Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer are a very heterogeneous group with regard to aetiology, age and other host factors, disease stage and biology, and treatment approaches and outcome. Given the major implications of both tumour and treatment on quality of life and functional status, comprehensive pre-treatment assessments and multidisciplinary approaches are recommended. Models and tools facilitating decision making such as staging systems and nomograms are discussed in this chapter, which is dedicated to Kie Kian Ang, an outstanding leader in the field of head and neck cancer, who passed away much too early. During a post doctoral fellowship at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Dr. Ang taught me the art and science of writing reviews and book chapters.


Human Papilloma Virus Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Metabolic Tumour Volume Total Lesion Glycolysis Charlson Comorbidity Index Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Agarwala SS, Cano E, Heron DE, Johnson J, Myers E, Sandulache V et al (2007) Long-term outcomes with concurrent carboplatin, paclitaxel and radiation therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer. Ann Oncol 18:1224–1229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ang KK, Berkey BA, Tu X, Zhang HZ, Katz R, Hammond EH et al (2002) Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor expression on survival and pattern of relapse in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma. Cancer Res 62:7350–7356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Balermpas P, Michel Y, Wagenblast J, Seitz O, Sipek F, Rödel F et al (2013) Nuclear NF-κB expression correlates with outcome among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with primary chemoradiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 86:785–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauman JE, Austin MC, Schmidt R, Kurland BF, Vaezi A, Hayes DN et al (2013) ERCC1 is a prognostic biomarker in locally advanced head and neck cancer: results from a randomised, phase II trial. Br J Cancer. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2013.576 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beetz I, Schilstra C, Burlage FR, Koken PW, Doornaert P, Bijl HP et al (2012) Development of NTCP models for head and neck cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for xerostomia and sticky saliva: the role of dosimetric and clinical factors. Radiother Oncol 105:86–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernier J, Domenge C, Ozsahin M, Matuszewska K, Lefebvre JL, Greiner RH et al (2004) Postoperative irradiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 350:1945–1952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bøje CR, Dalton SO, Grønborg TK, Primdahl H, Kristensen CA, Andersen E et al (2013) The impact of comorbidity on outcome in 12 623 Danish head and neck cancer patients: a population based study from the DAHANCA database. Acta Oncol 52:285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Azarnia N, Shin DM, Cohen RB et al (2006) Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 354:567–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourhis J, Overgaard J, Audry H, Ang KK, Saunders M, Bernier J et al (2006) Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis. Lancet 368:843–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brockstein B, Haraf DJ, Rademaker AW, Kies MS, Stenson KM, Rosen F et al (2004) Patterns of failure, prognostic factors and survival in locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy: a 9-year, 337-patient, multi-institutional experience. Ann Oncol 15:1179–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen KW, Lin JF, Jan JS, Chao JY, Lin JC (2009) The effect of primary tumor volume measured by MR imaging on T-stage, local control, and survival in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therapeut Radiol Oncol 16:1–13Google Scholar
  12. Christianen ME, Schilstra C, Beetz I, Muijs CT, Chouvalova O, Burlage FR et al (2012) Predictive modelling for swallowing dysfunction after primary (chemo)radiation: results of a prospective observational study. Radiother Oncol 105:107–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper JS, Pajak TF, Forastiere AA, Jacobs J, Campbell BH, Saxman SB et al (2004) Postoperative concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 350:1937–1944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coyne JC, Pajak TF, Harris J, Konski A, Movsas B, Ang KK et al (2007) Emotional well-being does not predict survival in head and neck cancer patients: a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study. Cancer 110:2568–2575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Crevoisier R, Bourhis J, Domenge C, Wibault P, Koscielny S, Lusinchi A et al (1998) Full-dose reirradiation for unresectable head and neck carcinoma: experience at the Gustave-Roussy Institute in a series of 169 patients. J Clin Oncol 16:3556–3562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. De Crevoisier R, Domenge C, Wibault P, Koscielny S, Lusinchi A, Janot F et al (2001) Full dose reirradiation combined with chemotherapy after salvage surgery in head and neck carcinoma. Cancer 91:2071–2076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dorth JA, Patel PR, Broadwater G, Brizel DM (2013) Incidence and risk factors of significant carotid artery stenosis in asymptomatic survivors of head and neck cancer after radiotherapy. Head Neck. doi: 10.1002/hed.23280 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dos Santos M, Mercante AM, Louro ID, Gonçalves AJ, de Carvalho MB, da Silva EH et al (2012) HIF1-alpha expression predicts survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. PLoS One 7:e45228PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. EdgeSB, Byrd DR, Compton CC et al (2009) American Joint Committee on Cancer, American Cancer Society. AJCC cancer staging manual, 7th edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  20. Egelmeer AG, Velazquez ER, de Jong JM, Oberije C, Geussens Y, Nuyts S et al (2011) Development and validation of a nomogram for prediction of survival and local control in laryngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy alone: a cohort study based on 994 patients. Radiother Oncol 100:108–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eriksen JG, Steiniche T, Overgaard J (2005) Danish Head and Neck Cancer study group (DAHANCA). The influence of epidermal growth factor receptor and tumor differentiation on the response to accelerated radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck in the randomized DAHANCA 6 and 7 study. Radiother Oncol 74:93–100Google Scholar
  22. Fakhry C, Westra WH, Li S, Cmelak A, Ridge JA, Pinto H et al (2008) Improved survival of patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a prospective clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 100:261–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garg MK, Glanzman J, Kalnicki S (2012) The evolving role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography in organ-preserving treatment of head and neck cancer. Semin Nucl Med 42:320–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghadjar P, Simcock M, Zimmermann F, Betz M, Bodis S, Bernier J et al (2012) Predictors of severe late radiotherapy-related toxicity after hyperfractionated radiotherapy with or without concomitant cisplatin in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Secondary retrospective analysis of a randomized phase III trial (SAKK 10/94). Radiother Oncol 104:213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gillison ML, Zhang Q, Jordan R, Xiao W, Westra WH, Trotti A et al (2012) Tobacco smoking and increased risk of death and progression for patients with p16-positive and p16-negative oropharyngeal cancer. J Clin Oncol 30:2102–2111PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gregoire V, Coche E, Cosnard G, Hamoir M, Reychler H (2000) Selection and delineation of lymph node target volumes in head and neck conformal radiotherapy. Proposal for standardizing terminology and procedure based on the surgical experience. Radiother Oncol 56:135–150Google Scholar
  27. Guo R, Sun Y, Yu XL, Yin WJ, Li WF, Chen YY et al (2012) Is primary tumor volume still a prognostic factor in intensity modulated radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma? Radiother Oncol 104:294–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haughey BH, Gates GA, Arfken CL, Harvey J (1992) Meta-analysis of second malignant tumors in head and neck cancer: the case for an endoscopic screening protocol. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 101:105–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Heukelom J, Hamming O, Bartelink H, Hoebers F, Giralt J, Herlestam T et al (2013) Adaptive and innovative Radiation Treatment FOR improving Cancer treatment outcomE (ARTFORCE); a randomized controlled phase II trial for individualized treatment of head and neck cancer. BMC Cancer 13:84PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hitt R, Lopez-Pousa A, Martinez-Trufero J, Escrig V, Carles J, Rizo A et al (2005) Phase III study comparing cisplatin plus fluorouracil to paclitaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 23:8636–8645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoebers F, Rios E, Troost E, van den Ende P, Kross K, Lacko M et al (2013) Definitive radiation therapy for treatment of laryngeal carcinoma : impact of local relapse on outcome and implications for treatment strategies. Strahlenther Onkol 189:834–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoff CM (2012) Importance of hemoglobin concentration and its modification for the outcome of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Acta Oncol 51:419–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hong AM, Martin A, Armstrong BK, Lee CS, Jones D, Chatfield MD et al (2013) Human papillomavirus modifies the prognostic significance of T stage and possibly N stage in tonsillar cancer. Ann Oncol 24:215–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Honoré HB, Bentzen SM, Møller K, Grau C (2002) Sensori-neural hearing loss after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: individualized risk estimation. Radiother Oncol 65:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huang PY, Wang CT, Cao KJ, Guo X, Guo L, Mo HY et al (2013) Pretreatment body mass index as an independent prognostic factor in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy: findings from a randomised trial. Eur J Cancer 49:1923–1931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Janot F, De Raucourt D, Benhamou E, Ferron C, Dolivet G, Bensadoun RJ et al (2008) Randomized trial of postoperative reirradiation combined with chemotherapy after salvage surgery compared with salvage surgery alone in head and neck carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 26:5518–5523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kasperts N, Slotman B, Leemans CR, Langendijk JA (2005) A review on re-irradiation for recurrent and second primary head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol 41:225–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim KY, Li S, Cha JD, Zhang X, Cha IH (2012) Significance of molecular markers in survival prediction of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck 34:929–936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koiwai K, Shikama N, Sasaki S, Shinoda A, Kadoya M (2010) Validation of the Total Dysphagia Risk Score (TDRS) as a predictive measure for acute swallowing dysfunction induced by chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Radiother Oncol 97:132–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Langendijk JA, Leemans CR, Buter J, Berkhof J, Slotman BJ (2004) The additional value of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis of the published literature. J Clin Oncol 22:4604–4612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Langendijk JA, Doornaert P, Rietveld DH, Verdonck-de Leeuw IM, Leemans CR, Slotman BJ (2009) A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Radiother Oncol 90:189–195Google Scholar
  42. Langer CJ, Harris J, Horwitz EM, Nicolaou N, Kies M, Curran W et al (2007) Phase II study of low-dose paclitaxel and cisplatin in combination with split-course concomitant twice-daily reirradiation in recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 9911. J Clin Oncol 25:4800–4805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lassen P, Eriksen JG, Hamilton-Dutoit S, Tramm T, Alsner J, Overgaard J (2009) Effect of HPV-associated p16INK4A expression on response to radiotherapy and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 27:1992–1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Le QT, Harris J, Magliocco AM, Kong CS, Diaz R, Shin B et al (2009) Validation of lysyl oxidase as a prognostic marker for metastasis and survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 90–03. J Clin Oncol 27:4281–4286PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Le QT, Fisher R, Oliner KS, Young RJ, Cao H, Kong C et al (2012) Prognostic and predictive significance of plasma HGF and IL-8 in a phase III trial of chemoradiation with or without tirapazamine in locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res 18:1798–1807PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee NY, de Arruda FF, Puri DR, Wolden SL, Narayana A, Mechalakos J et al (2006) A comparison of intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66:966–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee IJ, Koom WS, Lee CG, Kim YB, Yoo SW, Keum KC et al (2009) Risk factors and dose-effect relationship for mandibular osteoradionecrosis in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 75:1084–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lim AM, Rischin D, Fisher R, Cao H, Kwok K, Truong D et al (2012) Prognostic significance of plasma osteopontin in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated on TROG 02.02 phase III trial. Clin Cancer Res 18:301–307PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lv X, Xiang YQ, Cao SM, Qian CN, Li NW, Guo L et al (2011) Prospective validation of the prognostic value of elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: more distant metastases and shorter overall survival after treatment. Head Neck 33:780–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Machtay M, Moughan J, Farach A, Martin-O’Meara E, Galvin J, Garden AS et al (2012) Hypopharyngeal dose is associated with severe late toxicity in locally advanced head-and-neck cancer: an RTOG analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84:983–989PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McCloskey SA, Jaggernauth W, Rigual NR, Hicks WL Jr, Popat SR, Sullivan M et al (2009) Radiation treatment interruptions greater than one week and low hemoglobin levels (12 g/dL) are predictors of local regional failure after definitive concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Am J Clin Oncol 32:587–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McMillan AS, Pow EH, Kwong DL, Wong MC, Sham JS, Leung LH, Leung WK (2006) Preservation of quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: results of a prospective longitudinal study. Head Neck 28:712–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Monnier Y, Broome M, Betz M, Bouferrache K, Ozsahin M, Jaques B (2011) Mandibular osteoradionecrosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: incidence and risk factors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 144:726–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moon SH, Choi JY, Lee HJ, Son YI, Baek CH, Ahn YC et al (2013) Prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil: comparisons of volume-based metabolic parameters. Head Neck 35:15–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mortensen LS, Johansen J, Kallehauge J, Primdahl H, Busk M, Lassen P et al (2012) FAZA PET/CT hypoxia imaging in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated with radiotherapy: results from the DAHANCA 24 trial. Radiother Oncol 105:14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mortensen HR, Jensen K, Aksglæde K, Behrens M, Grau C (2013) Late dysphagia after IMRT for head and neck cancer and correlation with dose-volume parameters. Radiother Oncol 107:288–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nichols AC, Whelan F, Basmaji J, Dhaliwal S, Dowthwaite S, Chapeskie C et al (2012) Ki-67 expression predicts radiotherapy failure in early glottic cancer. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 41:124–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Nieder C, Milas L, Ang KK (2000) Tissue tolerance to reirradiation. Semin Radiat Oncol 10:200–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nieder C, Gregoire V, Ang KK (2001) Cervical lymph node metastases from occult squamous cell carcinoma: cut down a tree to get an apple? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:727–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nijkamp MM, Span PN, Terhaard CH, Doornaert PA, Langendijk JA, van den Ende PL et al (2013) Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in laryngeal cancer predicts the effect of hypoxia modification as an additive to accelerated radiotherapy in a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer 49:3202–3209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nourissat A, Bairati I, Samson E, Fortin A, Gélinas M, Nabid A et al (2010) Predictors of weight loss during radiotherapy in patients with stage I or II head and neck cancer. Cancer 116:2275–2283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Oguejiofor KK, Hall JS, Mani N, Douglas C, Slevin NJ, Homer J et al (2013) The prognostic significance of the biomarker p16 in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 25:630–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Overgaard J, Eriksen JG, Nordsmark M, Alsner J, Horsman MR (2005) Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study Group. Plasma osteopontin, hypoxia, and response to the hypoxia sensitiser nimorazole in radiotherapy of head and neck cancer: results from the DAHANCA 5 randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 6:757–764Google Scholar
  64. Pai PC, Chuang CC, Tseng CK, Tsang NM, Chang KP, Yen TC et al (2012) Impact of pretreatment body mass index on patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83:e93–e100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Park GC, Kim JS, Roh JL, Choi SH, Nam SY, Kim SY (2013) Prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT in advanced-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. Ann Oncol 24:208–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C, Designe L (2000) Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy on head and neck cancer. Lancet 355:949–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pignon JP, le Maitre A, Maillard E, Bourhis J (2009) Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC): an update on 93 randomised trials and 17,346 patients. Radiother Oncol 92:4–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Platek ME, Reid ME, Wilding GE, Jaggernauth W, Rigual NR, Hicks WL Jr et al (2011) Pretreatment nutritional status and locoregional failure of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Head Neck 33:1561–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Posner MR, Hershock DM, Blajman CR, Mickiewicz E, Winquist E, Gorbounova V et al (2007) Cisplatin and fluorouracil alone or with docetaxel in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 357:1705–1715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pow EH, Kwong DL, McMillan AS, Wong MC, Sham JS, Leung LH, Leung WK (2006) Xerostomia and quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: initial report on a randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66:981–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Quon H, Brizel DM (2012) Predictive and prognostic role of functional imaging of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Semin Radiat Oncol 22:220–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rades D, Seibold ND, Schild SE, Gebhard MP, Noack F (2013a) Androgen receptor expression: prognostic value in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Strahlenther Onkol 189:849–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rades D, Seibold ND, Gebhard MP, Noack F, Thorns C, Schild SE (2013b) Impact of the HPV-positivity definition on the prognostic value of HPV status in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Strahlenther Onkol 189:856–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rischin D, Young RJ, Fisher R, Fox SB, Le QT, Peters LJ et al (2010) Prognostic significance of p16INK4A and human papillomavirus in patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated on TROG 02.02 phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 28:4142–4148PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rutkowski T, Wygoda A, Składowski K, Hejduk B, Rutkowski R, Kołosza Z, Maciejewski B (2013) Prognostic role of tumor volume for radiotherapy outcome in patient with T2 laryngeal cancer. Strahlenther Onkol 189:861–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schaefer U, Micke O, Schueller P, Willich N (2000) Recurrent head and neck cancer: retreatment of previously irradiated areas with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy-results of a prospective study. Radiology 216:371–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schrijvers ML, Pattje WJ, Slagter-Menkema L, Mastik MF, Gibcus JH, Langendijk JA et al (2012) FADD expression as a prognosticator in early-stage glottic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx treated primarily with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83:1220–1226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Seibold ND, Schild SE, Gebhard MP, Noack F, Rades D (2013) Prognosis of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Impact of tumor cell expression of EPO and EPO-R. Strahlenther Onkol 189:559–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Self EM, Bumpous J, Ziegler C, Wilson L, Potts K (2013) Risk factors for hemorrhage after chemoradiation for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 139:356–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Semrau R, Duerbaum H, Temming S, Huebbers C, Stenner M, Drebber U et al (2013) Prognostic impact of human papillomavirus status, survivin, and epidermal growth factor receptor expression on survival in patients treated with radiochemotherapy for very advanced nonresectable oropharyngeal cancer. Head Neck 35:1339–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shikama N, Kumazaki Y, Tsukamoto N, Ebara T, Makino S, Abe T et al (2013) Validation of nomogram-based prediction of survival probability after salvage re-irradiation of head and neck cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol 43:154–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Snietura M, Jaworska M, Mlynarczyk-Liszka J, Goraj-Zajac A, Piglowski W, Lange D et al (2012) PTEN as a prognostic and predictive marker in postoperative radiotherapy for squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. PLoS One 7:e33396PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Spencer SA, Wheeler RH, Peters GE, Beenken SW, Meredith RF, Smith J, Conner W, Salter MM (1999) Concomitant chemotherapy and reirradiation as management for recurrent cancer of the head and neck. Am J Clin Oncol 22:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Spencer SA, Harris J, Wheeler RH, Machtay M, Schultz C, Spanos W et al (2001) RTOG 96–10: reirradiation with concurrent hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:1299–1304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Spencer SA, Harris J, Wheeler RH, Machtay M, Schultz C, Spanos W et al (2008) Final report of RTOG 9610, a multi-institutional trial of reirradiation and chemotherapy for unresectable recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck 30:281–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Su SF, Huang SM, Han F, Huang Y, Chen CY, Xiao WW et al (2013) Analysis of dosimetric factors associated with temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after intensity modulated radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol 8:17PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sulman EP, Schwartz DL, Le TT, Ang KK, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI et al (2009) IMRT reirradiation of head and neck cancer-disease control and morbidity outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73:399–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sun JM, Ahn MJ, Park MJ, Lee HY, Ahn JS, Lee S et al (2011) Expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 as predictive marker for nasopharyngeal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80:655–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sze WM, Lee AW, Yau TK, Yeung RM, Lau KY, Leung SK et al (2004) Primary tumor volume of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: prognostic significance of local control. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tang C, Murphy JD, Khong B, La TH, Kong C, Fischbein NJ et al (2012) Validation that metabolic tumor volume predicts outcome in head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83:1514–1520PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tanvetyanon T, Padhya T, McCaffrey J, Zhu W, Boulware D, Deconti R, Trotti A (2009) Prognostic factors for survival after salvage reirradiation of head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:1983–1991Google Scholar
  92. Teguh DN, Levendag PC, Voet P, van der Est H, Noever I, de Kruijf W et al (2008) Trismus in patients with oropharyngeal cancer: relationship with dose in structures of mastication apparatus. Head Neck 30:622–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Teguh DN, Levendag PC, Ghidey W, van Montfort K, Kwa SL (2013) Risk model and nomogram for dysphagia and xerostomia prediction in head and neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Dysphagia 28:388–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Thomas B, Stedman M, Davies L (2013) Grade as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A population based analysis of the data. Laryngoscope. doi: 10.1002/lary.24357 Google Scholar
  95. Toustrup K, Sørensen BS, Alsner J, Overgaard J (2012) Hypoxia gene expression signatures as prognostic and predictive markers in head and neck radiotherapy. Semin Radiat Oncol 22:119–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tribius S, Reemts E, Prosch C, Raguse M, Petersen C, Kruell A et al (2012) Global quality of life during the acute toxicity phase of multimodality treatment for patients with head and neck cancer: can we identify patients most at risk of profound quality of life decline? Oral Oncol 48:898–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vergeer MR, Doornaert PA, Rietveld DH, Leemans CR, Slotman BJ, Langendijk JA (2009) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces radiation-induced morbidity and improves health-related quality of life: results of a nonrandomized prospective study using a standardized follow-up program. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vermorken JB, Remenar E, van Herpen C, Gorlia T, Mesia R, Degardin M et al (2007) Cisplatin, fluorouracil, and docetaxel in unresectable head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 357:1695–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wan XB, Wei L, Li H, Dong M, Lin Q, Ma XK et al (2013) High pretreatment serum lactate dehydrogenase level correlates with disease relapse and predicts an inferior outcome in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 49:2356–2364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang YL, Feng SH, Zhu J, Zhu GP, Li DS, Wang Y et al (2013a) Impact of lymph node ratio on the survival of patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based analysis. PLoS One 8:e56613PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang SJ, Patel SG, Shah JP, Goldstein DP, Irish JC, Carvalho AL et al (2013b) An oral cavity carcinoma nomogram to predict benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 139:554–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Weiss MH, Harrison LB, Isaacs RS (1994) Use of decision analysis in planning a management strategy for the stage N0 neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120:699–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yoo J, Henderson S, Walker-Dilks C (2013) Evidence-based guideline recommendations on the use of positron emission tomography imaging in head and neck cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 25:e33–e66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhou GQ, Tang LL, Mao YP, Chen L, Li WF, Sun Y et al (2012) Baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase levels for patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a predictor of poor prognosis and subsequent liver metastasis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82:e359–e365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oncology and Palliative MedicineNordland HospitalBodøNorway
  2. 2.Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Clinical MedicineUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations