Infectious Enteritis

  • Giovanni Maconi
  • Luciano Tarantino
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Bacterial infectious enteritis is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity worldwide. In otherwise healthy adults it is usually of short course and self-limiting. The most common symptoms are diarrhoea, fever, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, which may be generalised or localised and cause a syndrome that mimics appendicitis or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms are not specific and cannot distinguish the bacterial cause. The sonographic signs of salmonellosis, yersiniosis and infectious enterocolitis, are usually characterised by symmetric and homogeneous wall thickening of terminal ileum and proximal colon, associated with enlarged regional mesenteric lymph nodes. However, even these sonographic signs are not specific. However, since sonography is a rapid, non-invasive and simple diagnostic tool, it may be used in specific clinical contexts, to discriminate between self-limiting infectious conditions and inflammatory bowel diseases or appendicitis, and to appropriately plan the treatment and follow-up of the patients.


Bowel Wall Terminal Ileum Mesenteric Lymph Node Typhoid Fever Faecal Calprotectin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adeniran JO, Taiwo JO, Abdur-Rahman LO (2005) Salmonella intestinal perforation (27 perforations in one patient, 14 perforations in another): are the goal posts changing? J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 10:248–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bass D, Cordoba E, Dekker C, Schuind A, Cassady C (2004) Intestinal imaging of children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39:270–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fujii Y, Taniguchi N, Itoh K (2001) Sonographic findings in shigella colitis. J Clin Ultrasound 29:48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hennedige T, Bindl DS, Bhasin A, Venkatesh SK (2012) Spectrum of imaging findings in Salmonella infections. AJR Am J Roentgenol 198:W534–W539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jelloul L, Frémond B, Dyon JF, Orme RL, Babut JM (1997) Mesenteric adenitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis presenting as an abdominal mass. Eur J Pediatr Surg 7:180–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Leyman P, Baert AL, Marchal G, Fevery J (1989) Ultrasound and CT of multifocal liver abscesses caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:913–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mateen MA, Saleem S, Rao PC, Reddy PS, Reddy DN (2006) Ultrasound in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Indian J Pediatr 73:681–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mathis G, Metzler J (1992) Sonography in salmonella enterocolitis. Ultraschall Med 13:106–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Matsumoto T, Iida M, Sakai T, Kimura Y, Fujishima M (1991) Yersinia terminal ileitis: sonographic findings in eight patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:965–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nakachi S, Nakamura T, Agha N et al (2003) Clinical features and early diagnosis of typhoid fever emphasizing usefulness of detecting mesenteric lymphadenopathy with ultrasound as diagnostic method. Southeast Asian. J Trop Med Public Health 34 Suppl 2:153–157Google Scholar
  11. Pallister C, Rotstein OD (2001) Yersinia enterocolitica as a cause of intra-abdominal abscess: the role of iron. Can J Surg 44:135–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Perdikogianni C, Galanakis E, Michalakis M et al (2006) Yersinia enterocolitica infection mimicking surgical conditions. Pediatr Surg Int 22:589–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Puylaert JMBC (1989) Typhoid fever: diagnosi by ultrasonography. Am J Roentgenol 153:745–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Puylaert JBCM (1994) When in doubt, sound it out. Radiology 191:320–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Puylaert JB, Lalisang RI, van der Werf SD, Doornbos L (1988) Campylobacter ileocolitis mimicking acute appendicitis: differentiation with graded-compression US. Radiology 166:737–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Puylaert JB, Vermeijden RJ, van der Werf SD, Doornbos L, Koumans RK (1989) Incidence and sonographic diagnosis of bacterial ileocaecitis masquerading as appendicitis. Lancet 2:84–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Puylaert JB, Van der Zant FM, Mutsaers JA (1997) Infectious ileocecitis caused by Yersinia, Campylobacter, and Salmonella: clinical, radiological and US findings. Eur Radiol 7:3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stolk-Engelaar VM, Hoogkamp-Korstanje JA (1996) Clinical presentation and diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections by Yersinia enterocolitica in 261 Dutch patients. Scand J Infect Dis 28:571–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Strungs I, Farrell DJ, Matar LD, Dekker L, Franz RJ (1995) Multiple hepatic abscesses due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Pathology 27:374–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tarantino L, Giorgio A (1997) Value of bowel ultrasonography in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Eur J Ultrasound 5:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tarantino L, Giorgio A, de Stefano G et al (2003) Acute appendicitis mimicking infectious enteritis: diagnostic value of sonography. J Ultrasound Med 22:945–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ueda D, Sato T, Yoshida M (1999) Ultrasonographic assessment of Salmonella enterocolitis in children. Pediatr Radiol 29:469–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences“L. Sacco” University HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.Interventional Ultrasound Unit, Department of MedicineS. Giovanni di Dio HospitalFrattamaggiore, NaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations