Pediatric Tuberculosis

  • Pedro Daltro
  • Eloá Nunez-Santos
  • Bernard F. Laya
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Tuberculosis (TB) is a transmittable chronic disease caused by infection with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. It is a global public health problem with one-third of the world's population being infected, and is a leading cause of death and disability from infection. Children are amongst the most vulnerable group because of their immature immune status. A child usually gets TB infection after being exposed to a sputum-positive adult and it can have devastating effects if left untreated. Depending on many factors, the infection can lead to latency or TB disease. Clinical signs and symptoms can be diverse and could depend on the location of the lesions, extent of disease, as well as the age, and state of patient’s immune status. TB can affect every organ in the body, but pulmonary infection is by far the most common. TB in children remains a diagnostic challenge. In addition to history of TB exposure, signs and symptoms, laboratory and microbiologic tests, medical imaging remains a valuable tool in its diagnosis. In some instances, particularly in difficult cases, imaging offers the only way to a thorough evaluation of the extent of the disease and to reach a correct diagnosis. Radiograph is the most commonly ordered initial imaging tool for screening and diagnosis of pulmonary involvement but other imaging modalities especially computed tomography offers more detailed assessment of lung, adenopathy, pericardial, and pleural disease. Medical imaging is also utilized to follow-up patients during or after anti-TB treatment. Knowledge of the common imaging patterns, pitfalls, and dilemma are very important in establishing the diagnosis of TB in children. The chapter discusses the pathophysiology of pediatric TB as it correlates with imaging findings. The wide spectrum of imaging manifestations on thoracic tuberculosis is presented.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Positive Tuberculin Skin Test Directly Observe Treatment Short Tuberculous Pleural Effusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Daltro
    • 1
  • Eloá Nunez-Santos
    • 2
  • Bernard F. Laya
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto Fernandes Figueira-Fiocruz and Clinica de Diagnóstico por Imagem – BarrashoppingRio de Janeiro, Rj-BrasilBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Fernandes Figueira-FiocruzRio de Janeiro, Rj-BrasilBrazil
  3. 3.St. Luke’s Medical Center-Global CityInstitute of RadiologyTaguig CityPhilippines

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