The Aetiology of Vascular Disease

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


This chapter explains how and why vascular disease processes evolve into the lesions encountered by interventional radiologists.  


Atherosclerotic Plaque Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Varicose Vein Uterine Artery Embolisation False Lumen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderson TJ (1999) Assessment and treatment of endothelial dysfunction in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol 34:631–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arunodaya GR, Vani S, Shankar SK et al (1997) Fibromuscular dysplasia with dissection of basilar artery presenting as “locked-in-syndrome”. Neurology 48:1605–1608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Begelman SM, Olin JW (2000) Fibromuscular dysplasia. Curr Opin Rheumatol 12:41–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bengtsson H, Bergqvist D, Sternby NH (1992) Increasing prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms: A necropsy study. Eur J Surg 158:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brady AR, Fowkes FG, Thompsom SG et al (2001) Aortic aneurysm diameter and risk of cardiovascular mortality. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21:1203–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campa JS, Greenhalah RM, Powell JT (1987) Elastin degredation in abdominal aortic aneurysms. Atherosclerosis 65:13–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cloft HJ, Kallmes DF, Kallmes MH et al (1998) Prevalence of cerebral aneurysms in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia: a reassessment. J Neurosurg 88:436–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen JR, Keegan L, Sarfati I et al (1991) Neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil elastase in the aortic wall in those patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Invest Surg 4:423–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis MJ, Richardson PD, Woolf N et al (1993) Risk of thrombosis in human atherosclerotic plaques: role of extracellular lipid, macrophage and smooth muscle cell content. Br Heart J 69:3777–3781Google Scholar
  10. Eachempati SR, Sebastian MW, Reed RL 2nd (1998) Posttraumatic bilateral carotid artery and right vertebral artery dissections in a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia: case report and review of the literature. J Trauma 44:406–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fowkes FG, Housley E, Riemersama RA et al (1992) Smoking, lipids, glucose intolerance, and blood pressure as risk factors for peripheral atherosclerosis compared with ischaemic heart disease in the Edinburgh Artery Study. Am J Epidemiol 135:331–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Furchgott RF, Zawadski JV (1980) The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature 288:373–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Zs Galis, Khatri JJ (2002) Matrix metalloproteinases in vascular remodelling and atherogenisis: the good, the bad and the ugly. Circ Res 90:251–262Google Scholar
  14. Gaziano JM (1996) Epidemiology of risk-factor reduction. In: Loscalzo J, Creager MA, Dzau VJ (eds) Vascular Medicine. Little Brown, Boston, p 569Google Scholar
  15. Glagov S, Weisenburg E, Zairns CK et al (1987) Compensatory enlargement of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries. N Eng J Med 316:1371–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gray GH, Young JR, Olin JW (1996) Miscellaneous arterial diseases. In: Young JR, Olin JW, Bartholomew J (eds) Peripheral vascular diseases, 2nd edn. Mosby-Yearbook, St Louis, pp 425–440Google Scholar
  17. Haffner SM, Alexander CM, Cook TJ et al (1999) Reduced coronary events in simvastatin-treated patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose levels: subgroup analyses in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Arch Intern Med 159:2661–2667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hagan PG, Nienaber CA, Issenbacher EM et al (2000) International registry of acute aortic dissection (IRAD) New insight into an old disease. JAMA 283:897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hansson G (2001) Immune mechanisms in atherosclerosis. Atheroscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21:1876–1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harrison EG Jr, McCormack LJ (1971) Pathologic classification of renal arterial disease in renovascular hypertension. Mayo Clin Proc 46:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hill LD, Antonius JI (1965) Arterial dysplasia: an important surgical lesion. Arch Surg 90:585–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirose H, Takagi M, Miyagawa N (1998) Genetic risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm: HLA-DR2(15), a Japanese study. J Vasc Surg 27:500–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson JR, Leger W, Lucas CE (1993) Mycotic aneurysm, new concepts in therapy. Arch Surg 118:577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kannel WB, McGee DL (1985) Update on some epidemiologic features of intermittent claudication: the Framingham study. J Am Geriat Soc 33:13–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Leadbetter WF, Burkland CD (1938) Hypertension in unilateral renal disease. J Urol 39:611–626Google Scholar
  26. Libby P (2000) Changing concepts of atherogenesis. J Intern Med 247:349–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Libby P (2002) Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature 420:868–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Loscalzo J (2001) Nitrous oxide insufficiency, platelet activation and arterial thrombosis. Circ Res 88:756–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ludmer PL, Selwyn AP, Shook TL et al (1986) Paradoxial vasoconstrictiuon induced by acetylcholine in coronary arteries. N Engl J Med 315:1046–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Luscher TF, Lie JT, Stanson AW et al (1987) Arterial fibromuscular dysplasia. Mayo Clin Proc 62:931–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Makin A, Silverman SH, Lip GY (2002) Peripheral vascular disease and Virchow’s triad for thrombogenisis. QJM 95:199–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Messina LM, Brothers TE, Wakefield TW, Zelenock GB, Lindenauer SM, Greenfield LJ, Jacobs LA, Fellows EP, Grube SV, Stanley JC (1991) Clinical characteristics and surgical management of vascular complications in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization: interventional versus diagnostic procedures. J Vasc Surg 13:593–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MacFarlane RG (1964) An enzyme cascade in the blood clotting mechanism and its function as a biochemical amplifier. Nature 207(4931):498–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meszaros I, Morocz J, Szlavi J (2000) Epidemiology and clinopathology of aortic dissection. A Population based longitudinal study over 27 years. Chest 117:1271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCormack LJ, Poutasse EF, Meaney TF et al (1966) A pathologic-arteriographic correlation of renal arterial disease. Am Heart J 72:188–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pannier-Moreau I, Grimbert P, Fiquet-Kempf B et al (1997) Possible familial origin of multifocal renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia. J Hypertens 15:1797–1801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pastercamp G, de Kleijn DP, Borst C (2000) Arterial remodelling in atheroscleroisis, restenosis and after alteration of blood flow: potential mechanisms and clinical implications. Cardiovasc Res 45:843–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Quick CR, Cotton LT (1982) The measured effect of stopping smoking on intermittent claudication. Br J Surg 699 (Suppl):S24–S26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raines EW (2000) The extracellular matrix can regulate vascular cell migration, proliferation and survival: relationships to vascular disease. Int J Exp Pathol 81:173–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rasmussen TE, Hallett JW Jr (1997) Inflammatory aortic aneurysms. A clinical review with new perspectives in pathogenesis. Ann Surg 225:155–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rauch U, Osende JI, Fuster V et al (2001) Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic plaques: pathogenisis and clinical consequences. Ann Intern Med 134:2224–2238Google Scholar
  42. Rehm JP, Grange JJ, Baxter BT (1998) The formation of aneurysms. Semin Vasc Surg 11(3):193–202Google Scholar
  43. Rekhter MD (1999) Collagen synthesis in atherosclerosis too much and not enough. Cardiovasc Res 41:376–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Richter GM, Palmez, JC, Noedge G et al (2000) Blood flow and thrombus formation in the development of stent neo intima. J Long Term Eff Med Implants 10(1–2):67–77Google Scholar
  45. Rivard A, Andres V (2000) Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in the pathogenisis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Histol Histopathol 15:557–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Rosenfeld ME (1996) Cellular mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 30(Suppl):1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Salo JA, Soisalon-Soininen S, Bondestam S (1999) Familial occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Ann Intern Med 130:637–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Schievink WI, Limburg M (1989) Angiographic abnormalities mimicking fibromuscular dysplasia in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV. Neurosurgery 25:482–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schievink WI, Meyer FB, Parisi JE et al (1998) Fibromuscular dysplasia of the internal carotid artery associated with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Neurosurgery 43:229–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schonbeck U, Libby P (2001) CD40 signalling and plaque instability. Circ Res 89:1092–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Somers P, Knaapen M (2006) The histopathology of varicose vein disease. Angiology 57(5):546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tilson MD (1988) Histochemistry of aortic elastin in patients with non-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm disease. Arch Surg 123:503–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Topper JN, Gimbrone MA Jr (1999) Blood flow and vascular gene expression: fluid shear stress as a modulator of endothelial phenotype. Mol Med Today 5:40–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tromp G, Wu Y, Prockop DJ et al (1993) Sequencing of cDNA from 50 unrelated patients reveals that mutations in the triple-helical domain of type III procollagen are an infrequent cause of aortic aneurysms. J Clin Invest 91:2539–2545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation TrustStaffordUK

Personalised recommendations