Rectal and Anal Cancer

  • Joanna Y. Chin
  • Nataliya Kovalchuk
  • Lisa A. Kachnic
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal squamous cell cancer represent two distinct diseases that arise from the distal gastrointestinal tract and utilize radiation concurrent with chemotherapy as a component of care for localized presentations. While chemoradiation is administered preoperatively for rectal cancer, and as definitive treatment for anal cancer, localized management decisions and determination of prognosis are currently based on the assessment of clinical stage. For these cancers, the role of imaging to guide radiotherapy is critical and further investigation into the identification of biomarkers and other predictors for individualized patient care is warranted.


Rectal Cancer Human Papilloma Virus Total Mesorectal Excision Intensity Modulate Radiation Therapy Anal Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Carcinoembryonic antigen


Total mesorectal excision


Abdominoperineal resection




Folinic acid (leucovorin), Fluorouracil (5-FU), OXaliplatin (Eloxatin)




Pathologic complete response


Hazard ratio


Endoscopic ultrasound


Magnetic resonance imaging


Computerized tomography


Positron emission tomography


Metastatic regional nodal disease


Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy


Intensity modulated radiation therapy


National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0


Radiation Therapy Oncology Group


Human papilloma virus


Human immunodeficiency virus


Highly active antiretroviral therapy


Planning tumor volume


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna Y. Chin
    • 1
  • Nataliya Kovalchuk
    • 2
  • Lisa A. Kachnic
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard Radiation Oncology ProgramBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyBoston Medical Center, Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiation OncologyBoston Medical Center, Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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