technique for the diagnosis of foreign-body aspiration. Radiology 130(2):538–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Wiseman NE (1984) The diagnosis of foreign body aspiration in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 19(5):531–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Witt WJ (1985) The role of rigid endoscopy in foreign body management. Ear Nose Throat J 64(2):70–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Yazici H, Dogan S, Sunter AV, Yilmaz E, Daskaya H (2012) Surprising cause of respiratory distress in child: laryngeal leech. J Craniofac Surg 23(3):e272–e273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Zaupa P, Saxena AK, Barounig A, Hollwarth ME (2009) Management strategies in foreign-body aspiration. Indian J Pediatr 76(2):157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Zaytoun GM, Rouadi PW, Baki DH (2000) Endoscopic management of foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree: predictive factors for complications. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 123(3):311–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Zerella JT, Dimler M, McGill LC, Pippus KJ (1998) Foreign body aspiration in children: value of radiography and complications of bronchoscopy. J Pediatr Surg 33(11):1651–1654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Zhijun C, Fugao Z, Niankai Z, Jingjing C (2008) Therapeutic experience from 1428 patients with pediatric tracheobronchial foreign body. J Pediatr Surg 43(4):718–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Zielinski R, Piotrowska V, Zakrzewska A (2011) Pneumomediastinum and emphysema in a case of a soft bronchial foreign body aspiration in a child. A case report. Otolaryngol Pol 65(1):59–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Zuniga S, De Manana M, Monge M, Garcia C, Gonzalez S, Iturriaga L, Sanchez I (2000) Vegetal foreign body in the airway: an unusual cause of hemoptysis in childhood. Clinical case. Rev Med Chil 128(3):323–329PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical ImagingHadassah-Hebrew University Medical CentreJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations