Advertisement

Three-Dimensional Ultrasound of the Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Odd Helge Gilja
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

 Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic methods have evolved as a supplement to ordinary 2D ultrasound examinations to improve volume estimation and enhance visualisation of complex structures. This chapter reviews some of the principles, methods and clinical applications in 3D ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, the process of making 3D images based on ultrasonography was divided into 5 steps: Data acquisition, data digitization, data storage, data processing, and data display. However, at present real-time matrix probes have made 4D ultrasound imaging possible. 3D ultrasonography may become an important imaging modality in interventional medicine where accurate 3D display is warranted.

Keywords

Rectal Cancer Functional Dyspepsia Duodenogastric Reflux Ultrasonographic Image Anal Sphincter Complex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Acar P, Dulac Y, Taktak A, Abadir S (2005) Real-time three-dimensional fetal echocardiography using matrix probe. Prenat Diagn 25:370–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahluwalia NK, Thompson DG, Barlow J, Troncon LEA, Hollis S (1994) Relaxation responses of the human proximal stomach to distension during fasting and after food. Am J Physiol 267:G166–G172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Xie T, McCulloch M, Abreo G, Runge M (2001) Real-time three-dimensional dobutamine stress echocardiography in assessment stress echocardiography in assessment of ischemia: comparison with two-dimensional dobutamine stress echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:1303–1309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arai K, Hozumi T, Matsumura Y, Sugioka K et al (2004) Accuracy of measurement of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction by new real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in patients with wall motion abnormalities secondary to myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 94:552–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baum G, Stroke GW (1975) Optical holographic three-dimensional ultrasonography. Science 189:994–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belohlavek M, Foley DA, Gerber TC, Greenleaf JF, Seward JB (1993a) Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the atrial septum: normal and pathologic anatomy. J Am Coll Cardiol 22:1673–1678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belohlavek M, Foley DA, Gerber TC, Kinter TM, Greenleaf JF, Seward JB (1993b) Three- and four-dimensional cardiovascular ultrasound imaging: a new era for echocardiography. Mayo Clin Proc 68:221–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berstad A, Gilja OH (2004) Ultrasonographic alterations in functional dyspepsia. In: Odegaard S, Gilja OH, Gregersen H (eds.) Basic and new aspects of gastrointestinal ultrasonography. World Scientific, New Jersey, pp 395–420Google Scholar
  9. Berstad A, Hausken T, Gilja OH et al (1997) Gastric accommodation in functional dyspepsia. Scand J Gastroenterol 32:193–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berstad A, Hausken T, Gilja OH, Thune N, Matre K, Odegaard S (1994) Volume measurement of gastric antrum by 3D ultrasonography and flow measurements through the pylorus by duplex technique. Dig Dis Sci 39:97–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Binder TM, Rosenhek R, Porenta G, Maurer G, Baumgartner H (2000) Improved assessment of mitral valve stenosis by volumetric real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:1355–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolondi L, Bortolotti M, Santi V, Calletti T, Gaiani S, Labo G (1985) Measurement of gastric emptying time by real-time ultrasonography. Gastroenterology 89:752–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Borges AC, Witt C, Bartel T, Muller S, Konertz W, Baumann G (1996) Preoperative two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of heart tumors. Ann Thorac Surg 61:1163–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bu L, Munns S, Zhang H et al (2005) Rapid full volume data acquisition by real-time 3Dimensional echocardiography for assessment of left ventricular indexes in children: a validation study compared with magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 18:299–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Camarano G, Jones M, Freidlin RZ, Panza JA (2002) Quantitative assessment of left ventricular perfusion defects using real-time three-dimensional myocardial contrast echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15:206–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chandrasekaran K, Sehgal CM, Hsu TL et al (1994) Three-dimensional volumetric ultrasound imaging of arterial pathology from two-dimensional intravascular ultrasound: an in vitro study. Angiology 45:253–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christensen AF, Nielsen MB, Engelholm SA, Roed H, Svendsen LB, Christensen H (2004) Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve staging of anal cancer compared with two-dimensional endosonography. Dis Colon Rectum 47:341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christensen AF, Nyhuus B, Nielsen MB, Christensen H (2005) Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve diagnostic confidence of detecting damage to the anal sphincter complex. Br J Radiol 78:308–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dekker DL, Piziali RL, Dong E Jr (1974) A system for ultrasonically imaging the human heart in three dimensions. Comput Biomed Res 7:544–553Google Scholar
  20. Desaga JF, Hixt U (1987) Sonographic determination of gastric emptying. Ultraschall Med 8:138–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Detmer PR, Bashein G, Hodges TC et al (1994) 3D ultrasonic image feature localization based on magnetic scanhead tracking: In vitro calibration and validation. Ultrasound Med Biol 20:923–936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorlars D, Schilling D, Riemann JF (1994) The feasibility of ultrasonography for the evaluation of stomach motility disorders. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 119:575–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duan LP, Zheng ZT, Li YN (1993) A study of gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia using a new ultrasonographic method. Scand J Gastroenterol 28:355–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Foroughi P, Abolmaesumi P, Hashtrudi-Zaad K (2006) Towards real-time registration of 4D ultrasound images. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1:404–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Geiser EA, Christie LGJ, Conetta DA, Conti CR, Gossman GS (1982) A mechanical arm for spatial registration of two-dimensional echocardiographic sections. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 8:89–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghosh A, Nanda NC, Maurer G (1982) Three-dimensional reconstruction of echo-cardiographic images using the rotation method. Ultrasound Med Biol 8:655–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gilja OH, Detmer PR, Jong JM et al (1997) Intragastric distribution and gastric emptying assessed by 3D-ultrasonography. Gastroenterology 113:38–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilja OH, Hausken T, Berstad A, Odegaard S (1999) Measurements of organ volume by ultrasonography. Proc Inst Mech Eng [H] 213:247–259Google Scholar
  29. Gilja OH, Hausken T, Odegaard S, Berstad A (1996a) Three-dimensional ultrasonography of the gastric antrum in patients with functional dyspepsia. Scand J Gastroenterol 31:847–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gilja OH, Hausken T, Wilhelmsen I, Berstad A (1996b) Impaired accommodation of proximal stomach to a meal in functional dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci 41:689–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gilja OH, Smievoll AI, Thune N et al (1995) In vivo comparison of 3D ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in volume estimation of human kidneys. Ultrasound Med Biol 21:25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilja OH, Thune N, Matre K, Hausken T, Odegaard S, Berstad A (1994) In vitro evaluation of three-dimensional ultrasonography in volume estimation of abdominal organs. Ultrasound Med Biol 20:157–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Green K, Campbell G (1994) Nitric oxide formation is involved in vagal inhibition of the stomach of the trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Auton Nerv Syst 50:221–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greenleaf JF, Belohlavek M, Gerber TC, Foley DA, Seward JB (1993) Multidimensional visualization in echocardiography: an introduction. Mayo Clin Proc 68:213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamper UM, Trapanotto V, Sheth S, DeJong MR, Caskey CI (1994) Three-dimensional US: preliminary clinical experience. Radiology 191:397–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Handschumacher MD, Lethor JP, Siu SC et al (1993) A new integrated system for three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstruction: development and validation for ventricular volume with application in human subjects. J Am Coll Cardiol 21:743–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harris EJ, Miller NR, Bamber JC, Symonds-Tayler JR, Evans PM (2010) Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound. Phys Med Biol 55:3363–3380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hausken T, Li X-N, Goldman B, Leotta DF, Odegaard S, Martin RW (2001) Quantification of gastric emptying and duodenogastric reflux stroke volumes using three-dimensional guided digital color Doppler imaging. Eur J Ultrasound 13(3):205–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hausken T, Thune N, Matre K, Gilja OH, Odegaard S, Berstad A (1994) Volume estimation of the gastric antrum and the gallbladder in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and erosive prepyloric changes, using three-dimensional ultrasonography. Neurogastroenterol Mot 6:263–270Google Scholar
  40. Hjelland IE, Ofstad AP, Narvestad JK, Berstad A, Hausken T (2004) Drink tests in functional dyspepsia: which drink is best? Scand J Gastroenterol 39:933–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hodges TC, Detmer PR, Burns DH, Beach KW, JrDE Strandness (1994) Ultrasonic three-dimensional reconstruction: In vitro and in vivo volume and area measurement. Ultrasound Med Biol 20:719–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hokland J, Hausken T (1994) An interactive volume rendering method applied to ultrasonography of abdominal structures. IEEE Ultrason Symp Proc 3:1567–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hou XH, Deng YB, Zhang JK (1992) Measurement of gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Chung Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih 31(623–5):658Google Scholar
  44. Hunerbein M, Below C, Schlag PM (1996) Three-dimensional endorectal ultrasonography for staging of obstructing rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 39:636–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hunerbein M, Gretschel S, Ghadimi BM, Schlag PM (1997) Three-dimensional endoscopic ultrasound of the esophagus. Preliminary experience. Surg Endosc 11:991–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hunerbein M, Schlag PM (1997) Three-dimensional endosonography for staging of rectal cancer. Ann Surg 225:432–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jenkins C, Bricknell K, Hanekom L, Marwick TH (2004) Reproducibility and accuracy of echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular parameters using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 44:878–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kelly IM, Gardener JE, Brett AD, Richards R, Lees WR (1994) Three-dimensional US of the fetus. Work in progress. Radiology 192:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kim JC, Cho YK, Kim SY, Park SK, Lee MG (2002) Comparative study of three-dimensional and conventional endorectal ultrasonography used in rectal cancer staging. Surg Endosc 16:1280–1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. King DL, King DL Jr, Shao MY (1990) Three-dimensional spatial registration and interactive display of position and orientation of real-time ultrasound images. J Ultrasound Med 9:525–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. King DL, King DL Jr, Shao MY (1991) Evaluation of in vitro measurement accuracy of a three-dimensional ultrasound scanner. J Ultrasound Med 10:77–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Koivukangas J, Ylitalo J, Alasaarela E, Tauriainen A (1986) Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of brain for neurosurgery. Ann Clin Res 18(Suppl 47):65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kyei Mensah A, Zaidi J, Pittrof R, Shaker A, Campbell S, Tan SL (1996) Transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound: accuracy of follicular volume measurements. Fertil Steril 65:371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Leotta DF, Detmer PR, Gilja OH et al. (1995) Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging using multiple magnetic tracking systems and miniature magnetic sensors. Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, Seattle WA, pp 1415–1418Google Scholar
  55. Levine RA, Handschumacher MD, Sanfilippo AJ et al (1989) Three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstruction of the mitral valve, with implications for the diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Circulation 80:589–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liao D, Gregersen H, Hausken T, Gilja OH, Mundt M, Kassab G (2004) Analysis of surface geometry of the human stomach using real-time 3D ultrasonography in vivo. Neurogastroenterol Motil 16:315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. LiVoti G, Tulone V, Bruno R et al (1992) Ultrasonography and gastric emptying: evaluation in infants with gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 14:397–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martens D, Gilja OH (2004) The EchoPAC-3D software for 3D image analysis. In: Odegaard S, Gilja OH, Gregersen H (eds) Basic and new aspects of gastrointestinal ultrasonography. World Scientific, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  59. Martens D, Hausken T, Gilja OH, Steen EN, Alker HJ (1997) 3D processing of ultrasound images using a novel echopac-3D software. Ultrasound Med Biol 23[S1]:136Google Scholar
  60. Martin RW, Bashein G (1989) Measurement of stroke volume with three-dimensional transesophageal ultrasonic scanning: comparison with thermodilution measurement. Anesthesiology 70:470–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martin RW, Bashein G, Zimmer R, Sutherland J (1986) An endoscopic micromanipulator for multiplanar transesophageal imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol 12:965–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Martin RW, Legget M, McDonald J et al (1995) Stereographic viewing of 3D ultrasound images: A novelty or a tool? Proc IEEE Int Ultrasonics Symp 2:1431–1434Google Scholar
  63. Matre K, Stokke EM, Martens D, Gilja OH (1999) In vitro volume estimation of kidneys using three-dimensional ultrasonography and a position sensor. Eur J Ultrasound 10:65–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mintz GS, Pichard AD, Satler LF, Popma JJ, Kent KM, Leon MB (1993) Three-dimensional intravascular ultrasonography: reconstruction of endovascular stents in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Ultrasound 21:609–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miyamoto M, Aoyama N, Sakashita M et al (1998) Three-dimensional endoscopic ultrasonography for SMT. Digestion 59:194Google Scholar
  66. Molin S, Nesje LB, Gilja OH, Hausken T, Martens D, Odegaard S (1999) 3D-endosonography in gastroenterology: methodology and clinical applications. Eur J Ultrasound 10:171–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Molin SO, Engstrøm A, Nesje LB, Gilja OH, Odegaard S (1998) Improvement of 3D EUS using ECG- and respiratory triggered acquisition. Eur J Ultrasound 7:54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Molin SO, Jirås A, Hall-Angerås M, Falk A, Martens D, Gilja OH, Nesje LB, Odegaard S (1997) Virtual reality in surgical practice. In vitro and in vivo evaluations. In: Sieburg H, Weghorst S, Morgan K, (eds.) Studies in health technology and informatics. IOS Press and Ohmsha, pp 246–253Google Scholar
  69. Molin SO, Liedman B, Lundell L et al (2000) Performance of a miniature magnetic position sensor for 3D-EUS imaging. Endoscopy 32:50Google Scholar
  70. Molin SO, Nesje LB, Gilja OH, Hausken T, Odegaard S (1996a) Modalities for three-dimensional endoscopic and laparoscopic ultrasonography: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Endoscopy 28:S38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Molin SO, Nesje LB, Gilja OH, Hausken T, Odegaard S (1996b) Adoption of conventional endosonography for 3D visualization of GI tract. Scand J Gastroenterol 31:33Google Scholar
  72. Moritz WE, Shreve PL, Mace LE (1976) Analysis of an ultrasonic spatial locating system. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 25:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mundt MW, Hausken T, Smout AJ, Samsom M (2005) Relationships between gastric accommodation and gastrointestinal sensations in healthy volunteers. A study using the barostat technique and two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography. Dig Dis Sci 50:1654–1660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nelson TR, Pretorius DH (1995) Visualization of the fetal thoracic skeleton with three- dimensional sonography: a preliminary report. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:1485–1488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Newell SJ, Chapman S, Booth IW (1993) Ultrasonic assessment of gastric emptying in the preterm infant. Arch Dis Child 69:32–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nielson GM, Shriver B (1989) Visualization in scientific computing. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los AlamitosGoogle Scholar
  77. Nikravesh PE, Skorton DJ, Chandran KB, Attarwala YM, Pandian N, Kerber RE (1984) Computerized three-dimensional finite element reconstruction of the left ventricle from cross-sectional echocardiograms. Ultrason Imaging 6:48–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nishimura K, Niwa Y, Goto H, Hase S, Arisawa T, Hayakawa T (1997) Three-dimensional endoscopic ultrasonography of gastrointestinal lesions using an ultrasound probe. Scand J Gastroenterol 32:862–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Odegaard S, Nesje LB, Gilja OH, Hausken T, Molin SO, Martens D (1998) Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract examined with 3D endoscopic ultrasonography. In: Bismuth H, Galmiche JP, Huguier M, Jaeck D (eds.) Monduzzi Editore. 8th World Congress of the Int Gastro-Surgical Club. 15 Apr 0098, pp 827–831Google Scholar
  80. Odegaard S, Nesje LB, Molin SO, Gilja OH, Hausken T (1999) Three-dimensional intraluminal sonography in the evaluation of gastrointestinal diseases. Abdom Imaging 24:449–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Picot PA, Rickey DW, Mitchell R, Rankin RN, Fenster A (1993) Three-dimensional colour Doppler imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol 19:95–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pretorius DH, Nelson TR (1994) Prenatal visualization of cranial sutures and fontanelles with three-dimensional ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 13:871–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Pretorius DH, Nelson TR (1995) Fetal face visualization using three-dimensional ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 14:349–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Qin JX, Jones M, Shiota T, Greenberg NL et al (2000) Validation of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography for quantifying left ventricular volumes in the presence of a left ventricular aneurysm: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:900–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Radberg G, Asztely M, Cantor P et al (1989) Gastric and gallbladder emptying in relation to the secretion of cholecystokinin after a meal in late pregnancy. Digestion 42:174–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Raichlen JS, Trivedi SS, Herman GT, St John Sutton MG, Reichek N (1986) Dynamic three-dimensional reconstruction of the left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms. J Am Coll Cardiol 8:364–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Redman JD, Walton WP, Fleming JE, Hall AM (1969) Holographic display of data from ultrasonic scanning. Ultrasonics 7:26–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Riccabona M, Nelson TR, Pretorius DH, Davidson TE (1995) Distance and volume measurement using three-dimensional ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 14:881–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Roelandt JR, ten Cate FJ, Vletter WB, Taams MA (1994) Ultrasonic dynamic three-dimensional visualization of the heart with a multiplane transesophageal imaging transducer. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 7:217–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rosenfield K, Losordo DW, Ramaswamy K et al (1991) Three-dimensional reconstruction of human coronary and peripheral arteries from images recorded during two-dimensional intravascular ultrasound examination. Circulation 84:1938–1956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ross JJ Jr, D’Adamo AJ, Karalis DG, Chandrasekaran K (1993) Three-dimensional transesophageal echo imaging of the descending thoracic aorta. Am J Cardiol 71:1000–1002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sackmann M, Pauletzki J, Zwiebel FM, Holl J (1994) Three-dimensional ultrasonography in hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases. Bildgebung 61:100–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Salustri A, Roelandt JR (1995) Ultrasonic three-dimensional reconstruction of the heart. Ultrasound Med Biol 21:281–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sapin PM, Schroeder KD, Smith MD, DeMaria AN, King DL (1993) Three-dimensional echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular volume in vitro: comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography and cineventriculography. J Am Coll Cardiol 22:1530–1537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sawada H, Fujii J, Aizawa T, Kato K, Onoe M, Kuno Y, Nakanishi T (1985) Three dimensional reconstruction of the human left ventricle from multiple cross-sectional echocardiograms: comparison with biplane cineventriculography using Simpson’s rule. J Cardiogr 15:439–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Scheffer RC, Gooszen HG, Wassenaar EB, Samsom M (2004) Relationship between partial gastric volumes and dyspeptic symptoms in plication patients: a 3D ultrasonographic study. Am J Gastroenterol 99:1902–1909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sehgal CM, Broderick GA, Whittington R, Gorniak RJ, Arger PH (1994) Three-dimensional US and volumetric assessment of the prostate. Radiology 192:274–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Sohn C, Grotepass J (1990) 3Dimensional organ image using ultrasound. Ultraschall Med 11:295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sugimoto K, Moriyasu F, Shiraishi J, Yamada M, Imai Y (2011) A phantom study comparing ultrasound-guided liver tumor puncture using new real-time 3D ultrasound and conventional 2D ultrasound. AJR Am J Roentgenol 196:W753–W757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sumiyama K, Suzuki N, Tajiri H (2003) A linear-array freehand 3D endoscopic ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 29:1001–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tack J, Piessevaux H, Coulie B, Caenepeel P, Janssens J (1998) Role of impaired gastric accommodation to a meal in functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 115:1346–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tefera S, Gilja OH, Olavsdottir E, Hausken T, Hatlebakk JG, Berstad A (2002) Intragastric maldistribution of a liquid meal in patients with reflux oesophagitis assessed by three dimensional ultrasonography. Gut 50:153–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thune N, Hausken T, Gilja OH, Matre K (1996) A practical method for estimating enclosed volumes using 3D ultrasound. Eur J Ultrasound 3:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Trocino G, Salustri A, Roelandt JR, Ansink T, van Herwerden L (1996) Three-dimensional echocardiography of a flail tricuspid valve. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 9:91–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tsutsuii A, Okamura S, Okita Y, Fukuda T, Hayashi S, Muguruma N, Okahisa T, Shibata H, Ito S, Umino K (1998) Usefulness of three-dimensional display of digestive lesions by endoscopic ultrasonography. Digestion 59[S3], p 194Google Scholar
  106. Vannier MW, Marsh JL (1996) Three-dimensional imaging, surgical planning, and image-guided therapy. Radiol Clin North Am 34:545–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Vogel M, Ho SY, Lincoln C, Yacoub MH, Anderson RH (1995) Three-dimensional echocardiography can simulate intraoperative visualization of congenitally malformed hearts. Ann Thorac Surg 60:1282–1288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wagner S, Gebel M, Bleck JS, Manns MP (1994) Clinical application of three-dimensional sonography in hepatobiliary disease. Bildgebung 61:104–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. West RL, Dwarkasing S, Felt-Bersma RJ, Schouten WR, Hop WC, Hussain SM, Kuipers EJ (2004) Hydrogen peroxide-enhanced three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating perianal fistulas: agreement and patient preference. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16:1319–1324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Whittingham TA, Bateman DN (1983) Measurement of stomach volume by real-time ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol Suppl 2:459–463Google Scholar
  111. Williams AB, Bartram CI, Halligan S, Spencer JA, Nicholls RJ, Kmiot WA (2001) Anal sphincter damage after vaginal delivery using three-dimensional endosonography. Obstet Gynecol 97:770–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yoshino J, Nakazawa S, Inui K, Wakabayashi T et al (2000) Volume measurement using tissue characterization of three-dimensional endoscopic ultrasonographic images. Endoscopy 32:624–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zoller WG, Liess H (1994) 3D ultrasound in gastroenterology. Bildgebung 61:95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineNational Center for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University HospitalBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations