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Gene Expression Analysis by DNA Microarray in Papillary and Follicular Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

  • Barbara Jarzab
  • Daria Handkiewicz-Junak
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

In the recent ten years, molecular evaluation of cancer has been tremendously accelerated by the development of microarrays. DNA microarrays have been used for gene expression profiling, i.e., to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The presence of mRNA is the first signal of the activation of the gene transcription and the necessary condition to conduct the synthesis of the protein. The thyroid follicular cells give rise to a variety of malignant tumors that differ markedly in their morphology, biological, and clinical behavior. Contrary to most other cancers, both papillary (PTCs) and follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs), despite being malignant, retain many properties of their cells of origin. Histoarchitecture-based criteria play here a much more distinct role than cytological appearance. The primary goal of the evaluation of patients with nodular thyroid disease is the exclusion of thyroid malignancy. However, the identification and differentiation of rarely occurring thyroid cancer from frequently occurring benign nodular thyroid disease is a challenging task. Gene expression profiles of FTC were analyzed in several microarray studies, with the aim to improve the molecular differentiation between FTC and follicular adenomas and to elucidate the molecular etiology of FTC. Different sets of genes characteristic for FTC had been established. The lack of overlap between those studies is not unexpected, the lack of independent confirmation of either study is more worrying. This indicates on heterogeneity of follicular thyroid tumors. The list of genes shown in the chapter may also be useful for analysis of potential new molecules for in vivo imaging of PTC foci. Their future application for nuclear medicine is dual. First, it enables large-scale identification of molecular targets that can be used to develop molecular imaging agents helpful for the accurate diagnosis and prognosis of human cancer. Second, radiopharmaceuticals directed against these molecular targets can be useful in the new approach to targeted nuclear medicine therapy.

Keywords

Thyroid Cancer Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Nodule Papillary Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Tumour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine OncologyMaria Sklodowska Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of OncologyGliwicePoland

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