Advertisement

Dysphagia pp 369-390 | Cite as

Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Oesophagus Using CT and PET/Techniques

  • Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah
  • Barbara J. Fueger
  • Wolfgang Schima
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Multidetector computed tomograpy (MDCT) is the most frequent imaging modality in the diagnostic work-up of oncologic diseases of the abdomen. Although CT has been used for preoperative evaluation of oesophageal cancer, the major role of CT has been the depiction of lymph nodes, distant metastases, or both, rather than the evaluation of the local status of oesophageal cancer. The sensitivity of conventional or helical CT protocols for the localization of oesophageal cancer, especially early stage cancer, is not satisfactory. This may be attributed to the fact that conventional or helical CT cannot offer optimal conspicuity of oesophageal cancers against the normal oesophageal wall, or because the oesophagus is too long to be imaged entirely using thin slices during a single breath-hold on conventional or helical CT scans, especially in the absence of lumen distension, since inadequately distended hollow viscera on CT may hide small lesions and may even mimic pseudolesions. Thus, optimal distension of the oesophagus and stomach is important to overcome this limitation. The combination of the MDCT technique with thin slice sections and the possibility to obtain high-quality, isotropic, multi-planar reconstructions and the water filling, or the application of gas-producing effervescent granules to distend the stomach and the oesophagus are important factors that may increase the efficacy of CT for local staging of oesophageal cancer. Using this technique is not only useful for a complete preoperative staging of oesophageal malignancies according to TNM classification but also clinically relevant for evaluation of a broad spectrum of inflammatory and traumatic diseases. The introduction of FDG PET in combination with MDCT resulted in further optimizing the diagnostic work-up of oesophageal cancer and other malignant diseases rendering this technique to be the modality of choice depending on its availability. In this book chapter we review the value of the hydro-MDCT technique and hydro-FDG-PET-CT technique in the diagnostic work-up of oesophageal diseases.

Keywords

Oesophageal Cancer Duplication Cyst Oesophageal Varix Oesophageal Carcinoma Epiphrenic Diverticulum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. AJCC (2009) Cancer staging, 7th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoch G, Kanja J, Bauer S et al (2004) Comparison of PET, CT, and dual-modality PET/CT imaging for monitoring of imatinib (STI571) therapy in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Nucl Med 45(3):357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ascenti G, Racchiusa S, Mazziotti S, Bottari M, Scribano E (1999) Giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus: CT and MR findings. Abdom Imaging 24(2):109–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balthazar EJ, Naidich DP, Megibow AJ, Lefleur RS (1987) CT evaluation of esophageal varices. Am J Roentgenol 148(1):131–135Google Scholar
  5. Barr H (2011) Gastrointestinal cancer: current screening strategies. Recent Results Cancer Res 185:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bar-Shalom R, Guralnik L, Tsalic M et al (2005) The additional value of PET/CT over PET in FDG imaging of oesophageal cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 32(8):918–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ba-Ssalamah A, Prokop M, Uffmann M, Pokieser P, Teleky B, Lechner G (2003) Dedicated multidetector CT of the stomach: spectrum of diseases. Radiographics 23(3):625–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ba-Ssalamah A, Zacherl J, Noebauer-Huhmann IM et al (2009) Dedicated multi-detector CT of the esophagus: spectrum of diseases. Abdom Imaging 34(1):3–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ba-Ssalamah A, Matzek W, Baroud S et al (2011) Accuracy of hydro-multidetector row CT in the local T staging of oesophageal cancer compared to postoperative histopathological results. Eur Radiol 21(11):2326–2335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berkovich GY, Levine MS, Miller WT Jr (2000) CT findings in patients with esophagitis. Am J Roentgenol 175(5):1431–1434Google Scholar
  11. Blom RL, Vliegen RF, Schreurs WM, et al (2011) External ultrasonography of the neck does not add diagnostic value to integrated positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanning in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Dis EsophagusGoogle Scholar
  12. Boellaard R, van Lingen A, Lammertsma AA (2001) Experimental and clinical evaluation of iterative reconstruction (OSEM) in dynamic PET: quantitative characteristics and effects on kinetic modeling. J Nucl Med 42(5):808–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradley J, Bae K, Choi N, et al. (2012) A phase II comparative study of gross tumor volume definition with or without PET/CT fusion in dosimetric planning for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 0515. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(1):435–441 e1Google Scholar
  14. Brown LM, Hoover R, Silverman D et al (2001) Excess incidence of squamous cell esophageal cancer among US black men: role of social class and other risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 153(2):114–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlisle JG, Quint LE, Francis IR, Orringer MB, Smick JF, Gross BH (1993) Recurrent esophageal carcinoma: CT evaluation after esophagectomy. Radiology 189(1):271–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carter M, Deckmann RC, Smith RC, Burrell MI, Traube M (1997) Differentiation of achalasia from pseudoachalasia by computed tomography. Am J Gastroenterol 92(4):624–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS (2006) Maximum standardized uptake values on positron emission tomography of esophageal cancer predicts stage, tumor biology, and survival. Ann thorac surg 82(2):391–394 Discussion 4–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chao YK, Liu YH, Ko PJ et al (2005) Treatment of esophageal perforation in a referral center in taiwan. Surg Today 35(10):828–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Choi H, Charnsangavej C, de Castro Faria S et al (2004) CT evaluation of the response of gastrointestinal stromal tumors after imatinib mesylate treatment: a quantitative analysis correlated with FDG PET findings. Am J Roentgenol 183(6):1619–1628Google Scholar
  20. Choi J, Kim SG, Kim JS, Jung HC, Song IS (2010) Comparison of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), positron emission tomography (PET), and computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative locoregional staging of resectable esophageal cancer. Surg Endosc 24(6):1380–1386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Csikos M, Horvath O, Petri A, Petri I, Imre J (1985) Late malignant transformation of chronic corrosive oesophageal strictures. Langenbecks Arch Chir 365(4):231–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daly JM, Fry WA, Little AG et al (2000) Esophageal cancer: results of an American College of Surgeons patient care evaluation study. J Am Coll Surg 190(5):562–572 discussion 72–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Lutio di Castelguidone E, Pinto A, Merola S, Stavolo C, Romano L (2005) Role of spiral and multislice computed tomography in the evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous oesophageal perforation our experience. Radiol Med (Torino) 109(3):252–259Google Scholar
  24. Edwards BK, Howe HL, Ries LA et al (2002) Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973–1999, featuring implications of age and aging on U.S. cancer burden. Cancer 94(10):2766–2792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eren S, Ciris F (2005) Diaphragmatic hernia: diagnostic approaches with review of the literature. Eur J Radiol 54(3):448–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flamen P, Lerut A, Van Cutsem E et al (2000) Utility of positron emission tomography for the staging of patients with potentially operable esophageal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 18(18):3202–3210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gelfand MD, Botoman VA (1987) Esophageal motility disorders: a clinical overview. Am J Gastroenterol 82(3):181–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Greene FL, Page DL, Flemming ID, Fritz A, Balch CM, Haller DG (2002) American joint committe on cancer: AJCC cancer staging manual., 6th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Guo H, Zhu H, Xi Y et al (2007) Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for patients with suspected recurrence from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. J Nucl Med 48(8):1251–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haley M, Konski A, Li T et al (2009) Influence of diabetes on the interpretation of PET scans in patients with esophageal cancer. Gastrointest Cancer Res 3(4):149–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Halpern BS, Dahlbom M, Quon A et al (2004) Impact of patient weight and emission scan duration on PET/CT image quality and lesion detectability. J Nucl Med 45(5):797–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Halvorsen RA, Thompson WM (1984) Computed tomographic evaluation of esophageal carcinoma. Semin Oncol 11(2):113–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hatch GF 3rd, Wertheimer-Hatch L, Hatch KF et al (2000) Tumors of the esophagus. World J Surg 24(4):401–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heeren PA, Jager PL, Bongaerts F, van Dullemen H, Sluiter W, Plukker JT (2004) Detection of distant metastases in esophageal cancer with (18)F-FDG PET. J Nucl Med 45(6):980–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hsu WH, Hsu PK, Wang SJ et al (2009) Positron emission tomography-computed tomography in predicting locoregional invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann thorac surg 87(5):1564–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jeganathan R, McGuigan J, Campbell F, Lynch T (2011) Does pre-operative estimation of oesophageal tumour metabolic length using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT images compare with surgical pathology length? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 38(4):656–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaplan KJ (2004) Primary esophageal lymphoma: a diagnostic challenge. South Med J 97(4):331–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kato H, Nakajima M, Sohda M et al (2009) The clinical application of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to predict survival in patients with operable esophageal cancer. Cancer 115(14):3196–3203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keum B, Kim YS, Jeen YT et al (2006) Dysphagia lusoria assessed by 3-dimensional CT. Gastrointest Endosc 64(2):268–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kobori O, Kirihara Y, Kosaka N, Hara T (1999) Positron emission tomography of esophageal carcinoma using (11)C-choline and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose: a novel method of preoperative lymph node staging. Cancer 86(9):1638–1648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kontaxakis G, Strauss LG, Thireou T et al (2002) Iterative image reconstruction for clinical PET using ordered subsets, median root prior, and a web-based interface. Mol Imaging Biol. 4(3):219–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krause BJ, Herrmann K, Wieder H, zum Buschenfelde CM (2009) 18F-FDG PET and 18F-FDG PET/CT for assessing response to therapy in esophageal cancer. J Nucl Med 50(Suppl 1):89S–96SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kuhlman JE, Fishman EK, Wang KP, Siegelman SS (1985) Esophageal duplication cyst: CT and transesophageal needle aspiration. Am J Roentgenol 145(3):531–532Google Scholar
  44. Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O (1999) Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 340(11):825–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lagergren J, Ye W, Lindgren A, Nyren O (2000) Heredity and risk of cancer of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9(7):757–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lea JWt, Prager RL, Bender HW Jr (1984) The questionable role of computed tomography in preoperative staging of esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 38(5):479–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. LeBlang SD, Nunez DB Jr (1999) Helical CT of cervical spine and soft tissue injuries of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am 37(3):515–532, v-viPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu PS, Levine MS, Torigian DA (2006) Esophagopleural fistula secondary to esophageal wall ballooning and thinning after pneumonectomy: findings on chest CT and esophagography. Am J Roentgenol 186(6):1627–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lowe VJ, Booya F, Fletcher JG et al (2005) Comparison of positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and endoscopic ultrasound in the initial staging of patients with esophageal cancer. Mol Imaging Biol 7(6):422–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ludeman L, Shepherd NA (2005) Serosal involvement in gastrointestinal cancer: its assessment and significance. Histopathology 47(2):123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Luketich JD, Schauer PR, Meltzer CC et al (1997) Role of positron emission tomography in staging esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 64(3):765–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mani NB, Suri S, Gupta S, Wig JD (2001) Two-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography with water-filling method for staging of gastric carcinoma. Clin Imaging 25(1):38–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mendelson RM, Fermoyle S (2005) Primary gastrointestinal lymphomas: a radiological-pathological review. Part 1: Stomach, oesophagus and colon. Australas Radiol 49(5):353–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Meyers BF, Downey RJ, Decker PA et al (2007) The utility of positron emission tomography in staging of potentially operable carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus: results of the American college of surgeons oncology group Z0060 trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 133(3):738–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Monges G, Bisot-Locard S, Blay JY et al (2010) The estimated incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in France. Results of PROGIST study conducted among pathologists. Bull Cancer 97(3):E16–E22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Moss AA, Schnyder P, Thoeni RF, Margulis AR (1981) Esophageal carcinoma: pretherapy staging by computed tomography. Am J Roentgenol 136(6):1051–1056Google Scholar
  57. Nagaki A, Onoguchi M, Matsutomo N (2011) Patient weight-based acquisition protocols to optimize (18)F-FDG PET/CT image quality. J Nucl Med Technol 39(2):72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nomura M, Shitara K, Kodaira T et al (2012) Prognostic impact of the 6th and 7th American joint committee on cancer TNM staging systems on esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(2):946–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Okada M, Murakami T, Kumano S et al (2009) Integrated FDG-PET/CT compared with intravenous contrast-enhanced CT for evaluation of metastatic regional lymph nodes in patients with resectable early stage esophageal cancer. Ann Nucl Med 23(1):73–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Panebianco V, Grazhdani H, Iafrate F et al (2006) 3D CT protocol in the assessment of the esophageal neoplastic lesions: can it improve TNM staging? Eur Radiol 16(2):414–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Parfitt JR, Miladinovic Z, Driman DK (2006) Increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction and distal stomach in Canada—an epidemiological study from 1964–2002. Can J Gastroenterol 20(4):271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Pearlberg JL, Sandler MA, Madrazo BL (1983) Computed tomographic features of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Radiology 147(1):189–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Pennathur A, Luketich JD (2008) Resection for esophageal cancer: strategies for optimal management. Ann Thorac Surg 85(2):S751–S756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Peyrin-Biroulet L, Bronowicki JP, Bigard MA, Regent D, Walter S, Platini C (2006) Contribution of computed tomography with oral media contrast to the diagnosis of esophago-pericardial fistula. Clin Imaging 30(5):347–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Picus D, Balfe DM, Koehler RE, Roper CL, Owen JW (1983) Computed tomography in the staging of esophageal carcinoma. Radiol 146(2):433–438Google Scholar
  66. Prokop M (2005) New challenges in MDCT. Eur Radiol 15(Suppl 5):E35–E45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Quint LE, Glazer GM, Orringer MB, Gross BH (1985) Esophageal carcinoma: CT findings. Radiol 155(1):171–175Google Scholar
  68. Rampin L, Nanni C, Fanti S, Rubello D (2005) Value of PET-CT fusion imaging in avoiding potential pitfalls in the interpretation of 18F-FDG accumulation in the distal oesophagus. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 32(8):990–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rice TW, Blackstone EH, Rusch VW (2010) A cancer staging primer: esophagus and esophagogastric junction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 139(3):527–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Romero Y, Cameron AJ, Schaid DJ et al (2002) Barrett’s esophagus: prevalence in symptomatic relatives. Am J Gastroenterol 97(5):1127–1132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sargent RL, Hood IC (2006) Asphyxiation caused by giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130(5):725–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Seremetis MG, Lyons WS, deGuzman VC, Peabody JW Jr (1976) Leiomyomata of the esophagus. An analysis of 838 cases. Cancer 38(5):2166–2177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sharma NK, Silverman JS, Li T et al (2011) Decreased posttreatment SUV on PET scan is associated with improved local control in medically inoperable esophageal cancer. Gastrointest Cancer Res 4(3):84–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Siewert J R (2007) [Esophageal carcinoma]. Chirurg 78(5):475–484Google Scholar
  75. Siewert JR, Stein HJ, Feith M, Bruecher BL, Bartels H, Fink U (2001) Histologic tumor type is an independent prognostic parameter in esophageal cancer: lessons from more than 1,000 consecutive resections at a single center in the Western world. Ann Surg 234(3):360–367 discussion 8–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Simmang CL, Reed K, Rosenthal D (1989) Leiomyomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Mil Med 154(1):45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Skehan SJ, Brown AL, Thompson M, Young JE, Coates G, Nahmias C (2000) Imaging features of primary and recurrent esophageal cancer at FDG PET. Radiographics 20(3):713–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Smithers BM, Fahey PP, Corish T et al (2010) Symptoms, investigations and management of patients with cancer of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction in Australia. Med J Aust 193(10):572–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Sobin LH, Wittekind CL (2002) TNM classification of malignant tumors, 6th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Stein HJ, Feith M, Bruecher BL, Naehrig J, Sarbia M, Siewert JR (2005) Early esophageal cancer: pattern of lymphatic spread and prognostic factors for long-term survival after surgical resection. Ann Surg 242(4):566–573, discussion 73–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Suga K, Shimizu K, Kawakami Y et al (2005) Lymphatic drainage from esophagogastric tract: feasibility of endoscopic CT lymphography for direct visualization of pathways. Radiol 237(3):952–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Suga K, Yasuhiko K, Hiyama A, Takeda K, Matsunaga N (2009) F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in a patient with bilateral orbital and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Clin Nucl Med 34(9):589–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sun L, Su XH, Guan YS et al (2009) Clinical usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the restaging of esophageal cancer after surgical resection and radiotherapy. World J Gastroenterol 15(15):1836–1842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Talanow R, Shrikanthan S (2010) Imaging protocols for 18F-FDG PET/CT in overweight patients: limitations. J Nucl Med 51(4):662 (author reply)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thompson WM, Halvorsen RA Jr (1994) Staging esophageal carcinoma II: CT and MRI. Semin Oncol 21(4):447–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Thompson WM, Halvorsen RA, Foster WL Jr, Williford ME, Postlethwait RW, Korobkin M (1983) Computed tomography for staging esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer: reevaluation. Am J Roentgenol 141(5):951–958Google Scholar
  87. Tunaci A (2002) Postoperative imaging of gastrointestinal tract cancers. Eur J Radiol 42(3):224–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ulla M, Cavadas D, Munoz I, Beskow A, Seehaus A, Garcia-Monaco R (2010) Esophageal cancer: pneumo-64-MDCT. Abdom Imaging 35(4):383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Umeoka S, Koyama T, Watanabe G et al (2010) Preoperative local staging of esophageal carcinoma using dual-phase contrast-enhanced imaging with multi-detector row computed tomography: value of the arterial phase images. J Comput Assist Tomogr 34(3):406–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. van Westreenen HL, Westerterp M, Bossuyt PM et al (2004) Systematic review of the staging performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol 22(18):3805–3812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weber WA, Ott K, Becker K et al (2001) Prediction of response to preoperative chemotherapy in adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction by metabolic imaging. J Clin Oncol 19(12):3058–3065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wolf MC, Stahl M, Krause BJ et al (2011) Curative treatment of oesophageal carcinoma: current options and future developments. Radiat Oncol 6:55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wu AH, Wan P, Bernstein L (2001) A multiethnic population-based study of smoking, alcohol and body size and risk of adenocarcinomas of the stomach and esophagus (United States). Cancer Causes Control 12(8):721–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yang H, Berner A, Mei Q et al (2002) Cytologic screening for esophageal cancer in a high-risk population in Anyang county. China. Acta Cytol 46(3):445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yu W, Fu XL, Zhang YJ, Xiang JQ, Shen L, Chang JY (2011) A prospective evaluation of staging and target volume definition of lymph nodes by 18FDG PET/CT in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of thoracic esophagus. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81(5):e759–e765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah
    • 1
  • Barbara J. Fueger
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Schima
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyKH Göttlicher Heiland, KH der Barmherzigen Schwestern Wien, and Sankt Josef-KrankenhausViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations