Bacterial infectious enteritis is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity worldwide. In otherwise healthy adults it is usually of short course and self-limiting. The most common symptoms are diarrhoea, fever, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, which may be generalised or localised and cause a syndrome that mimics appendicitis or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms are not specific and cannot distinguish the bacterial cause. The sonographic signs of salmonellosis, yersiniosis and infectious enterocolitis, are usually characterised by symmetric and homogeneous wall thickening of terminal ileum and proximal colon, associated with enlarged regional mesenteric lymph nodes. However, even these sonographic signs are not specific. However, since sonography is a rapid, non-invasive and simple diagnostic tool, it may be used in specific clinical contexts, to discriminate between self-limiting infectious conditions and inflammatory bowel diseases or appendicitis, and to appropriately plan the treatment and follow-up of the patients.
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