High-Field Open MRI-Guided Interventions

  • Ulf K.-M. Teichgräber
  • Florian  Streitparth
  • Felix V. Güttler
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


High-field open (HFO) MRI is an emerging and promising modality in the guidance of various minimally invasive interventions because of the high tissue contrast, the absence of ionizing radiation and unrestricted multi-planar imaging options. The ongoing development of powerful MRI techniques and instruments allows for advanced possibilities to guide, monitor and control minimally invasive interventions. Moreover, open MR systems provide better patient access, which improves the interventional workflow. In this chapter, the basics and current status of interventional HFO MRI is described. Essential clinical procedures for high-field open MRI-guided interventions and innovative research findings are discussed.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Compute Tomography Guidance Open Magnetic Resonance Imaging Open Scanner Excellent Soft Tissue Contrast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adam G, Bucker A, Nolte-Ernsting C, Tacke J, Gunther RW (1999) Interventional MR imaging: percutaneous abdominal and skeletal biopsies and drainages of the abdomen. Eur Radiol 9(8):1471–1478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbaric Z, Hall T, Cochran S, Heitz D, Schwartz R, Krasny R, Deseran M (1997) Percutaneous nephrostomy: placement under CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Am J Roentgenol 169(1):151Google Scholar
  3. Baron RL, Lee JK, McClennan BL, Melson GL (1981) Percutaneous nephrostomy using real-time sonographic guidance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 136(5):1018–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergsneider M, Sehati N, Villablanca P, McArthur DL, Becker DP, Liau LM (2005) Mahaley Clinical Research Award: extent of glioma resection using low-field (0.2 T) versus high-field (1.5 T) intraoperative MRI and image-guided frameless neuro navigation. Clin Neurosurg 52:389–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bird P, Ejbjerg B, Lassere M, Ostergaard M, McQueen F, Peterfy C, Haavardsholm E, O’Connor P, Genant H, Edmonds J, Emery P, Conaghan PG (2007) A multireader reliability study comparing conventional high-field magnetic resonance imaging with extremity low-field MRI in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 34(4):854–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bock M, Volz S, Zuhlsdorff S, Umathum R, Fink C, Hallscheidt P, Semmler W (2003) Automatic slice tracking in interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Z Med Phys 13(3):177–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bock M, Volz S, Zuhlsdorff S, Umathum R, Fink C, Hallscheidt P, Semmler W (2004) MR-guided intravascular procedures: real-time parameter control and automated slice positioning with active tracking coils. J Magn Reson Imaging 19(5):580–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogduk N (1997) International Spinal Injection Society guidelines for the performance of spinal injection procedures. Part 1: Zygapophysial joint blocks. Clin J Pain 13(4):285–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brouwer PA, Peul WC, Brand R, Arts MP, Koes BW, van den Berg AA, van Buchem MA (2009) Effectiveness of percutaneous LASER disc decompression versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; design of a prospective randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 10:49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burke DR, Lewis CA, Cardella JF, Citron SJ, Drooz AT, Haskal ZJ, Husted JW, McCowan TC, Van Moore A, Oglevie SB (2003) Quality improvement guidelines for percutaneous trans hepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 14(9 Pt 2):S243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carrino JA, Blanco R (2006) Magnetic resonance–guided musculoskeletal interventional radiology. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 10(2):159–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chopra SS, Rump J, Schmidt SC, Streitparth F, Seebauer C, Schumacher G, Van der Voort I, Teichgraber U (2009a) Imaging sequences for intraoperative MR-guided laparoscopic liver resection in 1.0-T high field open MRI. Eur Radiol 19:2191–2196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chopra SS, Wiltberger G, Teichgraber U, Papanikolaou I, Schwabe M, Schmidt S, Fikatas P, Streitparth F, Philipp C, Wichlas F, Seebauer C, Schumacher G (2009b) Evaluation of laparoscopic liver resection with two different Nd: YAG lasers for future use in a high-field open MRI. Photomed Surg 27(2):281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choy DS (2004a) Percutaneous laser disc decompression: a 17-year experience. Photomed Laser Surg 22(5):407–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Choy DS (2004b) Percutaneous laser disc decompression: an update. Photomed Laser Surg 22(5):393–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Choy DS, Case RB, Fielding W, Hughes J, Liebler W, Ascher P (1987) Percutaneous laser nucleolysis of lumbar disks. The New England journal of medicine 317(12):771–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Choy DS, Hellinger J, Hellinger S, Tassi GP, Lee SH (2009) 23rd Anniversary of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Photomed Laser Surg 27:535–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clarisse J, Rousseau J, Sergent G, Delomez J, Daanen V, Godard F (1999) Interventional MRI. Analysis of data and prospects. J Radiol 80(11):1527–1530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davies M, Cassar-Pullicino VN, Davies AM, McCall IW, Tyrrell PN (2002) The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in osteoid osteoma. Skeletal Radiol 31(10):559–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Bucourt M, Streitparth F, Collettini F, Güttler F, Rathke H, Lorenz B, Rump J, Hamm B, Teichgräber UK (2012) Minimally invasive magnetic resonance imaging-guided free-hand aspiration of symptomatic nerve route compressing lumbosacral cysts using a 1.0-Tesla open magnetic resonance imaging system. Cardiovasc and Interv Radio 35(1):154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Oliveira A, Rauschenberg J, Beyersdorff D, Semmler W, Bock M (2008) Automatic passive tracking of an endorectal prostate biopsy device using phase-only cross-correlation. Magn Reson Med 59(5):1043–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DiMaio SP, Pieper S, Chinzei K, Hata N, Balogh E, Fichtinger G, Tempany CM, Kikinis R (2006) Robot-assisted needle placement in open-MRI: system architecture, integration and validation. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 119:126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. DiMaio SP, Samset E, Fischer G, Iordachita I, Fichtinger G, Jolesz F, Tempany CM (2007) Dynamic MRI scan plane control for passive tracking of instruments and devices. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 10(Pt 2):50–58Google Scholar
  24. El Nahas AR, Abou EG, Mohamed E, Refae HF, Gad HM, El Diasty TA (2007) Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pelvi ureteric junction obstruction: an all in one approach. BJU international 99(3):641–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fennessy FM, Tempany CM (2005) MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine leiomyomas. Acad Radiol 12(9):1158–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fischbach F, Porsch M, Krenzien F, Pech M, Dudeck O, Bunke J, Liehr UB, Ricke J (2011) MR imaging guided percutaneous nephrostomy using a 1.0 Tesla Open MR scanner. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 34:857–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fischer U, Schwethelm L, Baum FT, Luftner-Nagel S, Teubner J (2009) Effort, accuracy and histology of MR-guided vacuum biopsy of suspicious breast lesions–retrospective evaluation after 389 interventions. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 181(8):774–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foroglou N, Zamani A, Black P (2009) Intra-operative MRI (iop-MR) for brain tumour surgery. Br J Neurosurg 23(1):14–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fritz J, Clasen S, Boss A, Thomas C, Konig CW, Claussen CD, Pereira PL (2008a) Real-time MR fluoroscopy-navigated lumbar facet joint injections: feasibility and technical properties. Eur Radiol 18(7):1513–1518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fritz J, Henes JC, Thomas C, Clasen S, Fenchel M, Claussen CD, Lewin JS, Pereira PL (2008b) Diagnostic and interventional MRI of the sacroiliac joints using a 1.5-T open-bore magnet: a one-stop-shopping approach. Am J Roentgenol 191(6):1717–1724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fritz J, Thomas C, Clasen S, Claussen CD, Lewin JS, Pereira PL (2009) Freehand real-time MRI-guided lumbar spinal injection procedures at 1.5 T: feasibility, accuracy, and safety. Am J Roentgenol 192(4):W161–W167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gangi A, Dietemann JL, Ide C, Brunner P, Klinkert A, Warter JM (1996) Percutaneous laser disk decompression under CT and fluoroscopic guidance: indications, technique, and clinical experience. Radiographics 16(1):89–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gevargez A, Groenemeyer DW, Czerwinski F (2000) CT-guided percutaneous laser disc decompression with Ceralas D, a diode laser with 980-nm wavelength and 200-microm fiber optics. Eur Radiol 10(8):1239–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glass RB, Poznanski AK, Fisher MR, Shkolnik A, Dias L (1986) MR imaging of osteoid osteoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10(6):1065–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Göhde SC, Pfammatter T, Steiner P, Erhart P, Romanowski BJ, Debatin JF (1997) MR-guided cholecystostomy: assessment of biplanar, real-time needle tracking in three pigs. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 20(4):295–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gossmann A, Bangard C, Warm M, Schmutzler RK, Mallmann P, Lackner KJ (2008) Real-time MR-guided wire localization of breast lesions by using an open 1.0-T imager: initial experience. Radiology 247(2):535–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gupta S, Gulati M, Uday Shankar K, Rungta U, Suri S (1997) Percutaneous nephrostomy with real-time sonographic guidance. Acta Radiol 38(3):454–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Güttler FV, Rump J, Seebauer C, Teichgräber U (2011) A wireless communication system for interventional MRI. Fortschr Rontgenstr 183(1):68–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Haaga JR, Zelch MG, Alfidi RJ, Stewart B, Daugherty J (1977) CT-guided antegrade pyelography and percutaneous nephrostomy. Am J Roentgenol 128(4):621Google Scholar
  40. Hagspiel KD, Kandarpa K, Silverman SG (1998) Interactive MR guided percutaneous nephrostomy. J Magn Reson Imaging 8(6):1319–1322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hailey D (2006) Open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. Issues Emerg Health Technol 92:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hellinger J (2004) Complications of non-endoscopic percutaneous laser disc decompression and nucleotomy with the neodymium: YAG laser 1064 nm. Photomed Laser Surg 22(5):418–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hong J, Hata N, Konishi K, Hashizume M (2008) Real-time magnetic resonance imaging driven by electromagnetic locator for interventional procedure and endoscopic therapy. Surg Endosc 22(2):552–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hong J, Nakashima H, Konishi K, Ieiri S, Tanoue K, Nakamuta M, Hashizume M (2006) Interventional navigation for abdominal therapy based on simultaneous use of MRI and ultrasound. Med Biol Eng Comput 44(12):1127–1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ishiwata Y, Takada H, Gondo G, Osano S, Hashimoto T, Yamamoto I (2007) Magnetic resonance-guided percutaneous laser disk decompression for lumbar disk herniation–relationship between clinical results and location of needle tip. Surg Neurol 68(2):159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jolesz FA, McDannold N (2008) Current status and future potential of MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery. J Magn Reson Imaging 27(2):391–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jolesz FA, Nabavi A, Kikinis R (2001) Integration of interventional MRI with computer-assisted surgery. J Magn Reson Imaging 13(1):69–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kariniemi J, Sequeiros RB, Ojala R, Tervonen O (2009) MRI-guided percutaneous nephrostomy: a feasibility study. Eur Radiol 19(5):1296–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kersting-Sommerhoff B, Hof N, Lenz M, Gerhardt P (1996) MRI of peripheral joints with a low-field dedicated system: a reliable and cost-effective alternative to high-field units? Eur Radiol 6(4):561–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kettenbach J, Wong T, Kacher D, Hata N, Schwartz RB, Black PM, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA (1999) Computer-based imaging and interventional MRI: applications for neurosurgery. Comput Med Imaging Graph 23(5):245–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krombach GA, Pfeffer JG, Kinzel S, Katoh M, Gunther RW, Buecker A (2005) MR-guided percutaneous intramyocardial injection with an MR-compatible catheter: feasibility and changes in T1 values after injection of extracellular contrast medium in pigs. Radiology 235(2):487–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee HS, Woo DC, Min KH, Kim YK, Lee HK, Choe BY (2008) Development of a solenoid RF coil for animal imaging in 3 T high-magnetic-field MRI. Scanning 30(5):419–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Levivier M, Wikler D, Massager N, Legros B, Van Bogaert P, Brotchi J (2008) Intraoperative MRI and epilepsy surgery. Neurochirurgie 54(3):448–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leyendecker JR, Barnes CE, Zagoria RJ (2008) MR Urography: Techniques and Clinical Applications1. Radiographics 28(1):23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Magee T, Shapiro M, Williams D (2003) Comparison of high-field-strength versus low-field-strength MRI of the shoulder. Am J Roentgenol 181(5):1211–1215Google Scholar
  56. Magnusson P, Johansson E, Mansson S, Petersson JS, Chai CM, Hansson G, Axelsson O, Golman K (2007) Passive catheter tracking during interventional MRI using hyperpolarized 13C. Magn Reson Med 57(6):1140–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mayer DP (1995) Open MRI complements high-field systems. Diagn Imaging (San Franc) Suppl:MR2-3, MR5-6Google Scholar
  58. McVeigh ER, Guttman MA, Lederman RJ, Li M, Kocaturk O, Hunt T, Kozlov S, Horvath KA (2006) Real-time interactive MRI-guided cardiac surgery: aortic valve replacement using a direct apical approach. Magn Reson Med 56(5):958–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meleka S, Patra A, Minkoff E, Murphy K (2005) Value of CT fluoroscopy for lumbar facet blocks. American journal of neuroradiology 26(5):1001–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Merkle E, Hashim M, Wendt M, Lewin J (1999) MR-guided percutaneous nephrostomy of the nondilated upper urinary tract in a porcine model. Am J Roentgenol 172(5):1221Google Scholar
  61. Moche M, Schmitgen A, Schneider JP, Bublat M, Schulz T, Voerkel C, Trantakis C, Bennek J, Kahn T, Busse H (2004) First clinical experience with extended planning and navigation in an interventional MRI unit. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 176(7):1013–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moche M, Trampel R, Kahn T, Busse H (2008) Navigation concepts for MR image-guided interventions. J Magn Reson Imaging 27(2):276–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nolte-Ernsting CCA, B¸cker A, Neuerburg JM, Glowinski A, Adam GB, Gunther RW (1999) MR imaging-guided percutaneous nephrostomy and use of MR-compatible catheters in the nondilated porcine urinary tract. J Vasc Interv Radiol 10(10):1305–1314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ojala R, Klemola R, Karppinen J, Sequeiros RB, Tervonen O (2001) Sacro-iliac joint arthrography in low back pain: feasibility of MRI guidance. Eur J Radiol 40(3):236–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ojala R, Vahala E, Karppinen J, Klemola R, Blanco-Sequeiros R, Vaara T, Tervonen O (2000) Nerve root infiltration of the first sacral root with MRI guidance. J Magn Reson Imaging 12(4):556–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Paakko E, Reinikainen H, Lindholm EL, Rissanen T (2005) Low-field versus high-field MRI in diagnosing breast disorders. Eur Radiol 15(7):1361–1368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Papanikolaou IS, van der Voort IR, Rump J, Seebauer CJ, Chopra SS, Wichlas F, Schilling R, Walter T, Papas MG, Wiedenmann B (2011) Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage under real-time MRI guidance: Initial experience in an animal model. Digestive and liver disease 43:642–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pinkernelle JG, Streitparth F, Rump J, Teichgräber U. (2010) Adaptation of a wireless PC mouse for modification of GUI during intervention in an open highfield MRI at 1.0T Fortschr Rontgenstr;182:348–352Google Scholar
  69. Rand T, Imhof H, Breitenseher M, Happel B, Turetschek K, Schneider B, Trattnig S (1997) Comparison of diagnostic sensitivity in meniscus diagnosis of MRI examinations with a 0.2 T low-field and a 1.5 T high field system. Radiologe 37:802–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rauschenberg J, de Oliveira A, Muller S, Semmler W, Bock M (2007) An algorithm for passive marker localization in interventional MRI. Z Med Phys 17(3):180–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Regan F, Bohlman M, Khazan R, Rodriguez R, Schultze-Haakh H (1996) MR urography using HASTE imaging in the assessment of ureteric obstruction. Am J Roentgenol 167(5):1115Google Scholar
  72. Saborowski O, Saeed M (2007) An overview on the advances in cardiovascular interventional MR imaging. MAGMA 20(3):117–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schoenenberger AW, Steiner P, Debatin JF, Zweifel K, Erhart P, von Schulthess GK, Hodler J (1997) Real-time monitoring of laser diskectomies with a superconducting, open-configuration MR system. Am J Roentgenol 169(3):863–867Google Scholar
  74. Sequeiros RB, Hyvonen P, Sequeiros AB, Jyrkinen L, Ojala R, Klemola R, Vaara T, Tervonen O (2003) MR imaging-guided laser ablation of osteoid osteomas with use of optical instrument guidance at 0.23 T. Eur Radiol 13(10):2309–2314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sequeiros RB, Ojala RO, Klemola R, Vaara TJ, Jyrkinen L, Tervonen OA (2002) MRI-guided peri radicular nerve root infiltration therapy in low-field (0.23-T) MRI system using optical instrument tracking. Eur Radiol 12(6):1331–1337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Spuentrup E, Ruebben A, Schaeffter T, Manning WJ, Günther RW, Buecker A (2002) Magnetic resonance-guided coronary artery stent placement in a swine model. Circulation 105(7):874–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stables DP, Ginsberg NJ, Johnson ML (1978) Percutaneous nephrostomy: a series and review of the literature. Am J Roentgenol 130(1):75Google Scholar
  78. Steiner P, Zweifel K, Botnar R, Schoenenberger AW, Debatin JF, von Schulthess GK, Hodler J (1998) MR guidance of laser disc decompression: preliminary in vivo experience. Eur Radiol 8(4):592–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Streitparth F, Gebauer B, Melcher I, Schaser K, Philipp C, Rump J, Hamm B, Teichgraeber U (2009) MR-guided laser ablation of osteoid osteoma in an open high-field system (1.0 T). Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 32(2):320–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Streitparth F, Walter T, Wonneberger U, Chopra S, Wichlas F, Wagner M, Hermann K, Hamm B, Teichgraeber U (2010) Image-guided spinal injection procedures in open high-field MRI with vertical field orientation: feasibility and technical features. Eur Radiol 20(2):395–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Streitparth F, Hartwig T, Schnackenburg B, Strube P, Putzier M, Chopra S, De Bucourt M, Hamm B, Teichgräber U (2011) MR-guided discography using an open 1 Tesla MRI system. Eur Radio 21(5):1043–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. vanSonnenberg E, Casola G, Talner L, Wittich GR, Varney RR, D’Agostino HB (1992) Symptomatic renal obstruction or urosepsis during pregnancy: treatment by sonographically guided percutaneous nephrostomy. Am J Roentgenol 158(1):91Google Scholar
  83. Wacker F, Branding G, Wagner A, Ewert A, Faiss S, Wendt M, Wolf K (1998) MRI-assisted bile duct drainage: evaluation of passive catheter imaging in an animal model. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 169(6):649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wacker FK, Hillenbrand CM, Duerk JL, Lewin JS (2005) MR-guided endovascular interventions: device visualization, tracking, navigation, clinical applications, and safety aspects. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 13(3):431–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wacker FK, Vogt S, Khamene A, Jesberger JA, Nour SG, Elgort DR, Sauer F, Duerk JL, Lewin JS (2006) An augmented reality system for MR image-guided needle biopsy: initial results in a swine model. Radiology 238(2):497–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Watanabe T, Saito K, Fujii M (2009) Skull base surgery using intraoperative MRI. No Shinkei Geka 37(5):429–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wildermuth S, Erhart P, Leung DA, Gohde S, Schoenenberger A, Debatin JF (1998) Active instrumental guidance in interventional MR tomography: introduction to a new concept. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 169(1):77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wootton-Gorges SL (2009) MR imaging of primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions in children. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 17(3):469–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yavascan O, Aksu N, Erdogan H, Aydin Y, Kara OD, Kangin M, Kanik A (2005) Percutaneous nephrostomy in children: diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Pediatric Nephrology 20(6):768–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yeager BA, Schiebler ML, Wertheim SB, Schmidt RG, Torg JS, Perosio PM, Dalinka MK (1987) MR imaging of osteoid osteoma of the talus. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11(5):916–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zangos S, Eichler K, Thalhammer A, Schoepf J, Costello P, Herzog C, Mack M, Vogl T (2007) MR-guided interventions of the prostate gland. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 16(4):222–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zegel H, Pollack H, Banner M, Goldberg B, Arger P, Mulhern C, Kurtz A, Dubbins P, Coleman B, Koolpe H (1981) Percutaneous nephrostomy: comparison of sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Am J Roentgenol 137(5):925Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulf K.-M. Teichgräber
    • 2
  • Florian  Streitparth
    • 1
  • Felix V. Güttler
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyCharité University HospitalBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller UniversityJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations