Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow Contrast Media for Bone Marrow Imaging

  • Daniel Golovko
  • Elizabeth Sutton
  • Heike E. Daldrup-Link
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Non-enhanced MR scans provide information about the presence and extent of bone marrow pathologies. However, for specific indications, contrast agents can provide additional functional and metabolic information. Both gadolinium (Gd)-based low molecular weight contrast agents as well as ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) achieve MR signal enhancement by decreasing T1- and T2-relaxation times. However, both classes of contrast agents have very different properties and pharmacokinetics. Low molecular weight Gd-chelates have a relatively short blood half life and provide early, brief tissue enhancement, whereas USPIO have a long blood half life, provide delayed tissue enhancement, and are actively taken up by phagocytic myeloid cells. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a known side effect of Gd-based agents and occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease. USPIO are metabolized by cells of the reticuloendothelial system, that have been proven to be safe in patients with chronic kidney disease, and thus may be an alternative in this patient population. Contrast-enhanced MRI can also improve the detection and characterization of bone marrow pathologies, guide biopsies, and monitor treatment effects. This chapter will provide an overview over various Gd-chelates and USPIO compounds as well as their respective applications for bone marrow imaging.


Contrast Agent Nephrogenic System Fibrosis Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Contrast Agent Administration Gadoterate Meglumine 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Golovko
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Sutton
    • 2
  • Heike E. Daldrup-Link
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Colorado HospitalAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyLucile Packard Children’s Hospital, Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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