Follow-up of Thyroid Cancer Patients and Treatment of Distant Metastases

  • Martin Schlumberger
  • Maryse Brassard
  • Sophie Leboulleux
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


 Follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is based on serum thyroglobulin determinations and on neck ultrasonography. The first check up is performed at 9-12 months to assess cure that is defined by an undetectable serum Tg following rhTSH stimulation in the absence of anti Tg antibodies and by a normal neck ultrasonography; the risk of recurrence in these patients is low (<1%). Patients with recurrent disease need a complete imaging work-up that includes neck ultrasonography, CT scan of the neck and chest with injection of contrast medium and FDG PET scan. Thyroxine treatment is given at suppressive doses and local treatment modalities are applied whenever feasible. Neck recurrence is treated with radioiodine and with surgery when the size of tumor foci is >1cm in diameter. Radioiodine treatment is used in 2/3 of metastatic patients with significant uptake and provides cure in 45%, in those who are young, with wel-differentiated tumor, with small metastases, with high radioiodine uptake and with no FDG uptake. The other patients are refractory to radioiodine and when disease progression occurs they should be candidate for inclusion in a trial.


131I Therapy Thyroid Cancer Patient Neck Ultrasonography Radioiodine Treatment Radioiodine Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aide N, Heutte N, Rame JP, Rousseau E, Loiseau C, Henry-Amar M, Bardet S (2009) Clinical relevance of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the neck and thorax in postablation (131)I scintigraphy for thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:2075–2084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bachelot A, Cailleux AF, Klain M, Baudin E, Ricard M, Bellon N, Caillou B, Travagli JP, Schlumberger M (2002) Relationship between tumor burden and serum thyroglobulin level in patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 12:707–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bachelot A, Leboulleux S, Baudin E, Hartl DM, Caillou B, Travagli JP, Schlumberger M (2005) Neck recurrence from thyroid carcinoma: serum thyroglobulin and high-dose total body scan are not reliable criteria for cure after radioiodine treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 62:376–379Google Scholar
  4. Baudin E, Schlumberger M (2007) New therapeutic approaches for metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Lancet Oncol 8:148–156Google Scholar
  5. Baudin E, Docao C, Cailleux AF, Leboulleux S, Travagli JP, Schlumberger M (2003) Positive predictive value of serum thyroglobulin levels, measured during the first year of follow-up following thyroid hormone withdrawal, in thyroid cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1107–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernier MO, Leenhardt L, Hoang C, Aurengo A, Mary JY, Menegaux F, Enkaoua E, Turpin G, Chiras J, Saillant G, Hejblum G (2001) Survival and therapeutic modalities in patients with bone metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1568–1573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bible KC, Smallridge RC, Maples WJ, Molina JR, Menefee ME, Suman VJ, Burton JK, Bieber CC, Ivy SP, Erlichman C (2009) Phase II trial of pazopanib in progressive, metastatic, iodine-insensitive differentiated thyroid cancers. J Clin Oncol 27:abstr 3521Google Scholar
  8. Biondi B, Filetti S, Schlumberger M (2005) Thyroid-hormone therapy and thyroid cancer: a reassessment. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 1:32–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boi F, Baghino G, Atzeni F, Lai ML, Faa G, Mariotti S (2006) The diagnostic value for differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases of thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in washout fluid from fine-needle aspiration biopsy of neck lymph nodes is maintained in the presence of circulating anti-Tg antibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1364–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borget I, Corone C, Nocaudie M, Allyn M, Iacobelli S, Schlumberger M, de Pouvourville G (2007) Sick leave for follow-up control in thyroid cancer patients: comparison between stimulation with thyrogen® and thyroid hormone withdrawal. Eur J Endocrinol 156:531–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braga M, Ringel MD, Cooper DS (2001) Sudden enlargement of local recurrent thyroid tumor after recombinant human TSH administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:5148–5151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brassard M et al (2011) Long-term follow-up of patients with papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: a prospective study on 715 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96: 1352–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cailleux AF, Baudin E, Travagli JP, Ricard M, Schlumberger M (2000) Is diagnostic iodine-131 scanning useful after total thyroid ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:175–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casara D, Rubello D, Saladini G, Masarotto G, Favero A, Girelli ME, Busnardo B (1993) Different features of pulmonary metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer: natural history and multivariate statistical analysis of prognostic variables. J Nucl Med 34:1626–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Castagna MG, Brilli L, Pilli T, Montanaro A, Cipri C, Fioravanti C, Sestini F, Capezzone M, Pacini F (2008) Limited value of repeat recombinant thyrotropin (rhTSH)-stimulated thyroglobulin testing in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with previous negative rhTSH-stimulated thyroglobulin and undetectable basal serum thyroglobulin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:76–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ceccarelli C, Bencivelli W, Morciano D, Pinchera A, Pacini F (2001) 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer leads to an earlier onset of menopause: results of a retrospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3512–3515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chiovato L, Latrofa F, Braverman LE, Pacini F, Capezzone M, Masserini L, Grasso L, Pinchera A (2003) Disappearance of humoral thyroid autoimmunity after complete removal of thyroid antigens. Ann Intern Med 139:346–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen EEW, Rosen LS, Vokes EE, Kies MS, Forastiere AA, Worden FP, Kane MA, Sherman E, Kim S, Bycott P, Tortorici M, Shalinsky DR, Liau KF, Cohen RB (2008a) Axitinib is an active treatment for all histologic subtypes of advanced thyroid cancer: results from a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 26:4708–4713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen EEW, Needles BM, Cullen KJ, Wong S, Wade J, Ivy P, Villaflor V, Seiwert T, Nichols K, Vokes EE (2008b) Phase 2 study of sunitinib in refractory thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol (meeting abstracts) 26:6025Google Scholar
  20. Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, Mandel SJ, Mazzaferri EL, McIver B, Pacini F, Schlumberger M, Sherman SI, Steward DL, Tuttle RM (2009) (The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force) Revised management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 19:1167–1214Google Scholar
  21. Dinneen SF, Valimaki MJ, Bergstralh EJ, Goellner JR, Gorman CA, Hay ID (1995) Distant metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma: 100 cases observed at one institution during 5 decades. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:2041–2045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Durante C, Haddy N, Baudin E, Leboulleux S, Hartl D, Travagli JP, Caillou B, Ricard M, Lumbroso JD, De Vathaire F, Schlumberger M (2006) Long term outcome of 444 patients with distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: benefits and limits of radioiodine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2892–2899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Durante C, Montesano T, Attard M, Torlontano M, Monzani F, Costante G, Meringolo D, Ferdeghini M, Tumino S, Lamartina L, Paciaroni A, Massa M, Giacomelli L, Ronga G, Filetti S; on behalf of the PTC Study Group (2012) Long-term surveillance of papillary thyroid cancer patients who do not undergo postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation: is there a role for serum thyroglobulin measurement? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 97: 2748–2753Google Scholar
  24. Eustatia-Rutten CF, Romijn JA, Guijt MJ, Vielvoye GJ, van den Berg R, Corssmit EP, Pereira AM, Smit JW (2003) Outcome of palliative embolization of bone metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3184–3189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eustatia-Rutten CF, Smit JW, Romijn JA, van der Kleij-Corssmit EP, Pereira AM, Stokkel MP, Kievit J (2004) Diagnostic value of serum thyroglobulin measurements in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, a structured meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 61:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eustatia-Rutten CF, Corssmit EP, Biermasz NR, Pereira AM, Romijn JA, Smit JW (2006) Survival and death causes in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:313–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frasoldati A, Pesenti M, Gallo M, Caroggio A, Salvo D, Valcavi R (2003) Diagnosis of neck recurrences in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 97:90–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaissert HA, Honings J, Grillo HC, Donahue DM, Wain JC, Wright CD, Mathisen DJ (2007) Segmental laryngotracheal and tracheal resection for invasive thyroid carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg 83:1952–1959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garsi JP, Schlumberger M, Rubino C, Ricard M, Labbé M, Paoletti C, Ceccarelli C, Schvartz C, Henri-Amar M, Couette JE, de Vathaire F (2008) Therapeutic administration of 131I for differentiated thyroid cancer, radiation dose to ovaries and outcome of pregnancies. J Nucl Med 49:845–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garsi JP, Schlumberger M, Ricard M, Labbé M, Ceccarelli C, Schvartz C, Henry-Amar M, Bardet S, Rubino C, de Vathaire F (2009) Health outcomes of children fathered by patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid cancer. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 71:880–883Google Scholar
  31. Goldman JM, Line BR, Aamodt RL, Robbins J (1980) Influence of triiodothyronine withdrawal time on 131I uptake postthyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50:734–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gruning T, Tiepolt C, Zophel K, Bredow J, Kropp J, Franke WG (2003) Retinoic acid for redifferentiation of thyroid cancer—does it hold its promise? Eur J Endocrinol 148:395–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gupta-Abramson V, Troxel AB, Nellore A, Puttaswamy K, Redlinger M, Ransone K, Mandel SJ, Flaherty KT, Loevner LA, O’Dwyer PJ, Brose MS (2008) Phase II trial of Sorafenib in advanced thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:4714–4719PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hänscheid H, Lassmann M, Luster M, Thomas SR, Pacini F, Ceccarelli C, Ladenson PW, Wahl RL, Schlumberger M, Ricard M, Driedger A, Kloos RT, Sherman SI, Haugen BR, Carriere V, Corone C, Reiners C (2006) Iodine biokinetics and dosimetry in radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer: procedures and results of a prospective international controlled study of ablation after rhTSH or hormone withdrawal. J Nucl Med 47:648–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hartl DM, Chami L, Ghuzlan AA, Leboulleux S, Baudin E, Schlumberger M, Travagli JP (2009) Charcoal suspension tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence. Ann Surg Oncol 16:2602–2608Google Scholar
  36. Haugen BR, Pacini F, Reiners C, Schlumberger M, Ladenson PW, Sherman SI, Cooper DS, Graham KE, Braverman LE, Skarulis MC, Davies TF, DeGroot LJ, Mazzaferri EL, Daniels GH, Ross DS, Luster M, Samuels MH, Becker DV, Maxon HR 3rd, Cavalieri RR, Spencer CA, McEllin K, Weintraub BD, Ridgway EC (1999) A comparison of recombinant human thyrotropin and thyroid hormone withdrawal for the detection of thyroid remnant or cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3877–3885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hay ID, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Bergstralh EJ, Dvorak CE, Gorman CA, Maurer MS, McIver B, Mullan BP, Oberg AL, Powell CC, van Heerden JA, Goellner JR (2002) Papillary thyroid carcinoma managed at the Mayo Clinic during six decades (1940–1999): temporal trends in initial therapy and long-term outcome in 2444 consecutively treated patients. World J Surg 26:879–885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hay ID, Reading CC, Charboneau JW (2005) Long-term efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation of recurrent neck nodal metastases in pTNM stage I papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 15:S2–S3Google Scholar
  39. Hay ID, Hutchinson ME, Gonzalez-Losada T, McIver B, Reinalda ME, Grant CS, Thompson GB, Sebo TJ, Goellner JR (2008) Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma; a study of 900 cases observed in a 60-year period. Surgery 144:980–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoftijzer H, Heemstra KA, Morreau H, Stokkel MP, Corssmit EP, Gelderblom H, Weijers K, Pereira AM, Huijberts M, Kapiteijn E, Romijn JA, Smit JW (2009) Beneficial effects of sorafenib on tumor progression, but not on radioiodine uptake, in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol 161:923–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jentzen W, Freudenberg L, Eising EG, Sonnenschein W, Knust J, Bockisch A (2008) Optimized 124I PET dosimetry protocol for radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer. J Nucl Med 49:1017–1023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jonklaas J, Sarlis NJ, Litofsky D, Ain KB, Bigos ST, Brierley JD, Cooper DS, Haugen BR, Ladenson PW, Magner J, Robbins J, Ross DS, Skarulis M, Maxon HR, Sherman SI (2006) Outcomes of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma following initial therapy. Thyroid 16:1229–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Treseler P, Woeber KA, Clark OH, Greenspan FS, Lindsay S, Duh QY, Morita E (2006) A phase II trial of rosiglitazone in patients with thyroglobulin-positive and radioiodine-negative differentiated thyroid cancer. Surgery 140:960–966; discussion 966–967Google Scholar
  44. Kitamura Y, Shimizu K, Nagahama M, Sugino K, Ozaki O, Mimura T, Ito K, Ito K, Tanaka S (1999) Immediate causes of death in thyroid carcinoma: clinicopathological analysis of 161 fatal cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:4043–4049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kloos RT, Duvuuri V, Jhiang SM, Cahill KV, Foster JA, Burns JA (2002) Nasolacrimal drainage system obstruction from radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:5817–5820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH (2009) Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:1675–1684PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL (2006) Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia. Nat Rev Cancer 6:292–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kouvaraki MA, Lee JE, Shapiro SE, Sherman SI, Evans DB (2004) Preventable reoperations for persistent and recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery 136:1183–1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lassman M, Luster M, Hanscheid H, Reiners C (2004) The impact of I-131 diagnostic activities on the biokinetics of thyroid remnants. J Nucl Med 45:619–625Google Scholar
  50. Leboulleux S, Rubino C, Baudin E, Caillou B, Hartl DM, Bidart JM, Travagli JP, Schlumberger M (2005) Prognostic factors for persistent or recurrent disease of papillary thyroid carcinoma with neck lymph node metastases and/or tumor extension beyond the thyroid capsule at initial diagnosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:5723–5729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leboulleux S, Girard E, Rose M, Travagli JP, Sabbah N, Caillou B, Hartl DM, Lassau N, Baudin E, Schlumberger M (2007a) Ultrasound criteria of malignancy for cervical lymph nodes in patients followed for differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3590–3594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leboulleux S, Schroeder PR, Schlumberger M, Ladenson PW (2007b) The role of PET in follow-up of patients treated for differentiated epithelial thyroid cancers. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:112–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Leboulleux S, Schroeder PR, Busaidy NL, Auperin A, Corone C, Jacene HA, Ewertz ME, Bournaud C, Wahl RL, Sherman SI, Ladenson PW, Schlumberger M (2009) Assessment of the incremental value of recombinant thyrotropin stimulation before 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging to localize residual differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:1310–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lin JD, Chao TC, Chou SC, Hsueh C (2004) Papillary thyroid carcinomas with lung metastases. Thyroid 14:1091–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mandel SJ, Mandel L (2003) Radioactive iodine and the salivary glands. Thyroid 13:265–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Masala S, Fiori R, Massari F, Simonetti G (2003) Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: new equipment for malignant vertebral fractures treatment. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 22:75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Maxon HR, Smith HS (1990) Radioiodine-131 in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic well differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 19:685–718Google Scholar
  58. McCaffrey JC (2000) Evaluation and treatment of aerodigestive tract invasion by well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Control 7:246–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McWilliams RR, Giannini C, Hay ID, Atkinson JL, Stafford SL, Buckner JC (2003) Management of brain metastases from thyroid carcinoma: a study of 16 pathologically confirmed cases over 25 years. Cancer 98:356–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nemec J, Zamrazil V, Pohunkova D, Rohling A (1979) Radioiodine treatment of pulmonary metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Results and prognostic factors. Nuklearmedizin 18:86–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Nordén MM, Larsson F, Tedelind S, Carlsson T, Lundh C, Forssell-Aronsson E, Nilsson M (2007) Down-regulation of the sodium/iodide symporter explains 131I-induced thyroid stunning. Cancer Res 67:7512–7517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pacini F, Fugazzola L, Lippi F, Ceccarelli C, Centoni R, Miccoli P, Elisei R, Pinchera A (1992) Detection of thyroglobulin in fine needle aspirates of nonthyroidal neck masses: a clue to the diagnosis of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 74:1401–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Pacini F, Cetani F, Miccoli P, Mancusi F, Ceccarelli C, Lippi F, Martino E, Pinchera A (1994a) Outcome of 309 patients with metastatic diffe rentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine. World J Surg 18:600–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pacini F, Gasperi M, Fugazzola L, Ceccarelli C, Lippi F, Centoni R, Martino E, Pinchera A (1994b) Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine. J Nucl Med 35:1418–1422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pacini F, Capezzone M, Elisei R, Ceccarelli C, Taddei D, Pinchera A (2002) Diagnostic 131-iodine whole-body scan may be avoided in thyroid cancer patients who have undetectable stimulated serum Tg levels after initial treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1499–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pacini F, Molinaro E, Castagna MG, Agate L, Elisei R, Ceccarelli C, Lippi F, Taddei D, Grasso L, Pinchera A (2003) Recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated serum thyroglobulin combined with neck ultrasonography has the highest sensitivity in monitoring differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3668–3673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pittas AG, Adler M, Fazzari M, Tickoo S, Rosai J, Larson SM, Robbins RJ (2000) Bone metastases from thyroid carcinoma: clinical characteristics and prognostic variables in one hundred forty-six patients. Thyroid 10:261–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Posteraro AF, Dupuy DE, Mayo-Smith WW (2004) Radiofrequency ablation of bony metastatic disease. Clin Radiol 59:803–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Potzi C, Moameni A, Karanikas G, Preitfellner J, Becherer A, Pirich C, Dudczak R (2006) Comparison of iodine uptake in tumour and nontumour tissue under thyroid hormone deprivation and with recombinant human thyrotropin in thyroid cancer patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 65:519–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rémy H, Borget I, Leboulleux S, Guilabert N, Lavielle F, Garsi J, Bournaud C, Gupta S, Schlumberger M, Ricard M (2008) Iodine 131 effective half-life and dosimetry in thyroid cancer patients. J Nucl Med 49:1445–1450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Robbins RJ, Wan QW, Grewal RK, Reibke R, Gonen M, Strauss HW, Tuttle RM, Drucker W, Larson SM (2006) Real-time prognosis for metastatic thyroid carcinoma based on 2-[18F] Fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose positron emission tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:498–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rouxel A, Hejblum G, Bernier MO, Boelle PY, Menegaux F, Mansour G, Hoang C, Aurengo A, Leenhardt L (2004) Prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients developing loco-regional recurrences of differentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5362–5368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rubino, De Vathaire F, Dottorini ME, Hall P, Schvartz C, Couette JE, Dondon MG, Abbas MT, Langlois C, Schlumberger M (2003) Second primary malignancies in thyroid cancer patients. Br J Cancer 89:1638–1644Google Scholar
  74. Schlumberger M, Sherman SI (2009) Clinical trials for progressive differentiated thyroid cancer: patient selection, study design, and recent advances. Thyroid 19:1393–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schlumberger M, Charbord P, Fragu P, Lumbroso J, Parmentier C, Tubiana M (1980) Circulating thyroglobulin and thyroid hormones in patients with metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: relationship to serum thyrotropin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51:513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schlumberger M, Mancusi F, Baudin E, Pacini F (1997) 131I therapy for elevated thyroglobulin levels. Thyroid 7:273–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schlumberger MJ, Filetti S, Hay ID (2003) Non toxic goiter and thyroid neoplasia. In: Larsen RP, Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS (eds) Williams’ textbook of endocrinology, 10th edn. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 457–490Google Scholar
  78. Schlumberger M, Pacini F, Wiersinga WM, Toft A, Smit JWA, Franco FS, Lind P, Limbert E, Jarzab B, Jamar F, Duntas L, Cohen O, Berg G (2004) Follow-up and management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a European perspective in clinical practice. Eur J Endocrinol 151:539–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schlumberger M, Hitzel A, Toubert ME, Corone C, Troalen F, Schlageter MH, Claustrat F, Koscielny S, Taieb D, Toubeau M, Bonichon F, Borson-Chazot F, Leenhardt L, Schvartz C, Dejax C, Brenot-Rossi I, Torlontano M, Tenenbaum F, Bardet S, Bussière F, Girard JJ, Morel O, Schneegans O, Schlienger JL, Prost A, So D, Archambeaud F, Ricard M, Benhamou E (2007a) Comparison of seven serum thyroglobulin assays in the follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:2487–2496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schlumberger M, Ricard M, De Pouvourville G, Pacini F (2007b) How the availability of recombinant human TSH has changed the management of patients who have thyroid cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:641–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Schlumberger M, Lacroix L, Russo D, Filetti S, Bidart JM (2007c) Defects in iodide metabolism in thyroid cancer and implications for the follow-up and treatment of patients. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:260–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schneider AB, Line B, Goldman JM, Robbins J (1981) Sequential serum thyroglobulin determinations, 131I scans, and 131I uptakes after triiodothyronine withdrawal in patients with thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53:1199–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sgouros G, Kolbert KS, Sheikh A, Pentlow KS, Mun EF, Barth A, Robbins RJ, Larson SM (2004) Patient specific dosimetry for 131I thyroid cancer therapy using 124I PET and 3-dimensional-internal dosimetry (3D-ID) software. J Nucl Med 45:1366–1372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sherman SI, Tielens ET, Sostre S, Wharam MD Jr, Ladenson PW (1994) Clinical utility of posttreatment radioiodine scans in the management of patients with thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 78:629–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sherman SI, Wirth LJ, Droz JP, Hofmann M, Bastholt L, Martins RG, Licitra L, Eschenberg MJ, Sun YN, Juan T, Stepan DE, Schlumberger MJ (2008) Motesanib diphosphate in progressive, differentiated thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med 359:31–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Snozek CL, Chambers EP, Reading CC, Sebo TJ, Sistrunk JW, Singh RJ, Grebe SK (2007) Serum thyroglobulin, high-resolution ultrasound, and lymph node thyroglobulin in diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma nodal metastases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:4278–4281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Song H, He B, Prideaux A, Du Y, Frey E, Kasecamp W, Ladenson PW, Wahl RL, Sgouros G (2006) Lung dosimetry for radioiodine treatment planning in the case of diffuse lung metastases. J Nucl Med 47:1985–1994PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Spencer CA, Bergoglio LM, Kazarosyan M, Fatemi S, LoPresti JS (2005) Clinical impact of thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg autoantibody method differences on the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:5566–5575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Su YB, Tuttle RM, Fury M, Ghossein R, Singh B, Herman K, Venkatraman ES, Stambuk H, Robbins R, Pfister DG (2006) A phase II study of single agent depsipeptide (DEP) in patients (pts) with radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory, metastatic, thyroid carcinoma: preliminary toxicity and efficacy experience. J Clin Oncol 24:5554Google Scholar
  90. Terezakis SA, Lee KS, Ghossein RA, Rivera M, Tuttle RM, Wolden SL, Zelefsky MJ, Wong RJ, Patel SG, Pfister DG, Shaha AR, Lee NY (2008) Role of external beam radiotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid cancer: memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73:795–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Torlontano M, Attard M, Crocetti U, Tumino S, Bruno R, Costante G, D’Azzò G, Meringolo D, Ferretti E, Sacco R, Arturi F, Filetti S (2004) Follow-up of low risk patients with papillary thyroid cancer: role of neck ultrasonography in detecting lymph node metastases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3402–3407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Travagli JP, Cailleux AF, Ricard M, Baudin E, Caillou B, Parmentier C, Schlumberger M (1998) Combination of radioiodine (131I) and probe-guided surgery for persistent or recurrent thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:2675–2680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tubiana M, Haddad E, Schlumberger M, Hill C, Rougier P, Sarrazin D (1985) External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers. Cancer 55:2062–2071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tuttle RM, Leboeuf R, Robbins RJ, Qualey R, Pentlow K, Larson SM, Chan CY (2006) Empiric radioactive iodine dosing regimens frequently exceed maximum tolerated activity levels in elderly patients with thyroid cancer. J Nucl Med 47:1587–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Van Herle AJ, Uller RP, Matthews NI, Brown J (1973) Radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroglobulin in human serum. J Clin Invest 52:1320–1327PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Nostrand D, Atkins F, Yeganeh F, Acio E, Bursaw R, Wartofsky L (2002) Dosimetrically determined doses of radioiodine for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 12:121–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vargas GE, Uy H, Bazan C, Guise TA, Bruder JM (1999) Hemiplegia after thyrotropin alfa in a hypothyroid patient with thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the brain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3867–3871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Volante M, Collini P, Nikiforov YE, Sakamoto A, Kakudo K, Katoh R, Lloyd RV, LiVolsi VA, Papotti M, Sobrinho-Simoes M, Bussolati G, Rosai J (2007) Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the Turin proposal for the use of uniform diagnostic criteria and an algorithmic diagnostic approach. Am J Surg Pathol 31:1256–1264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wong KK, Zarzhevsky N, Cahill JM, Frey KA, Avram AM (2008) Incremental value of diagnostic 131I SPECT/CT fusion imaging in the evaluation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Am J Roentgenol 191:1785–1794CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schlumberger
    • 1
  • Maryse Brassard
    • 1
  • Sophie Leboulleux
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine OncologyInstitut Gustave RoussyVillejuifFrance

Personalised recommendations