Ultrasound Study of the Pediatric Chest

  • Goya Enriquez
  • Celestino Aso
  • Xavier Serres
  • Veronica del Prete
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


The clinical applications of chest ultrasound (US) have been expanded in recent years. The chest is routinely studied prenatally by US which plays an important role in the detection of congenital lung malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH); severe cases of the latter could be treated in utero. US has several beneficial advantages such as portability and lack of ionising radiation and should be performed after careful chest X-ray assessment. Color, power, and pulsed Doppler capabilities permit the visualization of vessels without the need for venous contrast administration. Postnatal study of lung malformations detected in utero, consolidation, presence and characterization of pleural fluid, opaque hemithorax, palpable chest wall masses, abnormal mediastinal contours, and misleading chest X-ray findings constitute the main indications for chest US.


Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Pleural Fluid Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Bronchogenic Cyst Pulmonary Sequestration 


  1. Acunas B, Celik L, Acunas A (1989) Chest sonography. Differentiation of pulmonary consolidation from pleural disease. Acta Radiol 30:273–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agricola E, Bove T, Oppizzi M et al (2005) “Ultrasound comet-tail images”: a marker of pulmonary edema: a comparative study with wedge pressure and extravascular lung water. Chest 127:1690–1695. doi: 10.1378/chest.127.5.1690 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkrinawi S, Chernick V (1996) Pleural infection in children. Semin Respir Infect 11:148–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Annessi V, Paci M, De Franco S et al (2003) Diagnosis of anterior mediastinal masses with ultrasonocally guided core needle biopsy. Chir Ital 55(3):379–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aoki AA, Mock CN, Talner LB (1998) Traumatic rupture of the right hemidiaphragm in an automobile accident victim. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171:386. doi: 10.2214/ajr.171.2.9694457 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Avila NA, Mueller BU, Carrasquillo JA et al (1996) Multilocular thymic cysts: imaging features in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Radiology 201:130–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Avni EF, Braude P, Pardou A, Matos C (1990) Hyaline membrane disease in the newborn: diagnosis by ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol 20:143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Avni EF, Cassart M, de Maertelaer V et al (1996) Sonographic prediction of chronic lung disease in the premature undergoing mechanical ventilation. Pediatr Radiol 26:463–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aziz D, Langer JC, Tuuha SE et al (2004) Perinatally diagnosed asymptomatic congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation: to resect or not? J Pediatr Surg 39:329–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barillari A, Kiuru S (2010) Detection of spontaneous pneumothorax with chest ultrasound in the emergency department. Intern Emerg Med 5:253–255. doi: 10.1007/s11739-010-0347-z PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-Ami TE, O’Donovan JC, Yousefzadeh DK (1993) Sonography of the chest in children. Radiol Clin North Am 31:517–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosch J, Serres X, Peñas M et al (1998) Mediastinal lymphadenapathy: a variant of incomplete Kawasaki disease. Acta Paediatr 87(11):1200–1202Google Scholar
  13. Bosch-Marcet J, Serres-Créixams X, Borrás-Pérez V et al (2007) Value of sonography for follow-up of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children with tuberculosis. J Clin Ultrasound 35:118–124. doi: 10.1002/jcu.20304 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosch-Marcet J, Serres-Créixams X, Zuasnabar-Cotro A et al (2004) Comparison of ultrasound with plain radiography and CT for the detection of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children with tuberculosis. Pediatr Radiol 34:895–900. doi: 10.1007/s00247-004-1251-3 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bulas D, Egloff AM (2011) Fetal chest ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: recent advances and current clinical applications. Radiol Clin North Am 49:805–823. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2011.06.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bush A, Hogg J, Chitty LS (2008) Cystic lung lesions—prenatal diagnosis and management. Prenat Diagn 28:604–611. doi: 10.1002/pd.2039 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Büsing KA, Kilian AK, Schaible T et al (2008) MR lung volume in fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia: logistic regression analysis–mortality and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Radiology 248:233–239. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2481070934 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Calder A, Owens CM (2009) Imaging of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema in children. Pediatr Radiol 39:527–537. doi: 10.1007/s00247-008-1133-1 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cannie M, Jani J, Chaffiotte C et al (2008a) Quantification of intrathoracic liver herniation by magnetic resonance imaging and prediction of postnatal survival in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:627–632. doi: 10.1002/uog.6146 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cannie M, Jani J, Meersschaert J et al (2008b) Prenatal prediction of survival in isolated diaphragmatic hernia using observed to expected total fetal lung volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging based on either gestational age or fetal body volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:633–639. doi: 10.1002/uog.6139 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cannie M, Jani JC, De Keyzer F et al (2006) Fetal body volume: use at MR imaging to quantify relative lung volume in fetuses suspected of having pulmonary hypoplasia. Radiology 241:847–853. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2413051228 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cannie MM, Jani JC, Van Kerkhove F et al (2008c) Fetal body volume at MR imaging to quantify total fetal lung volume: normal ranges. Radiology 247:197–203. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2471070682 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Canonico F, Patassini M, Malaspina C (2011) Nonmyxoid mediastinal lipoblastoma in a 2-year-old girl: case report with US, CT, and MRI findings. J Ultrasound 14:14–17. doi: 10.1016/j.jus.2011.01.002 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Castellote A, Mencho S, Carreras E et al (2011) Correlation between US and MRI for prenatal lung volumetry in diaphragmatic hernia, and use of Doppler to identify the ipsilateral lung cap. Pediatr Radiol 41:1569–1577. doi: 10.1007/s00247-011-2200-6 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Castellote A, Vazquez E, Vera J et al (1999) Cervicothoracic lesions in infants and children. Radiographics 19:583–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cattarossi L, Copetti R, Poskurica B, Miserocchi G (2010) Surfactant administration for neonatal respiratory distress does not improve lung interstitial fluid clearance: echographic and experimental evidence. J Perinat Med 38:557–563. doi: 10.1515/JPM.2010.096 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cavoretto P, Molina F, Poggi S et al (2008) Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of echogenic fetal lung lesions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:769–783. doi: 10.1002/uog.6218 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coakley FV, Lopoo JB, Lu Y et al (2000) Normal and hypoplastic fetal lungs: volumetric assessment with prenatal single-shot rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement MR imaging. Radiology 216:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Coley B (2002) Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures. In: Siegel MJ (ed) Pediatric sonography, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  30. Coley BD (2011) Chest sonography in children: current indications, techniques, and imaging findings. Radiol Clin North Am 49:825–846. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2011.06.008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Conran RM, Stocker JT (1999) Extralobar sequestration with frequently associated congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, type 2: report of 50 cases. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2:454–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Copetti R, Cattarossi L (2007) The “double lung point”: an ultrasound sign diagnostic of transient tachypnea of the newborn. Neonatology 91:203–209. doi: 10.1159/000097454 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Copetti R, Cattarossi L, Macagno F et al (2008) Lung ultrasound in respiratory distress syndrome: a useful tool for early diagnosis. Neonatology 94:52–59. doi: 10.1159/000113059 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Correia-Pinto J, Gonzaga S, Huang Y, Rottier R (2010) Congenital lung lesions–underlying molecular mechanisms. Semin Pediatr Surg 19:171–179. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2010.03.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ching ASC, Lee SF, Chan YL (2002) Diagnosing paediatric mediastinal lipoblastoma using ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy: review and report. Clin Imaging 26:23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Daltro P, Werner H, Gasparetto TD et al (2010) Congenital chest malformations: a multimodality approach with emphasis on fetal MR imaging. Radiographics 30:385–395. doi: 10.1148/rg.302095113 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Davenport M, Warne SA, Cacciaguerra S et al (2004) Current outcome of antenally diagnosed cystic lung disease. J Pediatr Surg 39:549–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis SD, Umlas SL (1992) Radiology of congenital abnormalities of the chest. Curr Opin Radiol 4:25–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. De Pascale A, Giorcelli R, Garofalo G et al (2006) Follow-up of mediastinal lymphoma: role of ultrasonography. Radiol Med 111:759–772. doi: 10.1007/s11547-006-0070-z PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Donnelly LF, Frush DP (1999) Abnormalities of the chest wall in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173:1595–1601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Donnelly LF, Frush DP, Zheng J-Y et al (2000) Differentiating normal from abnormal inferior thoracic paravertebral soft tissues on chest radiography in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 175:477–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Donnelly LF, Klosterman LA (1997) Pneumonia in children: decreased parenchymal contrast enhancement–CT sign of intense illness and impending cavitary necrosis. Radiology 205:817–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dubois J, Garel L, David M, Powell J (2002) Vascular soft-tissue tumors in infancy: distinguishing features on Doppler sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 178:1541–1545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Durand C, Garel C, Nugues F, Baudain P (2001) Sonography of thoracic diseases in children. J Radiol 82:729–737; discussion 739–740Google Scholar
  45. Eibenberger K, Dock W, Metz V et al (1991) Value of supine thoracic radiography in the diagnosis and quantification of pleural effusions: comparison with sonography. Rofo 155:323–326. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1033271 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Enriquez G, Cadavid L, Garcés-Iñigo E et al (2012) Tracheobronchomegaly following intrauterine tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Radiol 42:916–922. doi: 10.1007/s00247-012-2362-x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Epelman M, Kreiger PA, Servaes S et al (2010) Current imaging of prenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 31:141–157. doi: 10.1053/j.sult.2010.01.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Epelman M, Navarro OM, Daneman A et al (2005) M-mode sonography of diaphragmatic motion: description of technique and experience in 278 pediatric patients. Pediatr Radiol 35:661–667. doi: 10.1007/s00247-005-1433 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Feola GP, Shaw LCA, Coburn L (2003) Management of complicated parapneumonic effusions in children. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 6:197–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fitoz S, Atasoy C, Türköz E et al (2001) Sonographic findings in ectopic cervical thymus in an infant. J Clin Ultrasound 29:523–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Frazier AA, Rosado de Christenson ML, Stocker JT, Templeton PA (1997) Intralobar sequestration: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 17:725–745Google Scholar
  52. Gassner I, Geley TE (2005) Sonographic evaluation of oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Pediatr Radiol 35:159–164. doi: 10.1007/s00247-004-1329-y PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. García-Peña P, Lucaya J, Hendry GMA, et al. (1998) Spontaneous involution of pulmonary sequestration in children: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Radiol 28.266-270Google Scholar
  54. Gorguner M, Misirlioglu F, Polat P et al (2003) Color Doppler sonographically guided transthoracic needle aspiration of lung and mediastinal masses. J Ultrasound Med 22:703–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hamrick-Turner Saif MF, Powers CI et al (1994) Imaging of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma: assessment by histologic subtype. Radiographics 14:11–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hasiotou M, Polyviou P, Strantzia CM et al (2004) Pleuropulmonary blastoma in the area of a previously diagnosed congenital lung cyst: report of two cases. Acta Radiol 45:289–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hedlund GL, Navoy JF, Galliani CA, Johnson WH Jr (1999) Aggressive manifestations of inflammatory pulmonary pseudotumor in children. Pediatr Radiol 29:112–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hogan MJ, Coley BD (2008) Interventional radiology treatment of empyema and lung abscesses. Paediatr Respir Rev 9:77–84; quiz 84. doi:  10.1016/j.prrv.2007.12.001 Google Scholar
  59. Jani J, Cannie M, Done E et al (2007a) Relationship between lung area at ultrasound examination and lung volume assessment with magnetic resonance imaging in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30:855–860. doi: 10.1002/uog.5168 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jani J, Nicolaides KH, Keller RL et al (2007b) Observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in the prediction of survival in fetuses with isolated diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30:67–71. doi: 10.1002/uog.4052 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kerem E, Bar Ziv Y, Rudenski B et al. (1994) Bacteremic necrotizing pneumococcal pneumonia in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:242–244Google Scholar
  62. Kilian AK, Büsing K-A, Schuetz E-M et al (2009) Fetal MR lung volumetry in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH): prediction of clinical outcome and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Klin Padiatr 221:295–301. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1192022 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim OH, Kim WS, Kim MJ et al (2000) US in the diagnosis of pediatric chest diseases. Radiographics 20:653–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ko SF, Ng SH, Lee TY et al (2000) Noninvasive imaging of bronchopulmonary sequestration. AJR Am J Roentgenol 175:1005–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kocijancic I, Vidmar K, Ivanovi-Herceg Z (2003) Chest sonography versus lateral decubitus radiography in the diagnosis of small pleural effusions. J Clin Ultrasound 31:69–74. doi: 10.1002/jcu.10141 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Koh D-M, Burke S, Davies N, Padley SPG (2002) Transthoracic US of the chest: clinical uses and applications. Radiographics 22:e1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kohzaki S, Tsurusaki K, Uetani M et al (2003) The aurora sign: an ultrasonographic sign suggesting parenchymal lung disease. Br J Radiol 76:437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Koumanidou C, Vakaki M, Theophanopoulou M et al (1998) Aberrant thymus in infants: sonographic evaluation. Pediatr Radiol 28:987–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kurian J, Levin TL, Han BK et al (2009) Comparison of Ultrasound and CT in the Evaluation of Pneumonia Complicated by Parapneumonic Effusion in Children. http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.09.2791
  70. Laberge J-M, Bratu I, Flageole H (2004) The management of asymptomatic congenital lung malformations. Paediatr Respir Rev 5(Suppl A):S305–312Google Scholar
  71. Langston C (2003) New concepts in the pathology of congenital lung malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg 12:17–37. doi: 10.1053/spsu.2003.00001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lecomte B, Hadden H, Coste K et al (2009) Hyperechoic congenital lung lesions in a non-selected population: from prenatal detection till perinatal management. Prenat Diagn 29:1222–1230. doi: 10.1002/pd.2407 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lemaitre L, Leclerc F, Marconi V et al (1987) Ultrasonographic findings in thymic lymphoma in children. Eur J Radiol 7:125–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lichtenstein D, Mezière G, Biderman P, Gepner A (2000) The “lung point”: an ultrasound sign specific to pneumothorax. Intensive Care Med 26:1434–1440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lichtenstein D, Mezière G, Seitz J (2009) The dynamic air bronchogram. A lung ultrasound sign of alveolar consolidation ruling out atelectasis. Chest 135:1421–1425. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-2281 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lobo L (2006) The neonatal chest. Eur J Radiol 60:152–158. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2006.07.018 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lovrenski J (2012) Lung ultrasonography of pulmonary complications in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Ups J Med Sci 117:10–17. doi: 10.3109/03009734.2011.643510 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Manson DE, Daneman A (2001) Pitfalls in the sonographic diagnosis of juxtadiaphragmatic pulmonary sequestrations. Pediatr Radiol 31:260–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Maruyama K, Koizumi T (2006) Hydromediastinum associated with a peripherally inserted central venous catheter in a newborn infant. J Clin Ultrasound 34:195–198. doi: 10.1002/jcu.20194 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. May DA, Barth RA, Yeager S et al (1993) Perinatal and postnatal chest sonography. Radiol Clin North Am 31:499–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. McHugh K, Afaq A, Broderick N et al (2010) Tracheomegaly: a complication of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion in the treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Radiol 40:674–680. doi: 10.1007/s00247-009-1437-9 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mong A, Johnson AM, Kramer SS et al (2008) Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: MR/US findings, effect on management, and outcome. Pediatr Radiol 38:1171–1179. doi: 10.1007/s00247-008-0962-2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Newman B (2006) Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies. Pediatr Radiol 36:773–791. doi: 10.1007/s00247-006-0115-4 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Osada H, Kaku K, Masuda K et al (2004) Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of fetal lung with MR imaging. Radiology 231:887–892. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2313021689 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Paek BW, Coakley FV, Lu Y et al (2001) Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: prenatal evaluation with MR lung volumetry-preliminary experience. Radiology 220:63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Papagiannopoulos KA, Sheppard M, Bush AP, Goldstraw P (2001) Pleuropulmonary blastoma: is prophylactic resection of congenital lung cysts effective? Ann Thorac Surg 72:604–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Pariente G, Aviram M, Landau D, Hershkovitz R (2009) Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema: case report and review of the literature. J Ultrasound Med 28:1081–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Peralta CFA, Kazan-Tannus JF, Bunduki V et al (2006) Evaluation of the agreement between 3-dimensional ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for fetal lung volume measurement. J Ultrasound Med 25:461–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pieper CH, Smith J, Brand EJ (2004) The value of ultrasound examination of the lungs in predicting bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Radiol 34:227–231. doi: 10.1007/s00247-003-1102-7 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pumberger W, Hörmann M, Deutinger J et al (2003) Longitudinal observation of antenatally detected congenital lung malformations (CLM): natural history, clinical outcome and long-term follow-up. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 24:703–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Raptopoulos V, Davis LM, Lee G et al (1991) Factors affecting the development of pneumothorax associated with thoracocentesis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:917–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Riccabona M (2008) Ultrasound of the chest in children (mediastinum excluded). Eur Radiol 18:390–399. doi: 10.1007/s00330-007-0754-3 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ruano R, Aubry M-C, Dumez Y et al (2008) Predicting neonatal deaths and pulmonary hypoplasia in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using the sonographic fetal lung volume-body weight ratio. AJR Am J Roentgenol 190:1216–1219. doi: 10.2214/AJR.07.3078 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ruano R, Joubin L, Sonigo P et al (2004) Fetal lung volume estimated by 3-dimensional ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in cases with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Ultrasound Med 23:353–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rudick MG, Bp Wood (1980) The use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of a large thymic cyst. Pediatr Radiol 10:113–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rypens F, Metens T, Rocourt N et al (2001) Fetal lung volume: estimation at MR imaging-initial results. Radiology 219:236–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sanchez de Toledo J, Munoz R, Landsittel D et al (2010) Diagnosis of abnormal diaphragm motion after cardiothoracic surgery: ultrasound performed by a cardiac intensivist vs. fluoroscopy. Congenit Heart Dis 5:565–572. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0803.2010.00431.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Sasaka K, Kurihara Y, Nakajima Y et al (1998) Spontaneous ruptura: a complication of benign mature teratoma of the mediastinum. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Seibert JJ, Glasier CH, Leithieser RE (1998) The pediatric chest. In Shankar et al. (2000)Google Scholar
  100. Seo T, Ando H, Kaneko K et al (2006) Two cases of prenatally diagnosed congenital lobar emphysema caused by lobar bronchial atresia. J Pediatr Surg 41:e17–e20. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.08.037 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Shankar S, Gulati M, Kang M et al (2000) Image-guided percutaneous drainage of thoracic empyema: can sonography predict the outcome? Eur Radiol 10:495–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Siegel MJ. (2002) Chest. In: Siegel MJ (ed) Pediatric sonography, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia pp 167–211Google Scholar
  103. Smeets AJ, Robben SG, Meradji M (1990) Sonographically detected costo-chondral dislocation in an abused child. A new sonographic sign to the radiological spectrum of child abuse. Pediatr Radiol 20:566–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Song I, Yoo S-Y, Kim JH et al (2011) Aberrant cervical thymus: imaging and clinical findings in 13 children. Clin Radiol 66:38–42. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2010.04.023 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Steinkamp HJ, Wissgott C, Rademaker J et al. (2002) Current status of power Doppler and color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of lymph nodes lesions. Eur Radiol 12:1785–1793Google Scholar
  106. Stefanidis K, Dimopoulos S, Nanas S (2011) Basic principles and current applications of lung ultrasonography in the intensive care unit. Respirology 16:249–256. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2010.01885.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Stocker JT, Madewell JE, Drake RM (1977) Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. Classification and morphologic spectrum. Hum Pathol 8:155–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stocker JT (1994) Congenital and developmental diseases. In: Dail DH, Hammmar SP (eds) Pulmonary pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 155–190Google Scholar
  109. Swischuk LE, John SD (1996) Normal thymus extending between the right brachiocephalic vein and the innominate artery. AJR Am J Roentgenol 166:1462–1464. doi: 10.2214/ajr.166.6.8633465 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tanigaki S, Miyakoshi K, Tanaka M et al (2004) Pulmonary hypoplasia: prediction with use of ratio of MR imaging-measured fetal lung volume to US-estimated fetal body weight. Radiology 232:767–772. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2323030359 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Tschammler A, Ott G, Schang T et al (1998) Lymphadenopathy: differentiation of benign from malignant disease–color Doppler US assessment of intranodal angioarchitecture. Radiology 208:117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Vijayaraghavan SB, Rao PS, Selvarasu CD, Rao TMS (2003) Prenatal sonographic features of intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration. J Ultrasound Med 22:541–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Volpicelli G (2011a) Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax. Intensive Care Med 37:224–232. doi: 10.1007/s00134-010-2079-y PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Volpicelli G (2011b) The double lung point. Am J Emerg Med 29:832–833. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2011.04.014 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Ward VL, Nishino M, Hatabu H et al (2006) Fetal lung volume measurements: determination with MR imaging–effect of various factors. Radiology 240:187–193. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2393050583 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Wedegaertner U, Tchirikov M, Habermann C et al (2004) Fetal sheep with tracheal occlusion: monitoring lung development with MR imaging and B-mode US. Radiology 230:353–358. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2302021095 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Weinberg B, Diakoumakis EE, Kass EG et al (1986) The air bronchogram: sonographic demonstration. AJR Am J Roentgenol 147:593–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wells RG, Havens PL (2003) Intrapleural fibrinolysis for parapneumonic effusion and empyema in children. Radiology 228:370–378. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2282020486 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wernecke K (2000) Ultrasound study of the pleura. Eur Radiol 10:1515–1523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Williams G, Coakley FV, Qayyum A et al (2004) Fetal relative lung volume: quantification by using prenatal MR imaging lung volumetry. Radiology 233:457–462. doi: 10.1148/radiol.233203156 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Winters WD, Effmann EL, Nghiem HV, Nyberg DA (1997) Disappearing fetal lung masses: importance of postnatal imaging studies. Pediatr Radiol 27:535–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Witlox RSGM, Lopriore E, Walther FJ et al (2009) Single-needle laser treatment with drainage of hydrothorax in fetal bronchopulmonary sequestration with hydrops. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 34:355–357. doi: 10.1002/uog.7316 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Yang PC, Luh KT, Chang DB et al (1992) Ultrasonographic evaluation of pulmonary consolidation. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:757–762PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goya Enriquez
    • 1
  • Celestino Aso
    • 1
  • Xavier Serres
    • 2
  • Veronica del Prete
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric RadiologyVall d’Hebron HospitalsBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyVall d’Hebron HospitalsBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations