Imaging of Cochlear Implants

  • B. M. Verbist
  • J. H. M. Frijns
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Cochlear implantation has become a widely available tool for successful treatment of deafness or severe sensorineural hearing loss in patients who do not receive adequate benefit from hearing aids. Imaging plays an important role in the selection of suitable candidates and in the planning of the surgery. Therefore, preoperative assessment should provide optimal information on the anatomy of the ear with its normal variances and pathology of the temporal bone and auditory pathway. Postoperative imaging (mostly plain X-ray) is the standard of care in most centers to confirm correct intracochlear positioning of the array. Multislice CT-scanning or flat panel CT is done routinely in some centers, but is usually reserved for cochlear implant recipients with suspected complications after the surgery or malfunctioning of the implant. It is also applied in cochlear implant research to get better insights into the working of cochlear implants.


Hearing Loss Facial Nerve Cone Beam Compute Tomography Cochlear Implant Electrode Array 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bredberg G, Lindström B, Löppönen H, Skarzynski H, Hyodo M, Sato H (1997) Electrodes for ossified cochleas. Am J Otol 18(6 Suppl):S42–S43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cohen LT, Xu J, Tycocinski M, Saunders E, Raja D, Cowan R (2000) Evaluation of an X-ray analysis method: comparison of electrode position estimates with information from phase contrast X-ray and histology. In: 5th European symposium on paediatric cochlear implantation, Antwerp, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  3. Dhooghe IJM, De Vel E, Urgell H et al (2002) Cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system. Otol Neurotol 23:468–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fatterpekar GM, Mukherji SK, Alley J, Lin Y, Castillo M (2000) Hypoplasia of the bony canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss: initial observations. Radiology 215(1):243–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. FDA (1984) Summary of safety and effectiveness data, 26 Nov 1984, PMA nr P830069Google Scholar
  6. Friedman RA, Bykhovskaya Y, Tu G, Talbot JM, Wilson DF, Parnes LS, Fischel-Ghodsian N (1997) Molecular analysis of the POU3F4 gene in patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of X-linked mixed deafness with perilymphatic gusher. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 106(4):320–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frijns JH, Kalkman RK, Briaire JJ (2009) Stimulation of the facial nerve by intracochlear electrodes in otosclerosis: a computer modeling study. Otol Neurotol 30(8):1168–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hegarty JL, Patel S, Fischbein N, Jackler RK, Lalwani AK (2002) The value of enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of endocochlear disease. Laryngoscope 112(1):8–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jain R, Mukherji SK (2003) Cochlear implant failure: imaging evaluation of the electrode course. Clin Radiol 58(4):288–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Klein M, Koedel U, Pfister HW, Kastenbauer S (2003) Morphological correlates of acute and permanent hearing loss during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Brain Pathol 13:123–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kos MI, Boex C, Sigrist A, Guyot JP, Pelizzone M (2005) Measurements of electrode position inside the cochlea for different cochlear implant systems. Acta Otolaryngol 125:474–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lenarz T, Lesinski-Shiedat A, Weber BP et al (2001) The nucleus double array cochlear implant: a new concept for the obliterated cochlea. Otol Neurotol 22:24–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lin K, Marrinan MS, Waltzman SB et al (2006) Multichannel cochlear implantation in the scala vestibuli. Otol Neurotol 27:634–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marsh MA, Xu J, Blamey PJ et al (1993) Radiologic evaluation of multichannel intracochlear implant insertion depth. Am J Otol 14(4):386–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Merchant SN, Gopen Q (1996) A human temporal bone study of acute bacterial meningogenic labyrinthitis. Am J Otol 17:375–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Merkus P, Free RH, Mylanus EA, Stokroos R, Metselaar M, van Spronsen E, Grolman W, Frijns JH (2010) Dutch Cochlear Implant Group (CI-ON) consensus protocol on postmeningitis hearing evaluation and treatment. Otol Neurotol 31(8):1281–1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nadol JB Jr (1997) Patterns of neural degeneration in the human cochlea and auditory nerve: implications for cochlear implantation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117(3 Pt 1):220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nevoux J, Loundon N, Leboulanger N, Roger G, Ducou Le Pointe H, Garabédian EN (2010) Cochlear implant in the carotid canal. Case report and literature review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 74(6):701–703Google Scholar
  19. O'Driscoll M, El-Deredy W, Atas A, Sennaroglu G, Sennaroglu L, Ramsden RT (2011) Brain stem responses evoked by stimulation with an auditory brain stem implant in children with cochlear nerve aplasia or hypoplasia. Ear Hear 32(3):300–312Google Scholar
  20. Parry DA, Booth T, Roland PS (2005) Advantages of MRI over CT in preoperative evaluation of cochlear implant candidates. Otol Neurotol 26(5):976–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rappaport JM, Bhatt SM, Kimura RS, Lauretano AM, Levine RA (1999) Electron microscopic temporal bone histopathology in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 108:537–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rebscher SJ, Hetherington A, Bonham B, Wardrop P, Whinney D, Leake PA (2008) Considerations for design of future cochlear implant electrode arrays: electrode array stiffness, size, and depth of insertion. J Rehabil Res Dev 45:731–747PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Rotteveel LJC, Proops DW, Ramsden RT et al (2004) Cochlear implantation in 53 patients with otosclerosis: demographics, computed tomographic scanning, surgery and complications. Otol Neurotol 25:943–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ruivo J, Mermuys K, Bacher K, Kuhweide R, Offeciers E, Casselman JW (2009) Cone beam computed tomography, a low-dose imaging technique in the postoperative assessment of cochlear implantation. Otol Neurotol 30:299–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Skinner MW, Holden TA, Whiting BR et al (2007) In vivo estimates of the position of advanced bionics electrode arrays in the human cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 197:2–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stakhovskaya O, Sridhar D, Bonham BH, Leake PA (2007) Frequency map for the human cochlear spiral ganglion: implications for cochlear implants. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 8:220–233PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. NIH Consensus Statement (1995) Cochlear implants in adults and children, 2nd edn, vol 13, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  28. Verbist BM, Joemai RM, Teeuwisse WM, Veldkamp WJ, Geleijns J, Frijns JH (2008) Evaluation of 4 multisection CT systems in postoperative imaging of a cochlear implant: a human cadaver and phantom study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(7):1382–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Verbist BM, Joemai RMS, Briaire JJ, Teeuwisse WM, Veldkamp JHM, Frijns JHM (2010a) Cochlear coordinates in regard to cochlear implantation: a clinically individually 3-dimensional CT-based method. Otol Neurotol 31(5):738–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Verbist BM, Skinner MW, Cohen LT, Leake PA, James C, Boëx C, Holden TA, Finley CC, Roland PS, Roland T, Haller M, Patrick JF, Jolly CN, Faltys MA, Briaire JJ, Frijns JHM (2010b) Consensus panel on a cochlear coordinate system applicable in histological, physiological, radiological studies of the human cochlea. Otol Neurotol 31(5):722–730PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Verbist BM, Joemai RMS, Briaire JJ, Teeuwisse WM, Veldkamp JHM, Frijns JHM (2010c) Cochlear coordinates in regard to cochlear implantation: a clinically individually 3-dimensional CT-based method. Otol Neurotol 31(5):738–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wild C, Allum J, Probst R, Abels D, Fischer C, Bodmer D (2010) Magnet displacement: a rare complication following cochlear implantation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 267(1):57–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilson BS, Dorman MF (2008) Cochlear implants: current designs and future possibilities. J Rehabil Res Dev 45(5):695–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wood VH, Bird PA, Giles EC et al (2008) Unsuccessful cochlear implantation in two patients with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system. Otol Neurotol 29:622–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu J, Xu SA, Cohen LT, Clark GM (2000) Cochlear view: postoperative radiography for cochlear implantation. Am J Otol 21:49–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of OtolaryngologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations