Malformations of Cortical Development

  • Horst Urbach
  • Susanne Greschus
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Malformations of cortical development are arranged in different ways. Recently, the ILAE published a consensus classification incorporating pathological, imaging, and genetic findings (Blümcke et al. 2011). Some lesions (namely FCD 2B) from this classification are clearly visible on MRI and pathologically classified with a high concordance between different pathologists. If they are fully resected, seizure freedom rate is > 80 %. Other lesions (namely FCD 1) are more difficult to detect or “unvisible” even with voxel-based MRI analyses and harbored with a high interrater-variability between different pathologists. Chance of postsurgical seizure freedom is distinctly < 50 %. A patient will likely benefit from surgery if a distinct MRI lesion is found underlining the importance of high-quality MRI acquisition and interpretation.


Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Balloon Cell Kallmann Syndrome White Matter Signal Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuroradiologyUniversity Hospital FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Deptartment of Radiology/NeuroradiologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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