Magnetic Resonance-Guided Embolization of Low-Flow Vascular Malformations

  • Sumera Ali
  • Clifford R. Weiss
  • Daniel P. Hsu
  • Jonathan S. Lewin
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Low-flow vascular malformations are congenital, benign lesions that affect both children and adults. They occur as a result of errors during the embryological development of the vessels and can present at any time during life with pain, disfigurement, functional impairment and bleeding. Currently, the mainstay of treatment is sclerotherapy, which is performed by interventional radiologists using ultrasound and X-ray angiography guidance to treat the lesions. Although very effective, it has certain limitations such as deep and scarred lesions (which often occur due to multiple treatments) that are difficult to access using ultrasound. Moreover, patients with vascular malformations (many of whom are children) are repeatedly exposed to ionizing radiation as these lesion typically require multiple treatment sessions. Sclerotherapy using MR guidance is a relatively new technique and has shown to be safe and effective in several pilot studies. Lesions can be easily identified on T2-weighted, fat-saturated MR imaging, regardless of lesion depth and overlying scar tissue. Furthermore, the multiplanar capabilities of MR allow for accurate, real-time needle targeting with simultaneous visualization of surrounding critical structures, all without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter, we have reviewed the current literature and shared our own experience in treating the low-flow vascular malformations using MR guidance.


Vascular Malformation Venous Malformation Lymphatic Malformation Ethanolamine Oleate Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumera Ali
    • 1
  • Clifford R. Weiss
    • 1
  • Daniel P. Hsu
    • 2
  • Jonathan S. Lewin
    • 1
  1. 1.Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Division of Interventional NeuroradiologyUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA

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