Pathology of the Facial Nerve

  • Alexandra Borges
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The facial nerve is the most common paralyzed nerve of the human body. It is responsible for facial mimic, lacrimation, salivation, and taste with dysfunction of this nerve having a tremendous negative impact on patient’s lives. Its long and tortuous course within the densest bone of the human body and its fragile vascular supply make it particularly vulnerable to injury and difficult to rehabilitate functionally. As it is not amenable to direct clinical inspection, imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with facial nerve dysfunction. The increasing resolution of imaging studies has lead to an increasing number of recognizable causes of facial nerve palsy improving the diagnostic yield and allowing for early treatment and functional rehabilitation. However, to keep high-resolution imaging within a reasonable time frame, it is advisable to tailor studies to the most likely location of a lesion along the course of the nerve. Clinically oriented topognostic testing is invaluable for this purpose. Appropriate imaging of the facial nerve requires detailed knowledge of its anatomy and physiology, mastering imaging technique, and recognition of the imaging features of the wide set of pathologic processes that may affect this nerve.


Facial Nerve Facial Nerve Palsy Internal Auditory Canal Hemifacial Spasm Facial Nerve Canal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Fast spin echo


Diffusion weighted imaging


Gradient echo


Tridimensional Fourier transform constructive interference in the steady state


Driven equilibrium (optimized contrast using flip angle evolution)


Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition


Gradient echo steady-state free precessing


True fast imaging with steady-state precession


Balanced fast-field echo


Sampling perfection with application of optimized contrast


Tridimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography


Fast imaging with steady-state precession


Fast low-angle shot


Contrast-enhanced Fourier-acquired steady state


Spoiled gradient echo


Magnetized prepared rapid gradient echo


Volume interpolation breath hold enhancement


Sensitivity encoding


Susceptibility weighted images


  1. Borges A (2005) Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis. Eur Radiol 15(3):511–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benecke JE Jr (2002) Facial paralysis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 35(2):357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Rainsbury JW, Aldren CP (2007) Facial nerve palsy. Clin Otolaryngol 32(1):38–40 discussion 41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Roob G, Fazekas F, Hartung HP (1999) Peripheral facial palsy: etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Eur Neurol 41(1):3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Syed I, Bhutta M (2008) Facial nerve palsy: assessment and management. Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 69(3):M34–M37Google Scholar
  6. Borges A, Casselman J (2007a) Imaging the cranial nerves: Part I: methodology, infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital lesions. Eur Radiol 17(8):2112–2125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Phillips CD, Bubash LA (2002) The facial nerve: anatomy and common pathology. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 23(3):202–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Raghavan P, Mukherjee S, Phillips CD (2009) Imaging of the facial nerve. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 19(3):407–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Finsterer J (2008) Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 265(7):743–752PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Jager L, Reiser M (2001) CT and MR imaging of the normal and pathologic conditions of the facial nerve. Eur J Radiol 40(2):133–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Veillon F et al (2010) Imaging of the facial nerve. Eur J Radiol 74(2):341–348Google Scholar
  12. Sittel C, Stennert E (2001) Prognostic value of electromyography in acute peripheral facial nerve palsy. Otol Neurotol 22(1):100–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Valls-Sole J (2007) Electrodiagnostic studies of the facial nerve in peripheral facial palsy and hemifacial spasm. Muscle Nerve 36(1):14–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Yeong SS, Tassone P (2011) Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy. Aust Fam Physician 40(5):296–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Veillon F et al (2008) Pathology of the facial nerve. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 18(2):309–320 xPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Peitersen E (2002) Bell’s palsy: the spontaneous course of 2,500 peripheral facial nerve palsies of different etiologies. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 549:4–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Al-Noury K, Lotfy A (2011) Normal and pathological findings for the facial nerve on magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Radiol 66(8):701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Linder TE, Abdelkafy W, Cavero-Vanek S (2010) The management of peripheral facial nerve palsy: “paresis” versus “paralysis” and sources of ambiguity in study designs. Otol Neurotol 31(2):319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lorch M, Teach SJ (2010) Facial nerve palsy: etiology and approach to diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Emerg Care 26(10):763–769 quiz 770-3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kumar A, Mafee MF, Mason T (2000) Value of imaging in disorders of the facial nerve. Top Magn Reson Imaging 11(1):38–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kinoshita T et al (2001) Facial nerve palsy: evaluation by contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Clin Radiol 56(11):926–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Iwai H et al (2000) Consecutive imaging of the facial nerve using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 542:39–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burmeister HP et al (2010) CT and MR imaging of the facial nerve. HNO 58(5):433–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ishibashi M et al (2010) The ability to identify the intraparotid facial nerve for locating parotid gland lesions in comparison to other indirect landmark methods: evaluation by 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils. Neuroradiology 52(11):1037–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Qin Y et al (2011) 3D double-echo steady-state with water excitation MR imaging of the intraparotid facial nerve at 1.5T: a pilot study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 32(7):1167–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Shelton C (2000) Preoperative identification of the facial nerve achieved using fast spin-echo MR imaging: can it help the surgeon? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21(5):805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Tada Y et al (2000) Identification of the intraparotid facial nerve on magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 542:49–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Burmeister HP et al (2009) Improvement of visualization of the intermediofacial nerve in the temporal bone using 3T magnetic resonance imaging: part 1: the facial nerve. J Comput Assist Tomogr 33(5):782–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lim HK et al (2012) MR diagnosis of facial neuritis: diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR technique compared with contrast-enhanced 3D-T1-fast-field echo with fat suppression. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 33(4):779–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gerganov VM et al (2011) Diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking for prediction of the position of the facial nerve in relation to large vestibular schwannomas. J Neurosurg 115(6):1087–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Roundy N, Delashaw JB, Cetas JS (2012) Preoperative identification of the facial nerve in patients with large cerebellopontine angle tumors using high-density diffusion tensor imaging. J Neurosurg 116(4):697–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Borges A (2010) Imaging cranial nerves and the brachial plexus. Eur J Radiol 74(2):287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Borges A, Casselman J (2007b) Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts. Eur Radiol 17(9):2332–2344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sherman SC, Thompson TM (2005) Pontine hemorrhage presenting as an isolated facial nerve palsy. Ann Emerg Med 46(1):64–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Agarwal R et al (2011) Pontine stroke presenting as isolated facial nerve palsy mimicking Bell’s palsy: a case report. J Med Case Rep 5:287PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Novy J et al (2008) Isolated nuclear facial palsy, a rare variant of pure motor lacunar stroke. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 110(4):420–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Roh JK, Kim BK, Chung JM (1999) Combined peripheral facial and abducens nerve palsy caused by caudal tegmental pontine infarction. Eur Neurol 41(2):99–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Thomke F et al (2002) Seventh nerve palsies may be the only clinical sign of small pontine infarctions in diabetic and hypertensive patients. J Neurol 249(11):1556–1562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Arnaout OM et al (2009) Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Focus 26(5):E12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Mathai K (2009) The enigma of traumatic, behaviourally benign brainstem bleeds: case report. IJNT 6(2):141–144Google Scholar
  41. Parizel PM et al (2002) Brainstem hemorrhage in descending transtentorial herniation (Duret hemorrhage). Intensive Care Med 28(1):85–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Oppenheim C et al (2000) False-negative diffusion-weighted MR findings in acute ischemic stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21(8):1434–1440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Braga BP et al (2006) Cavernous malformations of the brainstem in infants. Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 104(6 Suppl):429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Giliberto G et al (2010) Brainstem cavernous malformations: anatomical, clinical, and surgical considerations. Neurosurg Focus 29(3):E9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Duckworth EA (2010) Modern management of brainstem cavernous malformations. Neurol Clin 28(4):887–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Zausinger S et al (2006) Cavernous malformations of the brainstem: three-dimensional-constructive interference in steady-state magnetic resonance imaging for improvement of surgical approach and clinical results. Neurosurgery 58(2):322–330 discussion 322-30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Critchley EP (2004) Multiple sclerosis initially presenting as facial palsy. Aviat Space Environ Med 75(11):1001–1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Carter S, Sciarra D, Merritt HH (1950) The course of multiple sclerosis as determined by autopsy proven cases. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 28:471–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fukazawa T et al (1997) Facial palsy in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 244(10):631–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Schnorpfeil F, Braune HJ (1997) Nuclear facial palsy in multiple sclerosis: a case report. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 37(4):207–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Telischi FF et al (1991) Hemifacial spasm. Occurrence in multiple sclerosis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117(5):554–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Haacke EM et al (2009) Characterizing iron deposition in multiple sclerosis lesions using susceptibility weighted imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 29(3):537–544PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Grabner G et al (2011) Analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions using a fusion of 3.0 T FLAIR and 7.0 T SWI phase: FLAIR SWI. J Magn Reson Imaging 33(3):543–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Davies RS, Burgin M (1996) MRI appearances of Listeria rhombencephalitis. Australas Radiol 40(3):354–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Alper G, Knepper L, Kanal E (1996) MR findings in listerial rhombencephalitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 17(3):593–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Mori M et al (2008) Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis after an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. J Neuroimmunol 196(1–2):143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Nicolao P et al (2011) Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis: case report and Tc99 m brain SPECT findings. Neurol Sci 32(6):1153–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Chataway SJ, Larner AJ, Kapoor R (2001) Anti-GQ1b antibody status, magnetic resonance imaging, and the nosology of Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis. Eur J Neurol 8(4):355–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Laigle-Donadey F, Doz F, Delattre JY (2008) Brainstem gliomas in children and adults. Curr Opin Oncol 20(6):662–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Boop FA (2011) Brainstem gliomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8(6):537–538 discussion 538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Leach PA et al (2008) Diffuse brainstem gliomas in children: should we or shouldn’t we biopsy? Br J Neurosurg 22(5):619–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Sedrak P et al (2011) Erdheim-Chester disease of the central nervous system: new manifestations of a rare disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 32(11):2126–2131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Chavin JM (2003) Cranial neuralgias and headaches associated with cranial vascular disorders. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 36(6):1079–1093 viPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Chang JW et al (2002) Role of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging after microvascular decompression of the facial nerve for the treatment of hemifacial spasm. Neurosurgery 50(4):720–725 discussion 726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Chung SS et al (2000) Microvascular decompression of the facial nerve for the treatment of hemifacial spasm: preoperative magnetic resonance imaging related to clinical outcomes. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 142(8):901–906 discussion 907Google Scholar
  66. Fukuda H, Ishikawa M, Okumura R (2003) Demonstration of neurovascular compression in trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with surgical findings in 60 consecutive cases. Surg Neurol 59(2):93–99 discussion 99-100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Leal PR, Froment JC, Sindou M (2009) Predictive value of MRI for detecting and characterizing vascular compression in cranial nerve hyperactivity syndromes (trigeminal and facial nerves). Neurochirurgie 55(2):174–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Leal PR, Froment JC, Sindou M (2010) MRI sequences for detection of neurovascular conflicts in patients with trigeminal neuralgia and predictive value for characterization of the conflict (particularly degree of vascular compression). Neurochirurgie 56(1):43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lutz J et al (2011) Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular compression: high-spatial-resolution diffusion-tensor imaging reveals microstructural neural changes. Radiology 258(2):524–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Leal PR et al (2011) Structural abnormalities of the trigeminal root revealed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with trigeminal neuralgia caused by neurovascular compression: a prospective, double-blind, controlled study. Pain 152(10):2357–2364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Bonneville F, Savatovsky J, Chiras J (2007) Imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions: an update. Part 2: intra-axial lesions, skull base lesions that may invade the CPA region, and non-enhancing extra-axial lesions. Eur Radiol 17(11):2908–2920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ishikura R et al (2010) High Resolution Three-dimensional T(2)*-weighted Imaging at 3T: Findings of Cerebellopontine Angle Schwannomas and Meningiomas. Magn Reson Med Sci 9(4):177–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Roche PH, Regis J (2005) Cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. J Neurosurg 103(5):935–937 author reply 937-8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Roser F et al (2005) Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle with extension into the internal auditory canal. J Neurosurg 102(1):17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Iwai Y, Yamanaka K, Nakajima H (2001) Hemifacial spasm due to cerebellopontine angle meningiomas–two case reports. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 41(2):87–89Google Scholar
  76. Nakamura M et al (2005) Facial and cochlear nerve function after surgery of cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. Neurosurgery 57(1):77–90 discussion 77-90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Revuelta-Gutierrez R et al (2009) Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cysts. Experience of 43 cases with long-term follow-up Cir Cir 77(4):257-65–241-8Google Scholar
  78. Akhavan-Sigari R et al (2007) Epidermoid cysts of the cerebellopontine angle with extension into the middle and anterior cranial fossae: surgical strategy and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 149(4):429–432Google Scholar
  79. Alaani A et al (2005) Cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cysts in adult patients: what is the appropriate management? J Laryngol Otol 119(5):337–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nguyen JB et al (2004) Magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intracranial epidermoid tumors. Crit Rev Comput Tomogr 45(5–6):389–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Bohne S et al (2010) Bilateral deafness and unilateral facial nerve palsy as presenting features of Wegener’s granulomatosis : a case report. HNO 58(5):480–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Caldas AR et al (2012) Hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis and skull base osteomyelitis by pseudomonas aeruginosa: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Med Res 4(2):138–144PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Yamashita H et al (2012) Hypertrophic pachymeningitis and tracheobronchial stenosis in IgG4-related disease: case presentation and literature review. Intern Med 51(8):935–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Vale TC et al (2013) Cranial hypertrophic pachymeningitis secondary to neurocysticercosis. Neurol Sci 34(3):401–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Christakis PG, Machado DG, Fattahi P (2012) Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis mimicking neurosarcoidosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 114(2):176–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pai S et al (2007) Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis: report of two cases with typical MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28(3):590–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lee YC et al (2003) Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis: case report with 7 years of imaging follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 24(1):119–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Friedman DP, Flanders AE (1997) Enhanced MR imaging of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169(5):1425–1428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Spiegel DR, Morris K, Rayamajhi U (2012) Neurosarcoidosis and the complexity in its differential diagnoses: a review. Innov Clin Neurosci 9(4):10–16PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Nozaki K, Judson MA (2012) Neurosarcoidosis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Presse Med 41(6 Pt 2):e331–e348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Loor RG, van Tongeren J, Derks W (2012) Multiple cranial nerve dysfunction caused by neurosarcoidosis. Am J Otolaryngol 33(4):484–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. De Diego-Sastre JI, Prim-Espada MP, Fernandez-Garcia F (2005) The epidemiology of Bell’s palsy. Rev Neurol 41(5):287–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Yetiser S et al (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging of the intratemporal facial nerve in idiopathic peripheral facial palsy. Clin Imaging 27(2):77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Han DG (2010) Pain around the ear in Bell’s palsy is referred pain of facial nerve origin: the role of nervi nervorum. Med Hypotheses 74(2):235–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kress BP et al (2002) Bell’s palsy: what is the prognostic value of measurements of signal intensity increases with contrast enhancement on MRI? Neuroradiology 44(5):428–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kress B et al (2004) Bell palsy: quantitative analysis of MR imaging data as a method of predicting outcome. Radiology 230(2):504–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mantsopoulos K et al (2011) Predicting the long-term outcome after idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. Otol Neurotol 32(5):848–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kuzma BB, Goodman JM (1997) Pitfalls of facial nerve enhancement on MRI. Surg Neurol 48(6):636–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Burmeister HP et al (2011) Evaluation of the early phase of Bell’s palsy using 3 T MRI. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 268(10):1493–1500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kondo Y et al (2012) The relationship between Bell’s palsy and morphometric aspects of the facial nerve. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 269(6):1691–1695. doi:10.1007/s00405-011-1835-0Google Scholar
  101. Kaylie DM, Wax MK, Weissman JL (2003) Preoperative facial muscle imaging predicts final facial function after facial nerve grafting. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 24(3):326–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Song MH et al (2008) Clinical significance of quantitative analysis of facial nerve enhancement on MRI in Bell’s palsy. Acta Otolaryngol 128(11):1259–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hato N et al (2003) Efficacy of early treatment of Bell’s palsy with oral acyclovir and prednisolone. Otol Neurotol 24(6):948–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sullivan FM et al (2007) Early treatment with prednisolone or acyclovir in Bell’s palsy. N Engl J Med 357(16):1598–1607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Fishman JM (2011) Corticosteroids effective in idiopathic facial nerve palsy (Bell’s palsy) but not necessarily in idiopathic acute vestibular dysfunction (vestibular neuritis). Laryngoscope 121(11):2494–2495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Oczkowski W (2008) Early treatment with prednisolone, but not acyclovir, was effective in Bell’s palsy. Evid Based Med 13(2):44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Gilchrist JM (2009) Seventh cranial neuropathy. Semin Neurol 29(1):5–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kinishi M et al (2001) Acyclovir improves recovery rate of facial nerve palsy in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Auris Nasus Larynx 28(3):223–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Garcia-Monco JC (2002) Lyme’s disease: mimicker and enigmatic. Med Clin (Barc) 119(18):693–694Google Scholar
  110. Siwula JM, Mathieu G (2002) Acute onset of facial nerve palsy associated with Lyme disease in a 6 year-old child. Pediatr Dent 24(6):572–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lipsker D (2004) European tick-bite disease and Lyme’s disease: historical overview and unsolved questions. Ann Dermatol Venereol 131(6–7 Pt 1):533–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Larrosa F, Aguilar F, Benitez P (1999) Otoneurological manifestations of Lyme’s disease. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 50(8):644–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Djukic M et al (2011) The diagnostic spectrum in patients with suspected chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis–the experience from one year of a university hospital’s Lyme neuroborreliosis outpatients clinic. Eur J Neurol 18(4):547–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Makhani N et al (2011) A twist on Lyme: the challenge of diagnosing European Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Clin Microbiol 49(1):455–457PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Abul-Kasim K (2010) Neuroborreliosis with enhancement of the third, fifth, sixth, and twelfth cranial nerves. Acta Neurol Belg 110(2):215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Helms D, Roberge RJ, Kovalick M (2003) Otomastoiditis-related facial nerve palsy. J Emerg Med 25(1):45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kristensen RN, Hahn CH (2012) Facial nerve palsy caused by parotid gland abscess. J Laryngol Otol 126(3):322–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Roberts J et al (2010) Malignant otitis externa (MOE) causing cerebral abscess and facial nerve palsy. J Hosp Med 5(7):E6–E8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Reiter D, Bilaniuk LT, Zimmerman RA (1982) Diagnostic imaging in malignant otitis externa. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 90(5):606–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Szymanski M et al (2012) The use of MRI DWI-imaging in assessment of cholesteatoma recurrences after canal wall up technique. Otolaryngol Pol 66(4 Suppl):45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Hoa M et al (2013) Petrous apex cholesterol granuloma: pictorial review of radiological considerations in diagnosis and surgical histopathology. J Laryngol Otol 127(4):339–348PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Hoa M, House JW, Linthicum FH Jr (2012) Petrous apex cholesterol granuloma: maintenance of drainage pathway, the histopathology of surgical management and histopathologic evidence for the exposed marrow theory. Otol Neurotol 33(6):1059–1065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Gore MR et al (2011) Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 44(5):1043–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Hsu KC, Wang AC, Chen SJ (2008) Mastoid bone fracture presenting as unusual delayed onset of facial nerve palsy. Am J Emerg Med 26(3):386 e1–2Google Scholar
  125. Odebode TO, Ologe FE (2006) Facial nerve palsy after head injury: case incidence, causes, clinical profile and outcome. J Trauma 61(2):388–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rotondo M et al (2010) Post-traumatic peripheral facial nerve palsy: surgical and neuroradiological consideration in five cases of delayed onset. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 152(10):1705–1709Google Scholar
  127. Pownder S et al (2010) Computed tomography of temporal bone fractures and temporal region anatomy in horses. J Vet Intern Med 24(2):398–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Barreau X (2011) Imaging features of temporal bone fractures. J Radiol 92(11):958–966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Rinaldo A, Mondin V, Ferlito A (2002) Immediate facial nerve palsy following stapedectomy. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 64(5):355–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Safdar A et al (2006) Delayed facial nerve palsy following tympano-mastoid surgery: incidence, aetiology and prognosis. J Laryngol Otol 120(9):745–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Xu HX et al (2011) Delayed facial nerve palsy after endolymphatic sac surgery. Ear Nose Throat J 90(8):E28–E31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Ciorba A et al (2012) Postoperative complications in cochlear implants: a retrospective analysis of 438 consecutive cases. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 269(6):1599–1603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Stoddart RL, Cooper HR (1999) Electrode complications in 100 adults with multichannel cochlear implants. J Laryngol Otol Suppl 24:18–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Falcioni M et al (2003) Facial nerve tumors. Otol Neurotol 24(6):942–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Fabiano AJ, Plunkett RJ, Gibbons KJ (2010) Diagnosis of facial nerve schwannoma by magnetic resonance imaging enhancement of the geniculate ganglion. Arch Neurol 67(1):112–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Shimizu K et al (2005) Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: a report of five cases and an analysis of MR imaging results. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26(6):1328–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Thompson AL et al (2009) Magnetic resonance imaging of facial nerve schwannoma. Laryngoscope 119(12):2428–2436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Benoit MM et al (2010) Facial nerve hemangiomas: vascular tumors or malformations? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 142(1):108–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Gonzalez-Darder JM, Pesudo-Martinez JV (2007) Facial nerve palsy due to cavernous angioma of the petrous bone. Case report. Neurocirugia (Astur) 18(1):44–46Google Scholar
  140. Salib RJ et al (2001) The crucial role of imaging in detection of facial nerve haemangiomas. J Laryngol Otol 115(6):510–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Jabor MA, Amedee RG, Gianoli GJ (2000) Primary meningioma of the fallopian canal. South Med J 93(7):717–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Namdar I, Smouha EE, Kane P (1995) Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear: role of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112(4):616–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Michalopoulos K, Bajaj Y, Strachan DR (2008) Recurrent facial nerve palsy caused by a facial cyst. Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 69(8):475Google Scholar
  144. Pertzborn SL et al (2003) Epineurial pseudocysts of the intratemporal facial nerve. Otol Neurotol 24(3):490–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kunzel J et al (2012) Paraganglioma of the facial nerve, a rare differential diagnosis for facial nerve paralysis: case report and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 269(2):693–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wippold FJ, Neely JG, Haughey BH (2004) Primary paraganglioma of the facial nerve canal. Otol Neurotol 25(1):79–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Petrus LV, Lo WM (1996) Primary paraganglioma of the facial nerve canal. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 17(1):171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Noujaim SE et al (2000) Paraganglioma of the temporal bone: role of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography. Top Magn Reson Imaging 11(2):108–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Van den Berg R, van Gils AP, Wasser MN (1999) Imaging of head and neck paragangliomas with three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 172(6):1667–1673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Martinez-Miravete P et al (2007) Adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac in von Hippel-Lindau disease. A case report. Radiologia 49(4):287–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Malhotra S et al (2006) Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin. Am J Otolaryngol 27(5):362–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mukherji SK, Castillo M (1996) Adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac: imaging features and preoperative embolization. Neuroradiology 38(2):179–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Yildiz O et al (2011) Facial nerve palsy: an unusual presenting feature of small cell lung cancer. Case Rep Oncol 4(1):35–38PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Kundu S, Eynon-Lewis NJ, Radcliffe GJ (2001) Extensive metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as facial nerve palsy. J Laryngol Otol 115(6):488–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Diamond M et al (2011) Peripheral facial nerve communications and their clinical implications. Clin Anat 24(1):10–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Jungehuelsing M et al (2000) Limitations of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of perineural tumor spread causing facial nerve paralysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 126(4):506–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Quesnel AM, Lindsay RW, Hadlock TA (2010) When the bell tolls on Bell’s palsy: finding occult malignancy in acute-onset facial paralysis. Am J Otolaryngol 31(5):339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Ginsberg LE (2004) MR imaging of perineural tumor spread. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 14(4):663–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Ginsberg LE (2002) MR imaging of perineural tumor spread. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 10(3):511–525 viPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Ginsberg LE (1999) Imaging of perineural tumor spread in head and neck cancer. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 20(3):175–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Ginsberg LE, Eicher SA (2000) Great auricular nerve: anatomy and imaging in a case of perineural tumor spread. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21(3):568–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Ozdogmus O et al (2004) Connections between the facial, vestibular and cochlear nerve bundles within the internal auditory canal. J Anat 205(1):65–75PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Jethanamest D, Roehm P (2011) Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone with complete canal stenosis and cholesteatoma. Otol Neurotol 32(7):e52–e53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Zaytoun GM, Dagher WI, Rameh CE (2008) Recurrent facial nerve paralysis: an unusual presentation of fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 265(2):255–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Shonka DC Jr, Kesser BW (2006) Paget’s disease of the temporal bone. Otol Neurotol 27(8):1199–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Song JJ et al (2005) Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of temporal bone: report of two cases and review of its characteristics. Acta Otolaryngol 125(10):1126–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Noorizan Y et al (2009) Parotid abscess: an unusual cause of facial nerve palsy. Med J Malaysia 64(2):172–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Pavlou E, Gkampeta A, Arampatzi M (2011) Facial nerve palsy in childhood. Brain Dev 33:644–650. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2010.11.001Google Scholar
  169. Shargorodsky J, Lin HW, Gopen Q (2010) Facial nerve palsy in the pediatric population. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 49(5):411–417Google Scholar
  170. Toelle SP, Boltshauser E (2001) Long-term outcome in children with congenital unilateral facial nerve palsy. Neuropediatrics 32(3):130–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Rizk EB et al (2005) Facial nerve palsy with acute otitis media during the first 2 weeks of life. J Child Neurol 20(5):452–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Burgio DL et al (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging of the facial nerve in children with idiopathic facial paralysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122(4):556–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Al Tawil K et al (2010) Traumatic facial nerve palsy in newborns: is it always iatrogenic? Am J Perinatol 27(9):711–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Duval M, Daniel SJ (2009) Facial nerve palsy in neonates secondary to forceps use. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 135(7):634–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Berker N, Acaroglu G, Soykan E (2004) Goldenhar’s syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia) with congenital facial nerve palsy. Yonsei Med J 45(1):157–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Carvalho GJ et al (1999) Auditory and facial nerve dysfunction in patients with hemifacial microsomia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125(2):209–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Ferriby D et al (1998) Magnetic resonance imaging of the facial nerve in a case of Melkerson-Rosenthal syndrome. Rev Neurol (Paris) 154(5):426–428Google Scholar
  178. Rahbar R et al (2001) Craniofacial, temporal bone, and audiologic abnormalities in the spectrum of hemifacial microsomia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 127(3):265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Lima LM, Diniz MB, dos Santos-Pinto L (2009) Moebius syndrome: clinical manifestations in a pediatric patient. Pediatr Dent 31(4):289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Dubrey SW, Patel MC, Malik O (2009) Moebius-Poland syndrome and drug associations. BMJ Case RepGoogle Scholar
  181. Fons-Estupina MC et al (2007) Moebius sequence: clinico-radiological findings. Rev Neurol 44(10):583–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Hillerer C et al (2007) Neuroradiologic findings in Mobius syndrome. Rofo 179(5):532–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. de Greef JC et al (2010) Clinical features of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 2. Neurology 75(17):1548–1554PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Pratap A et al (2007) Congenital unilateral lower lip palsy and eventration of diaphragm. Singapore Med J 48(8):e209–e211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Kobayashi T (1979) Congenital unilateral lower lip palsy. Acta Otolaryngol 88(3–4):303–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Kobrynski LJ, Sullivan KE (2007) Velocardiofacial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome: the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndromes. Lancet 370(9596):1443–1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Cure JK et al (2000) Cranial MR imaging of osteopetrosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21(6):1110–1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Abadie V et al (2000) Vestibular anomalies in CHARGE syndrome: investigations on and consequences for postural development. Eur J Pediatr 159(8):569–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Gassner EM, Mallouhi A, Jaschke WR (2004) Preoperative evaluation of external auditory canal atresia on high-resolution CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 182(5):1305–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Curtin HD, Vignaud J, Bar D (1982) Anomaly of the facial canal in a Mondini malformation with recurrent meningitis. Radiology 144(2):335–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Kim YH et al (2008) Bilateral simultaneous facial nerve palsy: clinical analysis in seven cases. Otol Neurotol 29(3):397–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Coddington CT et al (2010) Neurological picture. Bilateral facial nerve palsy associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 81(10):1155–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Atsumi M et al (2004) A variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome with prominent bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy–facial diplegia and paresthesias. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 44(8):549–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Yardimci N et al (2009) Bilateral facial nerve enhancement demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neurol Sci 30(5):431–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Balatsouras DG et al (2007) Infectious causes of bilateral facial nerve palsy. J Otolaryngol 36(3):E42–E44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Ferrari J et al (2004) Bilateral facial nerve palsy as first indication of relapsing hairy cell leukemia after 36 years. Neurology 63(2):399–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Mohebbi A, Jahandideh H, Harandi AA (2011) Rare presentation of rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis: bilateral facial nerve palsy. Case Rep Med 2011:216404PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Ozaki K et al (2011) Bilateral facial nerve palsy caused by a metastatic malignant lymphoma. Intern Med 50(19):2247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Lim TC et al (2009) Bilateral facial nerve palsy in Kawasaki disease. Ann Acad Med Singapore 38(8):737–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Price T, Fife DG (2002) Bilateral simultaneous facial nerve palsy. J Laryngol Otol 116(1):46–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Fogarty GB, Cassumbhoy R, Ball D (2006) Magnetic resonance imaging changes in synchronous bilateral progressive facial nerve weakness. J Thorac Oncol 1(5):487–488PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radiology DepartmentInstituto Português de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de LisboaLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations