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MR Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging for Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Basics and Applications in Metabolic Diseases

  • Chris Boesch
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) provide metabolic information on the musculoskeletal system, thus helping to understand the biochemical and pathophysiological nature of numerous diseases. In particular, MRS has been used to study the energy metabolism of muscular tissue since the very beginning of magnetic resonance examinations in humans when small-bore magnets for studies of the limbs became available. Even more than in other organs, the observation of non-proton-nuclei was important in muscle tissue. Spatial localization was less demanding in these studies, however, high temporal resolution was necessary to follow metabolism during exercise and recovery. The observation of high-energy phosphates during and after the application of workload gives insight into oxidative phosphorylation, a process that takes place in the mitochondria and characterizes impaired mitochondrial function. New applications in insulin-resistant patients followed the development of volume-selective 1H-MRS in whole-body magnets. Nowadays, multinuclear MRS and MRSI of the musculoskeletal system provide several windows to vital biochemical pathways noninvasively. It is shown how MRS and MRSI have been used in numerous diseases to characterize an involvement of the muscular metabolism.

Keywords

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Malignant Hyperthermia Mitochondrial Myopathy Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Myotonic Dystrophy Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

1H

1-Hydrogen, protons

13C

13-Carbon

19F

19-Fluor

23Na

23-Sodium

31P

31-Phosphorus

ADP

Adenosinediphosphate

AOD

Arterial occlusive disease

ATP

Adenosinetriphosphate

BMD

Becker muscle dystrophies

CPEO

Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

CPOD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CSI

Chemical shift imaging

DMD

Duchenne muscle dystrophies

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EMCL

Extramyocellular lipids

FSHD

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

G6P

Glucose-6-phosphate

GHD

Growth hormone deficiency

GPCh

Glycerophosphocholine

GPEt

Glycerophosphoethanolamine

IMCL

Intramyocellular lipids

ISIS

Image-selected in vivo spectroscopy

KSS

Kearns-Sayre syndrome

LGMD

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy

LHON

Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

MELAS

Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes

MERRF

Myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers

MH

Malignant hyperthermia

MIDD

Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRS

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRSI

Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NARP

Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa

NIDDM

Non-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus

NIRS

Near infrared spectroscopy

OPMD

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

PAD

Peripheral arterial disease

PCh

Phosphocholine

PCr

Phosphocreatine

PDE

Phosphodiester

PEt

Phosphoethanolamine

PFK

Phosphofructokinase

pH

Concentration of hydrogen

Pi

Inorganic phosphate

PME

Phosphomonoester

PRESS

Point resolved spectroscopy

QMAX

Apparent maximum rate of oxidative ATP synthesis

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

STEAM

Stimulated echo acquisition mode

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid cycle

TE

Echo time

TMA

Trimethyl ammonium containing metabolites

TR

Repetition time

tRNA

Transfer ribonucleic acid

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VO2max

Maximal oxygen uptake

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AMSM (DKF and DIPR)University and Inselspital BernBernSwitzerland

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