Vascular Malformations

  • Horst Urbach
  • Timo Krings
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Vascular malformations are described in this chapter in the following order: cavernomas, arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulae, developmental venous anomalies, and capillary telangiectasias. The order is derived from their propensity to cause epileptic seizures. In cavernomas, epileptic seizures are the most common symptom, followed by the incidental MRI detection of nonspecific symptoms such as headaches and dizziness. In arteriovenous malformations, seizures occur in around 30 % of patients. Incidental detection or presentation with hemorrhage is either more common or has a higher therapeutic relevance owing to the distinctly higher hemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality and rebleeding risk. Dural arteriovenous fistulae are typically acquired vascular lesions causing epileptic seizures among other symptoms if cortical venous reflux is present. Developmental venous anomalies are of therapeutic relevance only if they are associated with cavernomas and—in very rare cases—if the draining collector vein becomes thrombosed. Capillary telangiectasias are of no therapeutic relevance.


Epileptic Seizure Arteriovenous Malformation Venous Drainage Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Cavernous Hemangioma 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuroradiologyUniversity Hospital FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of NeuroradiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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