Classic Chest Radiology Findings, Pearls and Pitfalls

  • Gloria Soto
  • Karla Moënne
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Chest radiography is the most frequent examination performed in the majority of pediatric radiology departments. It remains the initial imaging study to evaluate most thoracic diseases in children. A systematic approach to the interpretation of children’s chest radiographs, knowledge of basic radiological findings, and consideration of clinical information, are the key for a correct radiological diagnosis. Obtaining a technically adequate chest radiograph in small children is particularly challenging due to their lack of cooperation. Potential pitfalls related to suboptimal images have to be considered. Throughout this chapter we will discuss radiological findings of the normal and pathological pediatric chest, including pathologic conditions concerning the chest wall, pleura and lungs, and also some potential technical pitfalls.


Chest Radiograph Pleural Fluid Bronchiolitis Obliterans Contra Lateral Side Poland Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alford B, McIlhenny J, Silen M et al (1993) Asymmetric radiographic findings in the pediatric chest: approach to early diagnosis. Radiographics 13:77–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bramson RT, Griscom NT (2005) Interpretation of Chest Radiographs in Infants with Cough and Fever 236(1):22–29Google Scholar
  3. Calder A, Owens C (2009) Imaging of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema in children. Pediatr Radiol 39:527–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chalumeau M, Le Clainche L, Sayeg N et al (2001) Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 31:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang L, Lee F, Gwinn J (1970) Normal lateral deviation of the trachea in infants and children. AJR 109:247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donnelly L (2005) Imaging in inmunocompetent children who have pneumonia. Radiol Clin N Am 43:253–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Effmann E, Kuhn J (2004) Lung and airways chap I part II in Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. Mosby, Philadelphia, pp 891–898Google Scholar
  8. Enríquez G, García-Peña P, Lucaya J (2009) Pitfalls in chest imaging. Pediatr Radiol 38(Suppl 3):S356–S368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fefferman N, Pinkney L (2005) Imaging evaluation of chest wall disorders in children. Radiol Clin N Am 43:355–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fraser R (1996) El tórax normal: sinopsis de las enfermedades del tórax. Marban, Madrid, Cap 1, pp 79–88Google Scholar
  11. Frush D, Donnelly L, Chotas H (2000) Contemporary pediatric thoracic imaging. AJR 175:841–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gordon R (1980) The deep sulcus sign. Radiology 136:25–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Han B, Yoon H, Suh Y (2001) Thymic ultrasound I. Intrathymic anatomy in infants. Pediatr Radiol 31:474–479Google Scholar
  14. Kosucu P, Ahmetoglu A, Koramaz I et al (2004) Low-dose MDCT and virtual bronchoscopy in pediatric patients with foreign body aspiration. AJR 183:1771–1777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuhn J, Brody A (2002) High-resolution CT of pediatric lung disease. Radiol Clin N Am 40(1):89–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kuhn J, Effmann E (2004) Overview of imaging procedures in the pediatric neck and thorax. In: Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging, Mosby, Pensilvania, Sección IV, part I, 767–776Google Scholar
  17. McLoud T (1998) The pleura in thoracic radiology: The requisites, Mosby, Missouri, Chap 18, 483–513Google Scholar
  18. Moënne K, Ortega X (2012) Diagnóstico por imágenes del tórax pediátrico. Segunda edición. Buenos Aires, Ediciones JournalGoogle Scholar
  19. Nasseri F, Eftekhari F (2010) Clinical and radiologic review of the normal and abnormal thymus: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics 30:413–428. Published on line doi: 10.1148/rg.302095131 Google Scholar
  20. Salour M (2000) The steeple sign. Radiology 216:2 428–429Google Scholar
  21. Swischuk L (1997) Respiratory system, chap 1 in imaging of the newborn, infant and young child. Williams and Wilkins, Maryland, pp 1–158Google Scholar
  22. Swischuk L (1971) Anterior tracheal indentation in infancy and early childhood: normal or abnormal? AJR 112:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zylak C, Standen J, Barnes G et al (2000) Pneumomediastinum revisited. Radiographics 20:1043–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Diagnóstico por ImágenesClínica Alemana de Santiago de ChileSantiago Chile
  2. 2.Departamento de Diagnóstico por ImágenesClínica Las CondesSantiago Chile

Personalised recommendations