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Hematology

  • Rathan M. Subramaniam
  • Leonne Prompers
  • A. Agarwal
  • Ali Guermazi
  • Felix M. Mottaghy
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Malignant lymphoma is the most common hematologic malignancy and one of the most common malignant diseases in the general population. These lymphoproliferative disorders can be broadly divided into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients with NHL have an especially poor prognosis with an average 5-year survival rate of 64%. NHL accounts for 2.6% of all cancer deaths. However, the 5-year survival has been gradually improving because of refinements in clinical management. Imaging has traditionally played a key role in the initial staging and surveillance of lymphoma. The first reports of PET for lymphoma imaging were published more than 20 years ago. Today 18F-FDG PET is the cornerstone of disease-staging in state-of-the-art management of HL and high grade NHL. In the past decades several studies investigated the value of PET/CT for the diagnosis and staging of lymphomas, and the great majority showed very high sensitivity and specificity in patients with HL and aggressive NHL. Greater variations have been reported in the sensitivity and specificity in patients with indolent lymphomas. PET is less commonly used for staging of these indolent lymphomas. Over the last few years, the efficacy of PET has been evaluated at all steps of lymphoma management including interim treatment monitoring, post-treatment response evaluation, and follow-up. Another important hematologic cancer is leukemia; however, even today, the role of functional (and morphologic) imaging in patients with leukemia is very limited. The role of PET/CT in multiple myeloma is evolving. PET/CT is superior to standard radiographic staging for multiple myeloma. It appears to be a prognostic marker for predicting outcome at baseline, after induction therapy and after transplantation for patients with multiple myeloma. Further studies may be necessary to validate these initial findings for incorporation of PET/CT in the guidelines for management of multiple myeloma.

Keywords

Multiple Myeloma Positive Predictive Value Follicular Lymphoma Mantle Cell Lymphoma Malt Lymphoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rathan M. Subramaniam
    • 5
  • Leonne Prompers
    • 2
  • A. Agarwal
    • 1
  • Ali Guermazi
    • 3
  • Felix M. Mottaghy
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear Medicine Maastricht University Medical CenterMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Radiology Director, Quantitative Imaging Center (QIC)Boston University School of Medicine Section Chief, Musculoskeletal Imaging Boston Medical CenterBostonUSA
  4. 4.Clinic for Nuclear Medicine University Hospital RWTH Aachen UniversityAachen Germany
  5. 5.Russell H Morgan Departments of Radiology and Radiological Sciences InstitutionsThe Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimore USA

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