Therapeutic Radionuclides: Production, Physical Characteristics, and Applications

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


This chapter will focus primarily on the selection criteria, production, and the nuclear, physical, and chemical properties of therapeutic radionuclides, including those that are currently being used, or studied and evaluated, and those that warrant future investigations. Various scientific and practical issues related to the production and availability of these radionuclides will also be addressed. It is expected that this chapter will form the basis for the other chapters in this volume that will in much greater detail deal with radiopharmaceuticals based on a number of these therapeutic radionuclides and their present and potential usefulness in the clinical setting for treating cancer and other disorders. We are also reintroducing and reinforcing our recently proposed paradigm that involves specific individual “dual-purpose” radionuclides or radionuclide pairs with emissions suitable for both imaging and therapy, and which when molecularly (selectively) targeted using appropriate carriers, would allow pre-therapy low-dose imaging plus higher dose therapy in the same patient. We have made an attempt to sort out and organize a number of such theragnostic radionuclides and radionuclide pairs that may thus potentially bring us closer to the age-long dream of personalized medicine for performing tailored low-dose molecular imaging (SPECT/CT or PET/CT) to provide the necessary pre-therapy information on biodistribution, dosimetry, the limiting or critical organ or tissue, and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), etc., followed by performing higher dose targeted molecular therapy in the same patient with the same radiopharmaceutical. Beginning in the 1980s, our work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with such a “dual-purpose” radionuclide, tin-117m, convinced us that it is arguably one of the most promising theragnostic radionuclides and we have continued to concentrate on this effort. Our results with this radionuclide are therefore covered in somewhat greater detail in this chapter. A major problem that continues to be addressed but remains yet to be fully resolved is the lack of availability, in sufficient quantities and at reasonable cost, of a majority of the best candidate radionuclides in a no-carrier-added (NCA) form. A brief description is provided of the recently developed new or modified methods at BNL for the production of five theragnostic radionuclide/radionuclide pair items, as well as some other therapeutic radionuclides which have become commercially available, whose nuclear, physical, and chemical characteristics seem to show promise for therapeutic oncology and for treating other disorders that respond to radionuclide therapy.


High Specific Activity Vulnerable Plaque Conversion Electron Radionuclide Therapy Brookhaven National Laboratory 



This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science/Office of Nuclear Physics/Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program, and the NNSA-NA-24 GIPP Program, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Comprehensive discussions took place with Dr. Saed Mirzadeh (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) on reactor production and with Dr. David Schlyer (BNL) on accelerator production of radionuclides. Both of them provided very informative material, some of which is included in this chapter, and their help is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Adelstein SJ, Kassis AI (1987) Radiobiologic implications of the microscopic distribution of energy from radionuclides. Nucl Med Biol 14:165–169Google Scholar
  2. Akiyama K, Haba H, Tsukada K et al (2009) A metallofullerene that encapsulates Ac-225. J. Radioanal Nucl Chem 280:329Google Scholar
  3. Apostolidis C, Molinet R, Rasmussen G et al (2005) Production of Ac-225 from Th-229 for targeted alpha therapy. Analytical Chem 77:6288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aslam MN, Sudar S, Hussain M, Malik AA et al (2001) Evaluation of excitation functions of 3He and α-particle induced reactions on antimony isotopes with special relevance to the production of iodine-124. Appl Radiat Isot 69:94–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balchot J, Herment J, Moussa A (1969) Un Generateur de Re-188 a Partir de W-188. Int J App Radiat Isot 20:467–470Google Scholar
  6. Bett R, Cuninghame JG, Sims HE et al (1983) Development and use of the 195Hg-195Au generator for first pass radionuclide angiography of the heart. Appl Radiat Isot 34:959–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bigler RE, Zanzanico PB (1988) Adjuvant radioimmunotherapy for micrometastases. In: Srivastava SC (ed) Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy, Plenum, New York, pp 409–428Google Scholar
  8. Bohr N (1936) Neutron capture and nuclear constitution. Nature 137(3461):344–348Google Scholar
  9. Boll RA, Malkemus D, Mirzadeh S (2005) Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy. Appl Radiat Isot 62:667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Botros N, El-Garhy M, Abdulla S, Aly HF (1986) Comparative studies on the development of W-188/Re-188 generator. Isotopenpraxis 22:368–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley EW, Chan PC, Adelstein SJ (1975) The radiotoxicity of I-125 in mammalian cells. I. Effects on the survival curve of radioiodine incorporated into DNA. Radiat Res 64:555–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Britton KE, Mather SJ, Granowska M (1991) Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies in oncology III. Radioimmunotherapy, Nucl Med Commun 12:333–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown LC (1971) Chemical processing of a cyclotron-produced 67 Ga. Int J Radiat Isot 22:710–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown LC (1972) Cyclotron processing of carrier-free 111In. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 23:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buchegger F, Vacca A, Carrel S et al (1988) Radioimmunotherapy of human colon carcinoma by I-131 labeled monoclonal antibodies in a mouse model. Int J Cancer 41:127–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buick RN, Pullam R, Bizzari JB et al (1983) The phenotypic heterogeneity of human ovarian tumor cells in relation to cell function. In: Burchiel SW, Rhodes BA (eds) Radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy, Elsevier, New York, pp 3–10Google Scholar
  17. Callahan AP, Rice DE, Knapp FF Jr (1989) Rhenium-188 for therapeutic applications from an alumina-based Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 radionuclide generator. NucCompact 20:3Google Scholar
  18. Carlsson J, Aronsson EF, Hoetala S, Stigbrand T, Tennvall J (2003) Tumor therapy with radionuclides: assessment of progress and problems. Radiother Oncol 66:107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chan PC, Lisco E, Lisco H et al (1976) The radiotoxicity of I-125 in mammalian cells. II. A comparative study on cell survival and cytotoxic responses to IUDR-125, and HTdR-3. Radiat Res 67:332–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen BL (1977) High level radioactive waste from light water reactors. Rev Mod Phys 49:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dadachova E (2010) Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides. Semin Nucl Med 40:204–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dadachova E, Mirzadeh S. Lambrecht RM (1995) Tungstate-ion-alumina interaction in a 188W/188Re biomedical generator. J Phys Chem 99:10976–10981Google Scholar
  23. Dadachova E, Mirzadeh S, Lambrecht RM, Hetherington EL, Knapp FF Jr (1994) Separation of carrier-free holmium-166 from neutron-irradiated dysprosium targets. J Anal Chem 66:4272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dadachova E, Mirzadeh S, Lambrecht RM, Hetherington E, Knapp FF Jr (1995) Separation of carrier-free 166Ho from Dy2O3 targets by partition chromatography and electrophoresis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem—Lett 199:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dadachova E, Mirzadeh S, Smith SV, Knapp FF Jr, Hetherington EL (1997) Radiolabeling antibodies with Holmium-166. Appl Radiat Isot 48:477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dale RG (1985) The application of linear-quadratic dose-effect to fractionated and protracted radiotherapy. Br J Radiol 58:515–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dasgupta AK, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (1991) A new separation procedure for 67Cu from proton irradiation of Zn. Int J Radiat Appl Instrum Part A Appl Radiat Isot 42:371–376Google Scholar
  28. Deconninick G (1978) Introduction to radioanalytical physics, Nuclear methods monographs No. 1, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  29. DeNardo SJ, Erickson K, Benjamini E et al (1982) Monoclonal antibodies for radiation therapy of melanoma. In: Raynaud (ed) Nuclear medicine and biology, Pergamon, Paris, p 182Google Scholar
  30. DeNardo G, DeNardo SJ, Macey DJ (1988) Quantitative pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy in patients. In: Srivastava SC (ed) Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy, Plenum, New York, pp 293–310Google Scholar
  31. DeNardo GL, DeNardo SJ, Kukis DL, O’Donnell RT et al (1998) Maximum tolerated dose of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-LYM-1 for fractionated radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a pilot study. Anticancer Res 18:2779–2788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. DeNardo SJ, DeNardo GL, Kukis DL et al (1999) 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression in patients with lymphoma. J Nucl Med 40:302–310Google Scholar
  33. Ehrhardt G, Ketring AR, Turpin TA et al (1987) An improved tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator for radiotherapeutic applications. J Nucl Med 28:656Google Scholar
  34. Ehrhardt GJ, Turpin TA, Razavi MS et al (1990) A convenient tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator for radiotherapeutic applications using low specific activity Tungsten-188. In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium and rhenium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, Raven Press, New York, p 631Google Scholar
  35. Ehrhardt GJ, Ketering AR, Liang Q (1992) Improved 188W/188Re zirconiummtungstate. Gel radioisotope generator chemistry. Radioact Radiochem 3:38–41Google Scholar
  36. Ermolaev SV, Zhuikov BL, Kokhanyuk VM, Srivastava SC et al (2009) Production of no- carrier-added Tin-117m from proton irradiated antimony. J Radioanal Chem 280:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Evans CC, Stevenson J (1956) Improvements in or relating to production of radioactive Iodine -131, British Patent 763865Google Scholar
  38. Evans CC, Stevenson J (1957) Production of radioactive phosphorous. British Patent 765,489Google Scholar
  39. Fabre JW, Daar AS (1983) Expression of normal epithelial membrane antigens on human colorectal and breast carcinomas. In: Burchiel SW, Rhodes BA (eds) Radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy, Elsevier, New York, pp 143–157Google Scholar
  40. Feinendegen LE (1975) Biological damage from the Auger effect: possible benefits. Radiat Environ Biophys 12:85–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fowler JF (1991) Radiobiological aspects of low dose rates in radioimmunotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:1261–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fritzberg AR, Berninger RW, Hadley SW, et al (1988) Approaches to labeling of antibodies for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Pharm Res 5:325Google Scholar
  43. Gandarias-Cruz D, Okamoto K (1988) Status on the compilation of nuclear data for medical radioisotopes produced by accelerators, IAEA Report INDC(NDS)-209/GZGoogle Scholar
  44. Gansow OA (1991) Newer approaches to the radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies by use of metal chelates. Nucl Med Biol 18:369–381Google Scholar
  45. Geerlings MW, Kaspersen FM, Apostolidis C et al (1993) The feasibility of Ac-225 as a source of alpha-particles in radioimmunotherapy. Nucl Med Commun 14:121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glasstone S, Sesonske A (1963) Nuclear reactor engineering. Van Nostrand, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  47. Griffith MH, Yorke ED, Wessels BW et al (1988) Direct dose confirmation of quantitative autoradiography with micro-TLD measurements for radioimmunotherapy. J Nucl Med 29:1795–1809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Griffiths GL, Goldenberg DM, Sharky RM, Knapp FF, Jr., Callahan AP, Tejada G, Hansen HJ (1984) Radionuclide generators. In: Knapp FF, Butler TA (eds) ACS advances in chemistry, Series No. 214, American Chemical Society, Washington, pp 33–37Google Scholar
  49. Guillaume M, Lambrecht RM, Wolf AP (1975) Cyclotron production of 123Xe and high purity 123I: a comparison of tellurium targets. Int J Appl Radiat Isotopes 26:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haddad F, Barbet J, Chatal J-F (2011) The ARRONAX project. Curr Radiopharm 4:186–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Herzog H, Rösch F, Stöcklin G et al (1993) Measurement of pharmacokinetics of Yttrium-86 radiopharmaceuticals with PET and radiation dose calculation of analogous Yttrium-90 radiotherapeutics. J Nucl Med 34:2222–2236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hnatowich DJ (1990) Antibody radiolabeling, problems and promises. Nucl Med Biol 17:49–55Google Scholar
  53. Hoeschele JD, Butler T, Roberts J, Guyer C (1982) Analysis and refinement of the microspace synthesis of the 195mPt-labeled antitumor drug, cis-DDP. Radiochim Acta 31:27–36Google Scholar
  54. Huclier-Markai S, Sabatie A, Kubicek V et al (2011) Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium (III)-polyamino-polycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agent and radiopharmaceutical. Radiochim Acta 99:653–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Humm JL (1986) Dosimetric aspects of radiolabeled antibodies for tumor therapy. J Nucl Med 27:1490–1497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hupf HB (1976) Production and purification of radionuclides. In: Tubis M, Wolf A (eds) Radiopharmacy. Wiley, New York, pp 225–253Google Scholar
  57. Jungerman JA, Yu Kin-Hung P, Zanelli CI (1984) Radiation absorbed dose estimates at the cellular level for some electron emitting radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 35:883–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jurcic JG, Larson SM, Sgouros G et al (2002) Targeted particle immunotherapy for myeloid leukemia. Blood 100:1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jurcic JG, McDevitt MR, Pandit-Taskar N et al (2006) Alpha-particle immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with bismuth-213 and actinium-225. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 21:40Google Scholar
  60. Kadina G, Tulskaya T, Gureev E, Brodskaya G, Gapurova O, and Drosdovsky B (1990) Production and investigation of the Rhenium-188 generator. In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G and Mazzi U (eds) Technetium and rhenium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, Raven Press, New York, p 6353Google Scholar
  61. Kamioki H, Mirzadeh S, Lambrecht RM, Knapp FF Jr, Dadachova E (1994) 188W/188Re Generator for biomedical applications. Radiochim Acta 65:39–46Google Scholar
  62. Kassis AI, Adelstein SJ, Haycock C et al (1982) Lethality of Auger electrons from the decay of Br-77 in the DNA of mammalian cells. Radiat Res 90:362–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Knapp FF Jr, Callahan AP, Beets AL, Mirzadeh S, Hsieh B-T (1994) Processing of reactor-produced Tungsten-188 for fabrication of clinical scale alumina-based Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generators. Appl Radiat Isot 45:1123–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Knapp FF, Kropp J, Liepe K (2012) Rhenium-188 generator-based radiopharmaceuticals for therapy. In: Medical Radiology. Radiation Oncology, Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  65. Kolsky KL, Joshi V, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (1998) Radiochemical purification of no-carrier-added Scandium-47 for radioimmunotherapy. Appl Radiat Isot 49:1541–1549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lagunas-Solar MC, Jungerman JA (1979) Cyclotron production of carrier-free cobalt-55, a new positron-emitting label for bleomycin. Int J Radiat Isot 30:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lambrecht RM, Wolf AP (1973) Cyclotron and short-lived halogen isotopes for radiopharmaceutical applications. In: New developments in radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds, vol 1, IAEA, Vienna, pp 275–290Google Scholar
  68. Larsen RH, Wieland BW, Zalustsky MR (1996) Evaluation of an internal cyclotron target for the production of At-211 via the Bi-209(alpha,2n)At-211 reaction. Appl Radiat Isot 47:135–143Google Scholar
  69. Larson S, Carrasquillo J, Reynolds J et al (1988) The National Institutes of Health experience with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: lymphoma, melanoma, and colon cancer. In: Srivastava SC (ed) Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy, Plenum, pp 393–407Google Scholar
  70. Lewis RE, Eldridge JS (1966) Production of 70-day tungsten-188 and development of a 17 hour rhenium-188 radioisotope generator. J Nucl Med 7:804Google Scholar
  71. Li J, Mueller DW, Srivastava SC et al: Intravascular Stents Electroplated with Sn-117m reduce arterial wall inflammation in hyperlipemic rabbits. Presented at the GLS 2007 Meeting, Oct 3, 2007, Atlanta (abstr)Google Scholar
  72. Li J, Mueller DW, Srivastava SC et al (2008) Intravascular stents electroplated with 117mSn reduce arterial wall inflammation in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Presented at the 2008 ACC Annual Meeting, Chicago, May, 2008 (abstr)Google Scholar
  73. Li J, Mueller DW, Srivastava SC, Gonzales G, Chronos N et al (2012) publication in progress Google Scholar
  74. Liverhaut SE (1960) Elementary introduction to reactor physics. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. Mani RS, Majali AB (1966) Production of carrier free 32P. Indian J Chem 4:391Google Scholar
  76. Martell AE, Smith RM (1974) Critical stability constants, vol 1, Amino acids, Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Mausner LF (1999) Radiochemical laboratory. In: McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science & technology, 9th edn. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Mausner LF, Mirzadeh S (2003) Reactor production of radionuclides. In: Welch MJ, Redvanly CS (eds) Handbook of radiopharmaceuticals, Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  79. Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (1993) Selection of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy. Med Phys 20:503–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mausner LF, Mirzadeh S, Ward TE (1985) Nuclear data for production of 117mSn for biomedical application. In: Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear data for basic and applied science, Santa Fe, New Mexico, May, pp 733–737Google Scholar
  81. Mausner LF, Mirzadeh S, Maher R et al (1989) Production of high specific activity 117mSn with the Szilard-Chalmers process. J Labelled Comp Rad 16:177–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mausner LF, Mirzadeh S, Srivastava SC (1992) Improved specific activity of reactor produced 117mSn with the Szilard-Chalmers process. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 43:1117–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mausner LF, Kolsky KL, Mease RC et al (1993) Production and evaluation of Sc-47 for radioimmunotherapy. J Labelled Comp Radiopharm 32:388–390Google Scholar
  84. Mausner LF, Kolsky KL, Joshi V, Sweet MP, Meinken GE, Srivastava SC (2000) Scandium 47: a replacement for Cu-67 in nuclear medicine therapy with beta/gamma emitters. In: Stevenson N (ed) Isotope production and applications in the twenty first Century, 2000. World scientific, London, pp 43–45Google Scholar
  85. McDevitt MR, Finn RD, Sgouros G (1999) An Ac-225/Bi-213 generator system for therapeutic clinical applications: construction and operation. Appl Radiat Isot 50:895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mease RC, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (1997) Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging. US Patent #5,639,879, June 17, 1997Google Scholar
  87. Medvedev D, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (2011) Irradiation of strontium chloride targets at proton energies above 35 MeV to produce PET radioisotope Y-86. Radiochim Acta 99:755–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Medvedev DJ, Mausner LF, Meinken GE et al (2012) Development of large scale production of Cu-67 from Zn-68 at the high energy accelerator: closing the Zn-68 cycle. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 70:423–429Google Scholar
  89. Meinken GE, Kurczak S, Mausner LF, Kolsky KL, Srivastava SC (2005) Production of high specific activity Ge-68 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. J Radioanal Nucl Chemistry 263:553–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Melville G, Allen BJ (2009) Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225. Appl Radiat Isot 67(4):549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Miederer M, Henriksen G, Alke A et al (2008a) Preclinical evaluation of the alpha-particle generator nuclide Ac-225 for somatostatin receptor radiotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Clin Cancer Res 14:3555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Miederer M, Scheinberg DA, McDevitt MR et al (2008) Realizing the potential of the actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha particle therapy applications. Adv Drug Deliver Rev 60:1371Google Scholar
  93. Mikheev V, Popvich VB, Rumer IA, Savelev GI, Volkova NC (1972) Re-188 generator. Isotopenpraxis 8:248–250Google Scholar
  94. Mirzadeh S, Walsh P (1998) Numerical evaluation of the production of radionuclides in a nuclear reactor, Part I&II. Appl Radiat Isot 49:370–383Google Scholar
  95. Mirzadeh S, Parekh PP, Katcoff S, Chu YY (1983) Cross-section systematics for nuclide production at a medium energy spallation neutron facility. Nucl Instrum Methods 216:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mirzadeh S, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (1986) Production of no-carrier-added Cu-67. Int J Radiat Appl Instrum Part A, Appl Radiat Isot 37:29–36Google Scholar
  97. Mirzadeh S, Knapp FF Jr, Lambrecht RM (1997a) Burn-up cross-section of W-188. Radiochim Acta 77:99–102Google Scholar
  98. Mirzadeh S, Knapp FF Jr, Alexander CW, Mausner LF (1997b) Evaluation of neutron inelastic scattering for radioisotope production. Appl Radiat Isot 48:441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mirzadeh S, Du M, Beets AL, Knapp FF Jr (2000) Thermoseperation of neutron irradiated tungsten from Re and Os. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:3169–3172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mughabgab SF, Divadeenam M, Holden NE (1984) Neutron cross-sections. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  101. Narula J, Srivastava S, Petrov A et al (2012) Evaluation of tin-117m labeled Annexin V for imaging atherosclerotic lesions in a hyperlipidemic rabbit model. Publication in progressGoogle Scholar
  102. Neves M, Kling A, Olivera A (2005) Radionuclides used for therapy and suggestion for new candidates. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 266:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Norenberg JP, Krenning BJ, Konings I et al (2006) Bi-213- DOTA(0),Tyr(3) octreotide peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of pancreatic tumors in a preclinical animal model. Clin Cancer Res 12:897Google Scholar
  104. O’Donoghue JA, Bardies M, Wheldon TE (1995) Relationships between tumor size and curability for uniformly targeted therapy with beta emitting radionuclides. J Nucl Med 36:1902–1909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Oster ZH, Som P, Srivastava SC et al (1985) The development and in-vivo behavior of tin containing radiopharmaceuticals II: Autoradiographic and scintigraphic studies in normal animals and in animal models of bone disease. Int J Nucl Med Biol 12:175–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Qaim SM, Döhler H (1984) Production of carrier-free 117mSn. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 35:645–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Qaim SM, Stocklin G (1983) Production of some medically important short-lived neutron deficient radioisotopes of halogens. Radiochim Acta 34:25–40Google Scholar
  108. Richards P, Tucker WD, Srivastava SC (1982) Technetium-99m: an historical perspective. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 33:793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sadeghi M, Aboudzadeha M, Zali A et al (2009) Radiochemical studies relevant to Y-86 production via 86Sr(p, n)86Y for PET imaging. Appl Radiat Isot 67:7–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Scheinberg DA, Strand MA (1983) Kinetic and catabolic considerations of monoclonal antibody targeting in erythroleukemia mice. Cancer Res 43:265–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schlyer DJ (2003) Production of radionuclides in accelerators. In: Welch MJ, Redvanly CS (eds) Handbook of radiopharmaceuticals, Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  112. Smith SV, Di Bartolo N, Mirzadeh S, Lambrecht RM, Knapp FF Jr (1995) [166Dy] Dysprosium/[166Ho] holmium in vivo generator. Appl Radiat Isot 46:759–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sofou S, Kappel BJ, Jaggi JS et al (2007) Enhanced retention of the alpha-particle-emitting daughters of actinium-225 by liposome carriers. Bioconj Chem 18:2061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Srivastava SC (ed) (1988) Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy. Plenum Press, New York, p 876Google Scholar
  115. Srivastava SC (1996a) Therapeutic radionuclides: making the right choice. In: Mather SJ (ed) Current directions in radiopharmaceutical research and development, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 63–79Google Scholar
  116. Srivastava SC (1996b) Criteria for the selection of radionuclides for targeting nuclear antigens for cancer radioimmunotherapy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 11:43–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Srivastava SC (1996c) Is there life after technetium: what is the potential of developing new broad-based radionuclides. Semin Nucl Med 26:119–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Srivastava SC (2006) Radionuclide therapy with high-LET electron emitters: therapeutic applications of conversion electron emitter tin-117m. In: Mazzi U, Eckelman WC, Volkert WA et al (eds) Technetium, rhenium, and other metals in chemistry and nuclear medicine. SG Editoriali, Padova, pp 553–568Google Scholar
  119. Srivastava SC (2009) “Theragnostic” radiopharmaceuticals: the ‘Janus’ approach to molecular diagnosis and therapy. CME session # 63 on novel radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy—where are we headed next? Presented at 2009 SNM annual meeting, Toronto, Canada, June 15, 2009Google Scholar
  120. Srivastava SC (2010) Theragnostic radiometals: getting closer to personalized medicine. In: Mazzi U et al (eds) Technetium and other radiometals in chemistry and nuclear medicine 2010, SG Editoriali, Padova, pp 553–568Google Scholar
  121. Srivastava SC (2011) Paving the way to personalized medicine: production of some theragnostic radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Radiochim Acta 99:635–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Srivastava SC (2012) Paving the way to personalized medicine: production of some promising theragnostic radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Semin Nucl Med 42:151–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Srivastava SC, Dadachova E (2001) Recent advances in radionuclide therapy. Semin Nucl Med 31:330–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Srivastava SC, Mease RC (1991) Progress in research on ligands, nuclides, and techniques for labeling monoclonal antibodies. Nucl Med Biol 18:589–603Google Scholar
  125. Srivastava SC, Atkins HL, Krishnamurthy GT et al (1998) Treatment of metastatic bone pain with tin-117m(4+)DTPA: a phase II clinical study. Clinical Cancer Res 4:61–68Google Scholar
  126. Srivastava SC, Toporov YuG, Karelin EA, Vakhetov FZ, Andreev OI, Tselishev IV, Popov YuS (2004) Reactor production of high-specific activity tin-117m for bone pain palliation and bone cancer therapy. J Nucl Med 45:475PGoogle Scholar
  127. Srivastava SC, Gonzales G, Narula J, Strauss HW et al (2012a) Development and evaluation of tin- 117m labeled Annexin for the imaging and treatment of vulnerable plaques. Publication in ProgressGoogle Scholar
  128. Srivastava SC, Gonzales G, Adzic R, Meinken GE (2012b) Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant. US Patent Application Serial No. 11/758,914, Dec 22, 2011; Publication in progressGoogle Scholar
  129. Swailem FM, Krishnamurthy GT, Srivastava SC et al (1998) In-vivo tissue uptake and retention of Sn-117m (4 +) DTPA in a human subject with metastatic bone pain and in normal mice. Nucl Med Biol 25:279–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sweet MP, Mease RC, Srivastava SC (2000) Rigid bifunctional chelating agents. US Patent # 6,022,522, Feb 8, 2000Google Scholar
  131. Szelecsenyi F, Blessing G, Qaim SM (1993) Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on enriched 61Ni and 64Ni: possibility of production of no-carrier-added 61Cu and 64Cu at a small cyclotron. Appl Radiat Isotopes 44:575–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Traub-Weidinger T, Raderer M, Uffman M et al (2011) Improved quality of life in patients treated with peptide radionuclides. World J Nucl Med 10:115–121PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Volkert WA, Goeckler WF, Ehrhardt GJ et al (1991) Therapeutic radionuclides: production and decay property considerations. J Nucl Med 32:174–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Weber DA, Eckerman KF, Dillman LT, Ryman JC (1989) MIRD: radionuclide data and decay schemes, Society of Nuclear Medicine, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  135. Weinreich R (ed) (1992) Targetry ‘91. Proceeding of the IVth international workshop in targetry and target chemistry. Paul Scherrer Institute 92-01, Villigen, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  136. Wessels BW, Rogus RD (1984) Radionuclide selection and model absorbed dose calculations for radiolabeled tumor-associated antibodies. Med Phys 11:638–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wessels BW, Griffith MH, Bradley EW et al (1985) Dosimetric measurements and radiobiological consequences of radioimmunotherapy in mice. In: Schlafek-Stelson AT, Watson EE (eds) Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, pp 446–457Google Scholar
  138. Wheldon TE, O’Donoghue JA (1990) The radiobiology of targeted radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Biol 58:1–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wilbur DS (1990) Potential use of alpha emitting radionuclides in the treatment of cancer. Antib Immunoconj Radiopharm 4:85–97Google Scholar
  140. Yamazaki T, Ewan GT (1969) Level and isomer systematics in even tin isotopes from Sn-108 to Sn-118 observed in Cd(α, xn) Sn reactions. Nucl Phys A 134:81–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yao Z, Garmestani K, Wong KJ et al (2001) J Nucl Med 42:1538–1544Google Scholar
  142. Yorke ED, Beaumier PL, Wessels BW (1991) Optimal radionuclide-antibody combinations for clinical radioimmunotherapy: A predictive model based on mouse pharmacokinetics. Nucl Med Biol 18:827–835Google Scholar
  143. Zalutsky MR, Zhai X-C, Alston KL (2001) High level production of alpha-particle emitting At-211-labreled antibodies for clinical use. J Nucl Med 42:1508–1515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Zhuikov BL, Kalmykov SN, Ermolaev SV et al (2011) Production of 225Ac and 223Ra by irradiation of Th with accelerated protons. Radiochemistry 53:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zhuikov B, Srivastava SC, Ermolaev SV et al (2012) Production of no-carrier-added Sn-117m at medium energy cyclotrons. Publication in progressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Collider-Accelerator Department, Building 801Brookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

Personalised recommendations